Incorporation of General Industry Safety and Health Standards Applicable to Construction Work. (2022)

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  2. Incorporation of General Industry Safety and Health Standards Applicable to Construction Work.
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  • Publication Date:

    (Video) Fall Protection Safety For Construction & General Industry

  • Publication Type:

    Final Rule

  • Fed Register #:

    58:35076-35306

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  • Standard Number:

    1926

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  • Title:

    Incorporation of General Industry Safety and Health Standards Applicable to Construction Work.

DEPARTMENT OF LABOROccupational Safety and Health Administration29 CFR Part 1926Incorporation of General Industry Safety and Health Standards Applicableto Construction WorkAGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department ofLabor.ACTION: Final Rule; Incorporation and designation of existingstandards applicable to construction work to codify them as constructionstandards.SUMMARY: OSHA is incorporating the regulatory text of the GeneralIndustry Safety and Health Standards (part 1910) that have been identified asapplicable to construction work into the Safety and Health Regulations forConstruction (29 CFR part 1926). For some time, elements of both labor andmanagement within the construction industry have requested the Agency todevelop a single set of OSHA regulations for the exclusive use of thatindustry. OSHA prepared this document in response to the concerns of theaffected parties and because the Agency recognizes the need for uniformenforcement information. This action will assist employers and employees inobtaining more up-to-date information on their construction safety and healthobligations.EFFECTIVE DATE: June 30, 1993.FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. James F. Foster, U.S. Departmentof Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Room N-3647, 200Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20210; telephone: (202)219-8151.SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:BackgroundOSHA has recognized, since early in its existence, that there arecircumstances where the safety and health standards for constructionemployment (29 CFR part 1926) are less comprehensive than the safety andhealth standards for general industry employment (29 CFR part 1910). In anumber of cases, the Agency has determined that it is appropriate to cite aconstruction employer for violation of a part 1910 standard, to effectuatethe purposes of the OSH Act. (See 29 CFR 1910.5(c), incorporated into theConstruction Standards as 29 CFR 1926.20(d).)By 1978, a number of part 1910 standards had been identified as applicableto construction. As a result, both employers and employees requested thatOSHA issue a single volume which would present all of the regulations,whether from part 1910 or from part 1926, that the Agency consideredapplicable to construction employment. The parties requesting consolidationstated that notifying employers of the applicable part 1910 standards wouldfacilitate compliance.On February 9, 1979, OSHA issued a Notice of Enforcement Policy andRepublication of Standards (44 FR 8577) which reprinted the entire text of 29CFR part 1926, together with certain General Industry Safety and HealthStandards contained in 29 CFR part 1910 which had been identified asapplicable to construction employment. On April 6, 1979, the Agency issued acorrection notice (54 FR 20940). Subsequently, to promote uniformenforcement, OSHA addressed the application of part 1910 standards toconstruction employment in field directives CPL 2- 1.68 (2-28-79) and CPL2-45A CH-1 (8-18-83).In addition, in 1983 the Agency produced and distributed OSHA Publication2207, Construction Industry Standards, which presented the part 1910 and part1926 standards covered by the February 9, 1979, and April 6, 1979, notices.This OSHA publication was reprinted in 1986, and revised in 1987. The volumewas available through the Government Printing Office and from the Agencyitself in limited quantities.More recently, a number of parties, including the Advisory Committee onConstruction Safety and Health (See Transcript of 6-20-90 meeting, pp.165-169), have suggested that OSHA consolidate all regulations applicable toconstruction in a single volume, either by revising 29 CFR part 1926 or byupdating and reprinting OSHA Publication 2207. In response to thesesuggestions, the Agency revised and reissued Publication 2207 in 1991. Theinitial printing run of the 1991 volume has now sold out.In this notice, in order to provide construction employers and employeeswith a more comprehensive compilation of applicable safety and healthstandards, OSHA is revising its part 1926 regulations by adding identifiedpart 1910 standards to part 1926, complete with their own part 1926designations.Most of the General Industry standards incorporated through this action havelong been applied to construction employment. A few recent standards, suchas the standards for Process Safety Management (PSM), 29 CFR 1910.119, andHazardous Waste Operations, 29 CFR 1910.120, are being added to part 1926 atthis time because OSHA has determined that their inclusion is necessary forthe protection of construction workers.For example, the Agency is aware that employees who perform constructionwork at petrochemical facilities may be exposed to process hazards. Theinclusion of the PSM standard, incorporated here as 29 CFR 1926.64, providesclear notice that employers must comply with that standard to protectemployees performing construction work from exposure to the process hazardscovered by the standard.Also, OSHA is adding an Appendix A to 29 CFR 1926.55, "Gases, vapors, fumes,dusts and mists," to set out the 1970 American Conference of GovernmentalIndustrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for airbornecontaminants. A reference to the new Appendix A is being added to 29 CFR1926.55(a). Existing 29 CFR 1926.55(a) requires employers to protect eachemployee performing construction work from exposures that exceed the 1970ACGIH TLVs. The existing standard simply references the ACGIH document, soemployers have had to look outside 29 CFR part 1926 to determine what TLVsapply to their operations. Recognizing that, with the passage of time, ithas become increasingly difficult to obtain the 1970 ACGIH document, OSHA hasincluded the 1970 TLVs in the 1983, 1986, and 1987 editions of OSHAPublication 2207. The Agency believes that spelling out the TLVs in AppendixA will facilitate compliance with 29 CFR 1926.55(a). The substantiveprovisions of the standard are unchanged.In addition, the list of TLVs in 29 CFR 1926.55, Appendix A, will beannotated as necessary to indicate that, where a particular substance isregulated both by a TLV listed in Appendix A and by a standard incorporatedinto new 29 CFR part 1926, subpart Z, the subpart Z standard prevails.OSHA is also adding an Appendix A at the end of 29 CFR part 1926 to set outthe section numbers for the part 1910 standards incorporated into part 1926,along with the part 1926 designations for the incorporated part 1910standards. This list is essentially the same as that published in 1979,updated to reflect amendments and revisions to the part 1910 standards sincethat date. OSHA is adding the Appendix so construction industry employersand employees can readily identify the General Industry Standards that havebeen incorporated into the Construction Industry Standards.While every effort has been made to identify those General Industrystandards which are most likely to be applicable to construction work, OSHAnotes that other part 1910 standards may, under some circumstances, also beapplicable. A special procedure has been established by the National Officeto address any such situations.Insofar as enforcement experience and other information indicate that part1910 standards not included in the list are applicable to construction, part1926 will be modified accordingly, through the issuance of technicalamendments.Exemption From Notice and Comment ProceduresWith regard to this action, OSHA has determined that it is not required tofollow procedures for public notice and comment rulemaking under eithersection 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553) or under section6(b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 655(b)). Thisaction does not affect the substantive requirements or coverage of thestandards themselves. This incorporation does not modify or revoke existingrights or obligations, nor does it establish new ones. This action simplyprovides additional information on the existing regulatory burden. OSHA,therefore, finds that notice and public procedure are impracticable andunnecessary within the meaning of 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(3)(B). For the samereasons, OSHA also finds that, in accordance with 29 CFR 1911.5, good causeexists for dispensing with the public notice and comment proceduresprescribed in section 6(b) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act.Exemption From Delayed Effective Date RequirementUnder 5 U.S.C. 553, OSHA finds that there is good cause for making thisAppendix effective upon publication in the Federal Register. Thisincorporation simply provides additional information on the existingregulatory burden without increasing that burden.List of Subjects in 29 CFR Part 1926Construction industry, Electric power, Fire prevention, Hazardoussubstances, Motor vehicle safety, Noise control, Occupational safety andhealth, Radiation protection, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Signsand symbols.AuthorityAccordingly, pursuant to sections 4, 6 and 8 of the Occupational Safety andHealth Act of 1970, (29 U.S.C. 653, 655 and 657); section 107 of the ContractWork Hours and Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C.333); section 4 of the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 553); Secretaryof Labor's Order 1-90 (55 FR 9033); and 29 CFR part 1911. 29 CFR part 1926 isamended as set forth below.Signed at Washington, DC, this 16th day of June, 1993.David C. Zeigler,Acting Assistant Secretary of LaborPART 1926 - SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTIONThe following list reflects only new table of contents entries for sectionsthat are being added to part 1926 by this document. The new section headingsread as follows:Subpart C - General Safety and Health ProvisionsSec.* * * * 1926.33 Access to employee exposure and medical records. 1926.34Means of egress. 1926.35 Employee emergency action plans.Subpart D - Occupational Health and Environmental Control* * * * 1926.64 Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.1926.65 Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 1926.66 Criteriafor design and construction for spray booths.Subpart E - Personal Protective Equipment and Life Saving Equipment1926.95 Criteria for personal protective equipment. 1926.96 Occupationalfoot protection. 1926.97 Protective clothing for fire brigades. 1926.98Respiratory protection for fire brigades.Subpart F - Fire Protection and Prevention* * * * Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment 1926.156 Fixed extinguishingsystems, general. 1926.157 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.Other Fire Protection Systems 1926.158 Fire detection systems. 1926.159Employee alarm systems.Subpart I - Tools - Hand and Power* * * * 1926.306 Air receivers. 1926.307 Mechanical power-transmissionapparatus.Subpart L - Scaffolding* * * * 1926.453 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds(towers).Subpart Y - Commercial Diving Operations General 1926.1071 Scope andapplication. 1926.1072 Definitions.Personnel Requirements 1926.1076 Qualifications of dive team.General Operations Procedures 1926.1080 Safe practices manual. 1926.1081Pre-dive procedures. 1926.1082 Procedures during dive. 1926.1083 Post-diveprocedures.Specific Operations Procedures 1926.1084 SCUBA diving. 1926.1085Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1086 Mixed-gas diving. 1926.1087Liveboating.Equipment Procedures and Requirements 1926.1090 Equipment.Recordkeeping 1926.1091 Recordkeeping requirements. 1926.1092 Effectivedate.Appendix A to Subpart Y - Examples ofConditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric ConditionsAppendix B to Subpart Y - Guidelines for Scientific DivingSubpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances 1926.1100 - 1926.1101 [Reserved]1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term. 1926.11034-Nitrobiphenyl. 1926.1104 alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1105 [Reserved]1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1926.1107 3,3-Dichlorobenzidine (andits salts). 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1926.1109 beta-Naphthylamine.1926.1110 Benzidine. 1926.1111 4-Aminodiphenyl. 1926.1112 Ethyleneimine.1926.1113 beta-Propiolactone. 1926.1114 2-Acetylaminofluorene. 1926.11154-Dimethylaminoazobenzene. 1926.1116 N-Nitrosodimethylamine. 1926.1117Vinyl chloride. 1926.1118 Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1128 Benzene. 1926.1129Coke oven emissions. 1926.1144 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. 1926.1145Acrylonitrile. 1926.1147 Ethylene oxide. 1926.1148 Formaldehyde.Appendix A to Part 1926 - Designations forGeneral Industry Standards Incorporated Into Body of Construction StandardsSubpart C - General Safety and Health ProvisionsAuthority: Section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C.657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 9-83 (48 FR 35736) and 29 CFR part 1911.1. In 1926.20, new paragraphs (c) through (e) are added to read as follows:1926.20General safety and health provisions and applicability of standards.* * * * *(c) The standards contained in this part shall apply with respect toemployments performed in a workplace in a State, the District of Columbia,the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam,Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Island, Outer Continental Shelflands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, Johnston Island, andthe Canal Zone.(d)(1) If a particular standard is specifically applicable to a condition,practice, means, method, operation, or process, it shall prevail over anydifferent general standard which might otherwise be applicable to the samecondition, practice, means, method, operation, or process.(2) On the other hand, any standard shall apply according to its terms toany employment and place of employment in any industry, even thoughparticular standards are also prescribed for the industry to the extent thatnone of such particular standards applies.(e) In the event a standard protects on its face a class of persons largerthan employees, the standard shall be applicable under this part only toemployees and their employment and places of employment.2. In 1926.32, paragraphs (g) through (r) are redesignated as paragraphs (h)through (s), and new paragraph (g) is added. The text of new paragraph (g)reads as follows:1926.32Definitions. * * * * * (g) Construction work. For purposes of this section, Construction work means work for construction, alteration, and/or repair,including painting and decorating.* * * * *3. New 1926.33 is added to read as follows:1926.33 Access to employee exposure and medical records.(a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide employees and theirdesignated representatives a right of access to relevant exposure and medicalrecords; and to provide representatives of the Assistant Secretary a right ofaccess to these records in order to fulfill responsibilities under theOccupational Safety and Health Act. Access by employees, theirrepresentatives, and the Assistant Secretary is necessary to yield bothdirect and indirect improvements in the detection, treatment, and preventionof occupational disease. Each employer is responsible for assuring compliancewith this section, but the activities involved in complying with the accessto medical records provisions can be carried out, on behalf of the employer,by the physician or other health care personnel in charge of employee medicalrecords. Except as expressly provided, nothing in this section is intended toaffect existing legal and ethical obligations concerning the maintenance andconfidentiality of employee medical information, the duty to discloseinformation to a patient/employee or any other aspect of the medical-carerelationship, or affect existing legal obligations concerning the protectionof trade secret information.(b) Scope and application.(1) This section applies to each generalindustry, maritime, and construction employer who makes, maintains, contractsfor, or has access to employee exposure or medical records, or analysesthereof, pertaining to employees exposed to toxic substances or harmfulphysical agents.(2) This section applies to all employee exposure and medical records, andanalyses thereof, of such employees, whether or not the records are mandatedby specific occupational safety and health standards.(3) This section applies to all employee exposure and medical records, andanalyses thereof, made or maintained in any manner, including on an in-houseof contractual (e.g., fee-for-service) basis. Each employer shall assure thatthe preservation and access requirements of this section are complied withregardless of the manner in which the records are made or maintained.(c) Definitions - (1) Access means the right and opportunity to examine andcopy.(2) Analysis using exposure or medical records means any compilation of dataor any statistical study based at least in part on information collected fromindividual employee exposure or medical records or information collected fromhealth insurance claims records, provided that either the analysis has beenreported to the employer or no further work is currently being done by theperson responsible for preparing the analysis.(3) Designated representative means any individual or organization to whoman employee gives written authorization to exercise a right of access. Forthe purposes of access to employee exposure records and analyses usingexposure or medical records, a recognized or certified collective bargainingagent shall be treated automatically as a designated representative withoutregard to written employee authorization.(4) Employee means a current employee, a former employee, or an employeebeing assigned or transferred to work where there will be exposure to toxicsubstances or harmful physical agents. In the case of a deceased or legallyincapacitated employee, the employee's legal representative may directlyexercise all the employee's rights under this section.(5) Employee exposure record means a record containing any of the followingkinds of information:(i) Environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring of a toxic substanceor harmful physical agent, including personal, area, grab, wipe, or otherform of sampling, as well as related collection and analytical methodologies,calculations, and other background data relevant to interpretation of theresults obtained;(ii) Biological monitoring results which directly assess the absorption of atoxic substance or harmful physical agent by body systems (e.g., the level ofa chemical in the blood, urine, breath, hair, fingernails, etc) but notincluding results which assess the biological effect of a substance or agentor which assess an employee's use of alcohol or drugs;(iii) Material safety data sheets indicating that the material may pose ahazard to human health; or(iv) In the absence of the above, a chemcial inventory or any other recordwhich reveals where and when used and the identity (e.g., chemical, common,or trade name) of a toxic substance or harmful physical agent.(6)(i) Employee medical record means a record concerning the health statusof an employee which is made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or otherhealth care personnel or technician, including:(A) Medical and employment questionnaires or histories (including jobdescription and occupational exposures),(B) The results of medical examinations (pre-employment, pre-assignment,periodic, or episodic) and laboratory tests (including chest and other X-rayexaminations taken for the purposes of establishing a base-line or detectingoccupational illness, and all biological monitoring not defined as an"employee exposure record"),(C) Medical opinions, diagnoses, progress notes, and recommendations,(D) First aid records,(E) Descriptions of treatments and prescriptions, and(F) Employee medical complaints.(ii) "Employee medical record" does not include medical information in theform of:(A) Physical specimens (e.g., blood or urine samples) which are routinelydiscarded as a part of normal medical practice; or(B) Records concerning health insurance claims if maintained separately fromthe employer's medical program and its records, and not accessible to theemployer by employee name or other direct personal identifier (e.g., socialsecurity number, payroll number, etc.); or(C) Records created solely in preparation for litigation which areprivileged from discovery under the applicable rules of procedure orevidence; or(D) Records concerning voluntary employee assistance programs (alcohol, drugabuse, or personal counseling programs) if maintained separately from theemployer's medical program and its records.(7) Employer means a current employer, a former employer, or a successoremployer.(8) Exposure or exposed means that an employee is subjected to a toxicsubstance or harmful physical agent in the course of employment through anyroute of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.), andincludes past exposure and potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure,but does not include situations where the employer can demonstrate that thetoxic substance or harmful physical agent is not used, handled, stored,generated, or present in the workplace in any manner different from typicalnon-occupational situations.(9) Health professional means a physician, occupational health nurse,industrial hygienist, toxicologist, or epidemiologist, providing medical orother occupational health services to exposed employees.(10) Record means any item, collection, or grouping of informationregardless of the form or process by which it is maintained (e.g., paperdocument, microfiche, microfilm, X-ray film, or automated data processing).(11) Specific chemical identity means the chemical name, Chemical AbstractsService (CAS) Registry Number, or any other information that reveals theprecise chemical designation of the substance.(12)(i) Specific written consent means a written authorization containingthe following:(A) The name and signature of the employee authorizing the release ofmedical information,(B) The date of the written authorization,(C) The name of the individual or organization that is authorized to releasethe medical information,(D) The name of the designated representative (individual or organization)that is authorized to receive the released information,(E) A general description of the medical information that is authorized tobe released,(F) A general description of the purpose for the release of the medicalinformation, and(G) A date or condition upon which the written authorization will expire (ifless than one year).(ii) A written authorization does not operate to authorize the release ofmedical information not in existence on the date of written authorization,unless the release of future information is expressly authorized, and doesnot operate for more than one year from the date of written authorization.(iii) A written authorization may be revoked in writing prospectively at anytime.(13) Toxic substance or harmful physical agent means any chemical substance,biological agent (bacteria, virus, fungus, etc.), or physical stress (noise,heat, cold, vibration, repetitive motion, ionizing and non-ionizingradiation, hypo - or hyperbaric pressure, etc.) which:(i) Is listed in the least printed edition of the National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Registry of Toxic Effects of ChemicalSubstances (RTECS); or(ii) Has yielded positive evidence of an acute or chronic health hazard intesting conducted by, or known to, the employer; or(iii) Is the subject of a material safety data sheet kept by or known to theemployer indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human health.(14) Trade secret means any confidential formula, pattern, process, device,or information or compilation of information that is used in an employer'sbusiness and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantageover competitors who do not know or use it.(d) Preservation of records. (1) Unless a specific occupational safety andhealth standard provides a different period of time, each employer shallassure the preservation and retention of records as follows:(i) Employee medical records. The medical record for each employee shall bepreserved and maintained for at least the duration of employment plus thirty(30) years, except that the following types of records need not be retainedfor any specified period:(A) Health insurance claims records maintained separately from theemployer's medical program and its records,(B) First aid records (not including medical histories) of one-timetreatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns,splinters, and the like which do not involve medical treatment, loss ofconsciousness, restriction of work or motion, or transfer to another job, ifmade on-site by a non-physician and if maintained separately from theemployer's medical program and its records, and(C) The medical records of employees who have worked for less than (1) yearfor the employer need not be retained beyond the term of employment if theyare provided to the employee upon the termination of employment.(ii) Employee exposure records. Each employee exposure record shall bepreserved and maintained for at least thirty (30) years, except that:(A) Background data to environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring,such as laboratory reports and worksheets, need only be retained for one (1)year as long as the sampling results, the collection methodology (samplingplan), a description of the analytical and mathematical methods used, and asummary of other background data relevant to interpretation of the resultsobtained, are retained for at least thirty (30) years; and(B) Material safety data sheets and paragraph (c)(5)(iv) records concerningthe identity of a substance or agent need not be retained for any specifiedperiod as long as some record of the identity (chemical name if known) of thesubstance or agent, where it was used, and when it was used is retained forat least thirty (30) years;(1) and__________________(1) Material safety data sheets must be kept for those chemicals currentlyin use that are effected by the Hazard Communication Standard in accordancewith 29 CFR 1926.59(g).(C) Biological monitoring results designated as exposure records by specificoccupational safety and health standards shall be preserved and maintained asrequired by the specific standard.(iii) Analyses using exposure or medical records. Each analysis usingexposure or medial records shall be preserved and maintained for at leastthirty (30) years.(2) Nothing in this section is intended to mandate the form, manner, orprocess by which an employer preserves a record as long as the informationcontained in the record is preserved and retrievable, except that chest X-rayfilms shall be preserved in their original state.(e) Access to records - (1) General. (i) Whenever an employee or designatedrepresentative requests access to a record, the employer shall assure thataccess is provided in a reasonable time, place, and manner. If the employercannot reasonably provide access to the record within fifteen (15) workingdays, the employer shall within the fifteen (15) working days apprise theemployee or designated representative requesting the record of the reason forthe delay and the earliest date when the record can be made available.(ii) The employer may require of the requester only such information asshould be readily known to the requester and which may be necessary to locateor identify the records being requested (e.g., dates and locations where theemployee worked during the time period in question).(iii) Whenever an employee or designated representative requests a copy of arecord, the employer shall assure that either:(A) A copy of the record is provided without cost to the employee orrepresentative,(B) The necessary mechanical copying facilities (e.g., photocopying) aremade available without cost to the employee or representative for copying therecord, or(C) The record is loaned to the employee or representative for a reasonabletime to enable a copy to be made.(iv) In the case of an original X-ray, the employer may restrict access toon-site examination or make other suitable arrangements for the temporaryloan of the X-ray.(v) Whenever a record has been previously provided without cost to anemployee or designated representative, the employer may charge reasonable,non-discriminatory administrative costs (i.e., search and copying expensesbut not including overhead expenses) for a request by the employee ordesignated representative for additional copies of the record, except that(A) An employer shall not charge for an initial request for a copy of newinformation that has been added to a record which was previously provided;and(B) An employer shall not charge for an initial request by a recognized orcertified collective bargaining agent for a copy of an employee exposurerecord or an analysis using exposure or medical records.(vi) Nothing in this section is intended to preclude employees andcollective bargaining agents from collectively bargaining to obtain access toinformation in addition to that available under this section.(2) Employee and designated representative access - (i) Employee exposurerecords. (A) Except as limited by paragraph (f) of this section, eachemployer shall, upon request, assure the access to each employee anddesignated representative to employee exposure records relevant to theemployee. For the purpose of this section, an exposure record relevant to theemployee consists of:(1) A record which measures or monitors the amount of a toxic substance orharmful physical agent to which the employee is or has been exposed;(2) In the absence of such directly relevant records, such records of otheremployees with past or present job duties or working conditions related to orsimilar to those of the employee to the extent necessary to reasonablyindicate the amount and nature of the toxic substances or harmful physicalagents to which the employee is or has been subjected, and(3) Exposure records to the extent necessary to reasonably indicate theamount and nature of the toxic substances or harmful physical agents atworkplaces or under working conditions to which the employee is beingassigned or transferred.(B) Requests by designated representatives for unconsented access toemployee exposure records shall be in writing and shall specify withreasonable particularity:(1) The records requested to be disclosed; and(2) The occupational health need for gaining access to these records.(ii) Employee medical records. (A) Each employer shall, upon request, assurethe access of each employee to employee medical records of which the employeeis the subject, except as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(ii)(D) of thissection.(B) Each employer shall, upon request, assure the access of each designatedrepresentative to the employee medical records of any employee who has giventhe designated representative specific written consent. Appendix A to thissection contains a sample form which may be used to establish specificwritten consent for access to employee medical records.(C) Whenever access to employee medical records is requested, a physicianrepresenting the employer may recommend that the employee or designatedrepresentative:(1) Consult with the physician for the purposes of reviewing and discussingthe records requested,(2) Accept a summary of material facts and opinions in lieu of the recordsrequested, or(3) Accept release of the requested records only to a physician or otherdesignated representative.(D) Whenever an employee requests access to his or her employee medicalrecords, and a physician representing the employer believes that directemployee access to information contained in the records regarding a specificdiagnosis of a terminal illness or a psychiatric condition could bedetrimental to the employee's health, the employer may inform the employeethat access will only be provided to a designated representative of theemployee having specific written consent, and deny the employee's request fordirect access to this information only. Where a designated representativewith specific written consent requests access to information so withheld, theemployer shall assure the access of the designated representative to thisinformation, even when it is known that the designated representative willgive the information to the employee.(E) A physician, nurse, or other responsible health care personnelmaintaining medical records may delete from requested medical records theidentity of a family member, personal friend, or fellow employee who hasprovided confidential information concerning an employee's health status.(iii) Analyses using exposure or medical records. (A) Each employee shall,upon request, assure the access of each employee and designatedrepresentative to each analysis using exposure or medical records concerningthe employee's working conditions or workplace.(B) Whenever access is requested to an analysis which reports the contentsof employee medical records by either direct identifier (name, address,social security number, payroll number, etc.) or by information which couldreasonably be used under the circumstances indirectly to identify specificemployees (exact age, height, weight, race, sex, date of initial employment,job title, etc.), the employer shall assure that personal identifiers areremoved before access is provided. If the employer can demonstrate thatremoval of personal identifiers from an analysis is not feasible, access tothe personally identifiable portions of the analysis need not be provided.(3) OSHA access. (i) Each employer shall, upon request, and withoutderogation of any rights under the Constitution or the Occupational Safetyand Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. 651 et seq., that the employer chooses toexercise, assure the prompt access of representatives of the AssistantSecretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health to employee exposureand medical records and to analyses using exposure or medical records. Rulesof agency practice and procedure governing OSHA access to employee medicalrecords are contained in 29 CFR 1913.10.(ii) Whenever OSHA seeks access to personally identifiable employee medicalinformation by presenting to the employer a written access order pursuant to29 CFR 1913.10(d), the employer shall prominently post a copy of the writtenaccess order and its accompanying cover letter for at least fifteen (15)working days.(f) Trade secrets. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of thissection, nothing in this section precludes an employer from deleting fromrecords requested by a health professional, employee, or designatedrepresentative any trade secret data which discloses manufacturing processes,or discloses the percentage of a chemical substance in mixture, as long asthe health professional, employee, or designated representative is notifiedthat information has been deleted. Whenever deletion of trade secretinformation substantially impairs evaluation of the place where or the timewhen exposure to a toxic substance or harmful physical agent occurred, theemployer shall provide alternative information which is sufficient to permitthe requesting party to identify where and when exposure occurred.(2) The employer may withhold the specific chemical identity, including thechemical name and other specific identification of a toxic substance from adisclosable record provided that:(i) The claim that the information withheld is a trade secret can besupported;(ii) All other available information on the properties and effects of thetoxic substance is disclosed;(iii) The employer informs the requesting party that the specific chemicalidentity is being withheld as a trade secret; and(iv) The specific chemical identity is made available to healthprofessionals, employees and designated representatives in accordance withthe specific applicable provisions of this paragraph.(3) Where a treating physician or nurse determines that a medical emergencyexists and the specific chemical identity of a toxic substance is necessaryfor emergency or first-aid treatment, the employer shall immediately disclosethe specific chemical identity of a trade secret chemical to the treatingphysician or nurse, regardless of the existence of a written statement ofneed or a confidentiality agreement. The employer may require a writtenstatement of need and confidentiality agreement, in accordance with theprovisions of paragraphs (f)(4) and (f)(5), as soon as circumstances permit.(4) In non-emergency situations, an employer shall, upon request, disclose aspecific chemical identity, otherwise permitted to be withheld underparagraph (f)(2) of this section, to a health professional, employee, ordesignated representative if:(i) The request is in writing;(ii) The request describes with reasonable detail one or more of thefollowing occupational health needs for the information:(A) To assess the hazards of the chemicals to which employees will beexposed;(B) To conduct or assess sampling of the workplace atmosphere to determineemployee exposure levels;(C) To conduct pre-assignment or periodic medical surveillance of exposedemployees;(D) To provide medical treatment to exposed employees;(E) To select or assess appropriate personal protective equipment forexposed employees;(F) To design or assess engineering controls or other protective measuresfor exposed employees; and(G) To conduct studies to determine the health effects of exposure.(iii) The request explains in detail why the disclosure of the specificchemical identity is essential and that, in lieu thereof, the disclosure ofthe following information would not enable the health professional, employeeor designated representative to provide the occupational health servicesdescribed in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section:(A) The properties and effects of the chemical;(B) Measures for controlling workers' exposure to the chemical;(C) Methods of monitoring and analyzing worker exposure to the chemical; and,(D) Methods of diagnosing and treating harmful exposures to the chemical;(iv) The request includes a description of the procedures to be used tomaintain the confidentiality of the disclosed information; and,(v) The health professional, employee, or designated representative and theemployer or contractor of the services of the health professional ordesignated representative agree in a written confidentiality agreement thatthe health professional, employee or designated representative will not usethe trade secret information for any purpose other than the health need(s)asserted and agree not to release the information under any circumstancesother than to OSHA, as provided in paragraph (f)(9) of this section, exceptas authorized by the terms of the agreement or by the employer.(5) The confidentiality agreement authorized by paragraph (f)(4)(iv) of thissection:(i) May restrict the use of the information to the health purposes indicatedin the written statement of need;(ii) May provide for appropriate legal remedies in the event of a breach ofthe agreement, including stipulation of a reasonable pre-estimate of likelydamages; and,(iii) May not include requirements for the posting of a penalty bond.(6) Nothing in this section is meant to preclude the parties from pursuingnon-contractual remedies to the extent permitted by law.(7) If the health professional, employee or designated representativereceiving the trade secret information decides that there is a need todisclose it to OSHA, the employer who provided the information shall beinformed by the health professional prior to, or at the same time as, suchdisclosure.(8) If the employer denies a written request for disclosure of a specificchemical identity, the denial must:(i) Be provided to the health professional, employee or designatedrepresentative within thirty days of the request;(ii) Be in writing;(iii) Include evidence to support the claim that the specific chemicalidentity is a trade secret;(iv) State the specific reasons why the request is being denied; and,(v) Explain in detail how alternative information may satisfy the specificmedical or occupational health need without revealing the specific chemicalidentity.(9) The health professional, employee, or designated representative whoserequest for information is denied under paragraph (f)(4) of this section mayrefer the request and the written denial of the request to OSHA forconsideration.(10) When a heath professional employee, or designated representative refersa denial to OSHA under paragraph (f)(9) of this section, OSHA shall considerthe evidence to determine if:(i) The employer has supported the claim that the specific chemical identityis a trade secret;(ii) The health professional employee, or designated representative hassupported the claim that there is a medical or occupational health need forthe information; and(iii) The health professional, employee or designated representative hasdemonstrated adequate means to protect the confidentiality.(11)(i) If OSHA determines that the specific chemical identity requestedunder paragraph (f)(4) of this section is not a bona fide trade secret, orthat it is a trade secret but the requesting health professional, employee ordesignated representatives has a legitimate medical or occupational healthneed for the information, has executed a written confidentiality agreement,and has shown adequate means for complying with the terms of such agreement,the employer will be subject to citation by OSHA.(ii) If an employer demonstrates to OSHA that the execution of aconfidentiality agreement would not provide sufficient protection against thepotential harm from the unauthorized disclosure of a trade secret specificchemical identity, the Assistant Secretary may issue such orders or imposesuch additional limitations or conditions upon the disclosure of therequested chemical information as may be appropriate to assure that theoccupational health needs are met without an undue risk of harm to theemployer.(12) Notwithstanding the existence of a trade secret claim, an employershall, upon request, disclose to the Assistant Secretary any informationwhich this section requires the employer to make available. Where there is atrade secret claim, such claim shall be made no later than at the time theinformation is provided to the Assistant Secretary so that suitabledeterminations of trade secret status can be made and the necessaryprotections can be implemented.(13) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as requiring thedisclosure under any circumstances of process or percentage of mixtureinformation which is trade secret.(g) Employee information. (1) Upon an employee's first entering intoemployment, and at least annually thereafter, each employer shall informcurrent employees covered by this section of the following:(i) The existence, location, and availability of any records covered by thissection;(ii) The person responsible for maintaining and providing access to records;and(iii) Each employee's rights of access to these records.(2) Each employer shall keep a copy of this section and its appendices, andmake copies readily available, upon request, to employees. The employer shallalso distribute to current employees any informational materials concerningthis section which are made available to the employer by the AssistantSecretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health.(h) Transfer of records. (1) Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business,the employer shall transfer all records subject to this section to thesuccessor employer. The successor employer shall receive and maintain theserecords.(2) Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business and there is no successoremployer to receive and maintain the records subject to this standard, theemployer shall notify affected current employees of their rights of access torecords at least three (3) months prior to the cessation of the employer'sbusiness.(3) Whenever an employer either is ceasing to do business and there is nosuccessor employer to receive and maintain the records, or intends to disposeof any records required to be preserved for at least thirty (30) years, theemployer shall:(i) Transfer the records to the Director of the National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) if so required by a specificoccupational safety and health standard; or(ii) Notify the Director of NIOSH in writing of the impending disposal ofrecords at least three (3) months prior to the disposal of the records.(4) Where an employer regularly disposes of records required to be preservedfor at least thirty (30) years, the employer may, with at least (3) monthsnotice, notify the Director of NIOSH on an annual basis of the recordsintended to be disposed of in the coming year.(i) Appendices. The information contained in appendices A and B to thissection is not intended, by itself, to create any additional obligations nototherwise imposed by this section nor detract from any existing obligation.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0065)Appendix A to 1926.33 - Sample Authorization Letter for the Release ofEmployee Medical Record Information to a Designated Representative(Non-Mandatory)I, ______________________ (full name of worker/patient), hereby authorize_________________ (individual or organization holding the medical records) torelease to ____________________ (individual or organization authorized toreceive the medical information), the following medical information from mypersonal medical records:______________________________________________________________________________(Describe generally the information desired to be released)I give my permission for this medical information to be used for thefollowing purpose:______________________________________________________________________________but I do not give permission for any other use or re-disclosure of thisinformation.(Note: Several extra lines are provided below so that you can placeadditional restrictions on this authorization letter if you want to. You may,however, leave these lines blank. On the other hand, you may want to (1)specify a particular expiration date for this letter (if less than one year);(2) describe medical information to be created in the future that you intendto be covered by this authorization letter; or (3) describe portions of themedical information in your records which you do not intend to be released asa result of this letter.)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Full name of Employee or Legal Representative_______________________________________Signature of Employee or Legal Representative______________________________________________________________________________Date of SignatureAppendix B to 1926.33 - Availability of NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects ofChemical Substances (RTECS) (Non-Mandatory)Section 1926.33 applies to all employee exposure and medical records, andanalyses thereof, of employees exposed to toxic substances or harmfulphysical agents (paragraph (b)(2)). The term toxic substance or harmfulphysical agent is defined by paragraph (c)(13) to encompass chemicalsubstances, biological agents, and physical stresses for which there isevidence of harmful health effects. The regulation uses the latest printededition of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) as one of the chiefsources of information as to whether evidence of harmful health effectsexists. If a substance is listed in the latest printed RTECS, the regulationapplies to exposure and medical records (and analyses of these records)relevant to employees exposed to the substance.It is appropriate to note that the final regulation does not require thatemployers purchase a copy of RTECS, and many employers need not consult RTECSto ascertain whether their employee exposure or medical records are subjectto the rule. Employers who do not currently have the latest printed editionof the NIOSH RTECS, however, may desire to obtain a copy. The RTECS is issuedin an annual printed edition as mandated by section 20(a)(6) of theOccupational Safety and Health Act (29 U.S.C. 669(a)(6)).The Introduction to the 1980 printed edition describes the RTECS as follows:"The 1980 edition of the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances,formerly known as the Toxic Substances list, is the ninth revision preparedin compliance with the requirements of Section 20(a)(6) of the OccupationalSafety and Health Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-596). The original list wascompleted on June 28, 1971, and has been updated annually in book format.Beginning in October 1977, quarterly revisions have been provided inmicrofiche. This edition of the Registry contains 168,096 listings ofchemical substances: 45,156 are names of different chemicals with theirassociated toxicity data and 122,940 are synonyms. This edition includesapproximately 5,900 new chemical compounds that did not appear in the 1979Registry. (p. xi)"The Registry's purposes are many, and it serves a variety of users. It is asingle source document for basic toxicity information and for other data,such as chemical identifiers ad information necessary for the preparation ofsafety directives and hazard evaluations for chemical substances. The varioustypes of toxic effects linked to literature citations provide researchers andoccupational health scientists with an introduction to the toxicologicalliterature, making their own review of the toxic hazards of a given substanceeasier. By presenting data on the lowest reported doses that produce effectsby several routes of entry in various species, the Registry furnishesvaluable information to those responsible for preparing safety data sheetsfor chemical substances in the workplace. Chemical and production engineerscan use the Registry to identify the hazards which may be associated withchemical intermediates in the development of final products, and thus canmore readily select substitutes or alternative processes which may be lesshazardous. Some organizations, including health agencies and chemicalcompanies, have included the NIOSH Registry accession numbers with thelisting of chemicals in their files to reference toxicity informationassociated with those chemicals. By including foreign language chemicalnames, a start has been made toward providing rapid identification ofsubstances produced in other countries. (p. xi)"In this edition of the Registry, the editors intend to identify "all knowntoxic substances" which may exist in the environment and to provide pertinentdata on the toxic effects from known doses entering an organism by any routedescribed. (p. xi)"It must be reemphasized that the entry of a substance in the Registry doesnot automatically mean that it must be avoided. A listing does mean, however,that the substance has the documented potential of being harmful if misused,and care must be exercised to prevent tragic consequences. Thus, the Registrylists many substances that are common in everyday life and are in nearlyevery household in the United States. One can name a variety of suchdangerous substances: prescription and non-prescription drugs; foodadditives; pesticide concentrates, sprays, and dusts; fungicides; herbicides;paints; glazes, dyes; bleaches and other household cleaning agents; alkalies;and various solvents and diluents. The list is extensive because chemicalshave become an integral part of our existence."The RTECS printed edition may be purchased from the Superintendent ofDocuments, U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402(202-783-3238).Some employers may desire to subscribe to the quarterly update to the RTECSwhich is published in a microfiche edition. An annual subscription to thequarterly microfiche may be purchased from the GPO (Order the "MicroficheEdition, Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances"). Both the printededition and the microfiche edition of RTECS are available for review at manyuniversity and public libraries throughout the country. The latest RTECSeditions may also be examined at the OSHA Technical Data Center, Room N2439 -Rear, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC20210 (202-219-7500), or at any OSHA Regional or Area Office (See, major citytelephone directories under U.S. Government - Labor Department).4. New 1926.34 is added to read as follows:1926.34 Means of egress.(a) General. In every building or structure exits shall be so arranged andmaintained as to provide free and unobstructed egress from all parts of thebuilding or structure at all times when it is occupied. No lock or fasteningto prevent free escape from the inside of any building shall be installedexcept in mental, penal, or corrective institutions where supervisorypersonnel is continually on duty and effective provisions are made to removeoccupants in case of fire or other emergency.(b) Exit marking. Exits shall be marked by a readily visible sign. Accessto exits shall be marked by readily visible signs in all cases where the exitor way to reach it is not immediately visible to the occupants.(c) Maintenance and workmanship. Means of egress shall be continuallymaintained free of all obstructions or impediments to full instant use in thecase of fire or other emergency.5. New 1926.35 is added to read as follows:1926.35 Employee emergency action plans.(a) Scope and application. This section applies to all emergency actionplans required by a particular OSHA standard. The emergency action plan shallbe in writing (except as provided in the last sentence of paragraph (e)(3) ofthis section) and shall cover those designated actions employers andemployees must take to ensure employee safety from fire and otheremergencies.(b) Elements. The following elements, at a minimum, shall be included in theplan:(1) Emergency escape procedures and emergency escape route assignments;(2) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate criticalplant operations before they evacuate;(3) Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuation hasbeen completed;(4) Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform them;(5) The preferred means of reporting fires and other emergencies; and(6) Names or regular job titles of persons or departments who can becontacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.(c) Alarm system. (1) The employer shall establish an employee alarm systemwhich complies with 26.159.(2) If the employee alarm system is used for alerting fire brigade members,or for other purposes, a distinctive signal for each purpose shall be used.(d) Evacuation. The employer shall establish in the emergency action planthe types of evacuation to be used in emergency circumstances.(e) Training. (1) Before implementing the emergency action plan, theemployer shall designate and train a sufficient number of persons to assistin the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees.(2) The employer shall review the plan with each employee covered by theplan at the following times:(i) Initially when the plan is developed,(ii) Whenever the employee's responsibilities or designated actions underthe plan change, and(iii) Whenever the plan is changed.(3) The employer shall review with each employee upon initial assignmentthose parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect the employeein the event of an emergency. The written plan shall be kept at the workplaceand made available for employee review. For those employers with 10 or feweremployees the plan may be communicated orally to employees and the employerneed not maintain a written plan.Subpart D - Occupational Health and Environmental Control6. New 1926.50(g) is added to read as follows:1926.50 Medical services and first aid. * * * * * (g) Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed toinjurious corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quickdrenching or flushing of the eyes and body shall be provided withinthe work area for immediate emergency use.7. New paragraphs (a)(6), (d)(2), (f)(2) through (4) and (g) through (i) areadded to 1926.51 and the text of existing 1926.51 (d) and (f) areredesignated as new paragraphs (d)(1) and (f)(1), respectively. The text ofthese standards read as follows1926.51 Sanitation.(a) * * * * * (6) Potable water means water which meets the qualitystandards prescribed in the U.S. Public Health Service Drinking WaterStandards, published in 42 CFR part 72, or water which is approved fordrinking purposes by the State or local authority having jurisdiction. * * * * * (d) Food handling. * * * * * (2) All employee food service facilities and operations shallbe carried out in accordance with sound hygienic principles. In allplaces of employment where all or part of the food service isprovided, the food dispensed shall be wholesome, free fromspoilage, and shall be processed, prepared, handled, and stored insuch a manner as to be protected against contamination. * * * * * (f) Washing facilities. * * * * * (2) General. Washing facilities shall be maintained ina sanitary condition.(3) Lavatories. (i) Lavatories shall be made available in all places ofemployment. The requirements of this subdivision do not apply to mobile crewsor to normally unattended work locations if employees working at theselocations have transportation readily available to nearby washing facilitieswhich meet the other requirements of this paragraph.(ii) Each lavatory shall be provided with hot and cold running water, ortepid running water.(iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing agents shall be provided. (iv)Individual hand towels or sections thereof, of cloth or paper, warm airblowers or clean individual sections of continuous cloth toweling, convenientto the lavatories, shall be provided.(4) Showers. (i) Whenever showers are required by a particular standard, theshowers shall be provided in accordance with paragraphs (f)(4) (ii) through(v) of this section.(ii) One shower shall be provided for each 10 employees of each sex, ornumerical fraction thereof, who are required to shower during the same shift.(iii) Body soap or other appropriate cleansing agents convenient to theshowers shall be provided as specified in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of thissection.(iv) Showers shall be provided with hot and cold water feeding a commondischarge line.(v) Employees who use showers shall be provided with individual clean towels.(g) Eating and drinking areas. No employee shall be allowed to consume foodor beverages in a toilet room nor in any area exposed to a toxic material.(h) Vermin control. Every enclosed workplace shall be so constructed,equipped, and maintained, so far as reasonably practicable, as to prevent theentrance or harborage of rodents, insects, and other vermin. A continuing andeffective extermination program shall be instituted where their presence isdetected.(i) Change rooms. Whenever employees are required by a particular standardto wear protective clothing because of the possibility of contamination withtoxic materials, change rooms equipped with storage facilities for streetclothes and separate storage facilities for the protective clothing shall beprovided.8. In 1926.53, paragraphs (c) through (r) are added to read as follows:1926.53 Ionizing radiation. * * * * * (c) Definitions applicable to this section. (1)Radiation includes alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays,X-rays, neutrons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, andother atomic particles; but such term does not include sound orradio waves, or visible light, or infrared or ultraviolet light.(2) Radioactive material means any material which emits, by spontaneousnuclear disintegration, corpuscular or electromagnetic emanations.(3) Restricted area means any area access to which is controlled by theemployer for purposes of protection of individuals from exposure to radiationor radioactive materials.(4) Unrestricted area means any area access to which is not controlled bythe employer for purposes of protection of individuals from exposure toradiation or radioactive materials.(5) Dose means the quantity of ionizing radiation absorbed, per unit ofmass, by the body or by any portion of the body. When the provisions in thissection specify a dose during a period of time, the dose is the totalquantity of radiation absorbed, per unit of mass, by the body or by anyportion of the body during such period of time. Several different units ofdose are in current use. Definitions of units used in this section are setforth in paragraphs (c)(6) and (7) of this section.(6) Rad means a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to bodytissues in terms of the energy absorbed per unit of mass of the tissue. Onerad is the dose corresponding to the absorption of 100 ergs per gram oftissue (1 millirad (mrad)=0.001 rad).(7) Rem means a measure of the dose of any ionizing radiation to body tissuein terms of its estimated biological effect relative to a dose of 1 roentgen(r) of X-rays (1 millirem (mrem)=0.001 rem). The relation of the rem to otherdose units depends upon the biological effect under consideration and uponthe conditions for irradiation. Each of the following is considered to beequivalent to a dose of 1 rem:(i) A dose of 1 roentgen due to X- or gamma radiation;(ii) A dose of 1 rad due to X-, gamma, or beta radiation;(iii) A dose of 0.1 rad due to neutrons or high energy protons;(iv) A dose of 0.05 rad due to particles heavier than protons and withsufficient energy to reach the lens of the eye;(v) If it is more convenient to measure the neutron flux, or equivalent,than to determine the neutron dose in rads, as provided in paragraph(c)(7)(iii) of this section, 1 rem of neutron radiation may, for purposes ofthe provisions in this section be assumed to be equivalent to 14 millionneutrons per square centimeter incident upon the body; or, if there issufficient information to estimate with reasonable accuracy the approximatedistribution in energy of the neutrons, the incident number of neutrons persquare centimeter equivalent to 1 rem may be estimated from Table D-53.1: Table D-53.1 - Neutron Flux Dose Equivalents
Neutron energy (million electron volts (Mev))Number of neutrons per square centimeter equivalent to a dose of 1 rem (neutrons/cm(2))Average flux to deliver 100 millirem in 40 hours (neutrons/cm(2) per sec.)
Thermal970 X 10(6)670
0.0001720 X 10(6)500
0.005820 X 10(6)570
0.02400 X 10(6)280
0.1120 X 10(6)80
0.543 X 10(6)30
1.026 X 10(6)18
2.529 X 10(6)20
5.026 X 10(6)18
7.524 X 10(6)17
1024 X 10(6)17
10 to 3014 X 10(6)10
(8) For determining exposures to X- or gamma rays up to 3 Mev., the doselimits specified in this section may be assumed to be equivalent to the "airdose". For the purpose of this section air dose means that the dose ismeasured by a properly calibrated appropriate instrument in air at or nearthe body surface in the region of the highest dosage rate.(d) Exposure of individuals to radiation in restricted areas. (1) Except asprovided in other paragraphs of this section, no employer shall possess, use,or transfer sources of ionizing radiation in such a manner as to cause anyindividual in a restricted area to receive in any period of one calendarquarter from sources in the employer's possession or control a dose in excessof the limits specified in Table D-53.2:Table D-53.21
Rems per calendar quarter
Whole body: Head and trunk; active blood-forming organs; lens of eyes; or gonads1 1/4
Hands and forearms; feet and ankles18 3/4
Skin of whole body7 1/2
(2) An employer may permit an individual in a restricted area to receivedoses to the whole body greater than those permitted under paragraph (d)(1)of this section, so long as:(i) During any calendar quarter the dose to the whole body shall not exceed3 rems; and(ii) The dose to the whole body, when added to the accumulated occupationaldose to the whole body, shall not exceed 5 (N00918) rems, where "N" equalsthe individual's age in years at his last birthday; and(iii) The employer maintains adequate past and current exposure recordswhich show that the addition of such a dose will not cause the individual toexceed the amount authorized in this subparagraph. As used in thissubparagraph Dose to the whole body shall be deemed to include any dose tothe whole body, gonad, active bloodforming organs, head and trunk, or lens ofthe eye.(3) No employer shall permit any employee who is under 18 years of age toreceive in any period of one calendar quarter a dose in excess of 10 percentof the limits specified in Table D-53.2.(4) Calendar quarter means any 3-month period determined as follows:(i) The first period of any year may begin on any date in January: Provided,That the second, third, and fourth periods accordingly begin on the same datein April, July, and October, respectively, and that the fourth period extendsinto January of the succeeding year, if necessary to complete a 3-monthquarter. During the first year of use of this method of determination, thefirst period for that year shall also include any additional days in Januarypreceding the starting date for the first period; or(ii) The first period in a calendar year of 13 complete, consecutivecalendar weeks; the second period in a calendar year of 13 complete,consecutive weeks; the third period in a calendar year of 13 complete,consecutive calendar weeks; the fourth period in a calendar year of 13complete, consecutive calendar weeks. If at the end of a calendar year thereare any days not falling within a complete calendar week of that year, suchdays shall be included within the last complete calendar week of that year.If at the beginning of any calendar year there are days not falling within acomplete calendar week of that year, such days shall be included within thelast complete calendar week of the previous year; or(iii) The four periods in a calendar year may consist of the first 14complete, consecutive calendar weeks; the next 12 complete, consecutivecalendar weeks, the next 14 complete, consecutive calendar weeks, and thelast 12 complete, consecutive calendar weeks. If at the end of a calendaryear there are any days not falling within a complete calendar week of thatyear, such days shall be included (for purposes of this section) within thelast complete calendar week of the year. If at the beginning of any calendaryear there are days not falling within a complete calendar week of that year,such days shall be included (for purposes of this section) within the lastcomplete week of the previous year.(e) Exposure to airborne radioactive material. (1) No employer shallpossess, use or transport radioactive material in such a manner as to causeany employee, within a restricted area, to be exposed to airborne radioactivematerial in an average concentration in excess of the limits specified inTable 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20. The limits given in Table 1 are forexposure to the concentrations specified for 40 hours in any workweek of 7consecutive days. In any such period where the number of hours of exposure isless than 40, the limits specified in the table may be increasedproportionately. In any such period where the number of hours of exposure isgreater than 40, the limits specified in the table shall be decreasedproportionately.(2) No employer shall possess, use, or transfer radioactive material in sucha manner as to cause any individual within a restricted area, who is under 18years of age, to be exposed to airborne radioactive material in an averageconcentration in excess of the limits specified in Table II of appendix B to10 CFR part 20. For purposes of this paragraph, concentrations may beaveraged over periods not greater than 1 week.(3) Exposed as used in this paragraph means that the individual is presentin an airborne concentration. No allowance shall be made for the use ofprotective clothing or equipment, or particle size.(f) Precautionary procedures and personal monitoring. (1) Every employershall make such surveys as may be necessary for him to comply with theprovisions in this section. Survey means an evaluation of the radiationhazards incident to the production, use, release, disposal, or presence ofradioactive materials or other sources of radiation under a specific set ofconditions. When appropriate, such evaluation includes a physical survey ofthe location of materials and equipment, and measurements of levels ofradiation or concentrations of radioactive material present.(2) Every employer shall supply appropriate personnel monitoring equipment,such as film badges, pocket chambers, pocket dosimeters, or film rings, andshall require the use of such equipment by:(i) Each employee who enters a restricted area under such circumstances thathe receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in any calendar quarter inexcess of 25 percent of the applicable value specified in paragraph (d)(1) ofthis section; and(ii) Each employee under 18 years of age who enters a restricted area undersuch circumstances that he receives, or is likely to receive, a dose in anycalendar quarter in excess of 5 percent of the applicable value specified inparagraph (d)(1) of this section; and(iii) Each employee who enters a high radiation area.(3) As used in this section:(i) Personnel monitoring equipment means devices designed to be worn orcarried by an individual for the purpose of measuring the dose received(e.g., film badges, pocket chambers, pocket dosimeters, film rings, etc.);(ii) Radiation area means any area, accessible to personnel, in which thereexists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the body couldreceive in any 1 hour a dose in excess of 5 millirem, or in any 5 consecutivedays a dose in excess of 100 millirem; and(iii) High radiation area means any area, accessible to personnel, in whichthere exists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the body couldreceive in any one hour a dose in excess of 100 millirem.(g) Caution signs, labels, and signals - (1) General. (i) Symbols prescribedby this paragraph shall use the conventional radiation caution colors(magenta or purple on yellow background). The symbol prescribed by thisparagraph is the conventional three-bladed design: Figure D-2 Radiation SymbolFor Figure D-2 see printed copy of Federal Register June 30, 1993(2) Radiation area. Each radiation area shall be conspicuously posted with asign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol described in paragraph(g)(1) of this section and the words:CAUTIONRADIATION AREA(3) High radiation area. (i) Each high radiation area shall be conspicuouslyposted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol and thewords:CAUTIONHIGH RADIATION AREA(ii) Each high radiation area shall be equipped with a control device whichshall either cause the level of radiation to be reduced below that at whichan individual might receive a dose of 100 millirems in 1 hour upon entry intothe area or shall energize a conspicuous visible or audible alarm signal insuch a manner that the individual entering and the employer or a supervisorof the activity are made aware of the entry. In the case of a high radiationarea established for a period of 30 days or less, such control device is notrequired.(4) Airborne radioactivity area. (i) As used in the provisions of thissection, airborne radioactivity area means:(A) Any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactivematerials, composed wholly or partly of radioactive material, exist inconcentrations in excess of the amounts specified in column 1 of Table 1 ofappendix B to 10 CFR part 20 or(B) Any room, enclosure, or operating area in which airborne radioactivematerials exist in concentrations which, averaged over the number of hours inany week during which individuals are in the area, exceed 25 percent of theamounts specified in column 1 of Table 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20.(ii) Each airborne radioactivity area shall be conspicuously posted with asign or signs bearing the radiation caution symbol described in paragraph(g)(1) of this section and the words:CAUTIONAIRBORNE RADIOACTIVITY AREA(5) Additional requirements - (i) Each area or room in which radioactivematerial is used or stored and which contains any radioactive material (otherthan natural uranium or thorium) in any amount exceeding 10 times thequantity of such material specified in appendix C to 10 CFR part 20 shall beconspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing the radiation cautionsymbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section and the words:CAUTIONRADIOACTIVE MATERIALS(ii) Each area or room in which natural uranium or thorium is used or storedin an amount exceeding 100 times the quantity of such material specified in10 CFR part 20 shall be conspicuously posted with a sign or signs bearing theradiation caution symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section andthe words:CAUTIONRADIOACTIVE MATERIALS(6) Containers. (i) Each container in which is transported, stored, or useda quantity of any radioactive material (other than natural uranium orthorium) greater than the quantity of such material specified in appendix Cto 10 CFR part 20 shall bear a durable, clearly visible label bearing theradiation caution symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section andthe words:CAUTIONRADIOACTIVE MATERIALS(ii) Each container in which natural uranium or thorium is transported,stored, or used in a quantity greater than 10 times the quantity specified inappendix C to 10 CFR part 20 shall bear a durable, clearly visible labelbearing the radiation caution symbol described in paragraph (g)(1) of thissection and the words:CAUTIONRADIOACTIVE MATERIALS(iii) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (g)(6)(i) and (ii) ofthis section a label shall not be required:(A) If the concentration of the material in the container does not exceedthat specified in column 2 of Table 1 of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20, or(B) For laboratory containers, such as beakers, flasks, and test tubes, usedtransiently in laboratory procedures, when the user is present.(iv) Where containers are used for storage, the labels required in thissubparagraph shall state also the quantities and kinds of radioactivematerials in the containers and the date of measurement of the quantities.(h) Immediate evacuation warning signal - (1) Signal characteristics. (i)The signal shall be a midfrequency complex sound wave amplitude modulated ata subsonic frequency. The complex sound wave in free space shall have afundamental frequency (f sub(1)) between 450 and 500 hertz (Hz) modulated ata subsonic rate between 4 and 5 hertz.(ii) The signal generator shall not be less than 75 decibels at everylocation where an individual may be present whose immediate, rapid, andcomplete evacuation is essential.(iii) A sufficient number of signal units shall be installed such that therequirements of paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section are met at everylocation where an individual may be present whose immediate, rapid, andcomplete evacuation is essential.(iv) The signal shall be unique in the plant or facility in which it isinstalled.(v) The minimum duration of the signal shall be sufficient to insure thatall affected persons hear the signal.(vi) The signal-generating system shall respond automatically to aninitiating event without requiring any human action to sound the signal.(2) Design objectives. (i) The signal-generating system shall be designed toincorporate components which enable the system to produce the desired signaleach time it is activated within one-half second of activation.(ii) The signal-generating system shall be provided with an automaticallyactivated secondary power supply which is adequate to simultaneously powerall emergency equipment to which it is connected, if operation during powerfailure is necessary, except in those systems using batteries as the primarysource of power.(iii) All components of the signal-generating system shall be located toprovide maximum practicable protection against damage in case of fire,explosion, corrosive atmosphere, or other environmental extremes consistentwith adequate system performance.(iv) The signal-generating system shall be designed with the minimum numberof components necessary to make it function as intended, and should utilizecomponents which do not require frequent servicing such as lubrication orcleaning.(v) Where several activating devices feed activating information to acentral signal generator, failure of any activating device shall not renderthe signal-generator system inoperable to activating information from theremaining devices.(vi) The signal-generating system shall be designed to enhance theprobability that alarm occurs only when immediate evacuation is warranted.The number of false alarms shall not be so great that the signal will come tobe disregarded and shall be low enough to minimize personal injuries orexcessive property damage that might result from such evacuation.(3) Testing. (i) Initial tests, inspections, and checks of thesignal-generating system shall be made to verify that the fabrication andinstallation were made in accordance with design plans and specifications andto develop a thorough knowledge of the performance of the system and allcomponents under normal and hostile conditions.(ii) Once the system has been placed in service, periodic tests,inspections, and checks shall be made to minimize the possibility ofmalfunction.(iii) Following significant alterations or revisions to the system, testsand checks similar to the initial installation tests shall be made.(iv) Tests shall be designed to minimize hazards while conducting the tests.(v) Prior to normal operation the signal-generating system shall be checkedphysically and functionally to assure reliability and to demonstrate accuracyand performance. Specific tests shall include:
  1. All power sources.
  2. Calibration and calibration stability.
  3. Trip levels and stability.
  4. Continuity of function with loss and return of required services such as AC or DC power, air pressure, etc.
  5. All indicators.
  6. Trouble indicator circuits and signals, where used.
  7. Air pressure (if used)
  8. Determine that sound level of the signal is within the limit of paragraph (h)(1)(ii) of this section at all points that require immediate evacuation.
(vi) In addition to the initial startup and operating tests, periodicscheduled performance tests and status checks must be made to insure that thesystem is at all times operating within design limits and capable of therequired response. Specific periodic tests or checks or both shall include:(A) Adequacy of signal activation device.(B) All power sources.(C) Function of all alarm circuits and trouble indicator circuits includingtrip levels.(D) Air pressure (if used).(E) Function of entire system including operation without power whererequired.(F) Complete operational tests including sounding of the signal anddetermination that sound levels are adequate.(vii) Periodic tests shall be scheduled on the basis of need, experience,difficulty, and disruption of operations. The entire system should beoperationally tested at least quarterly.(viii) All employees whose work may necessitate their presence in an areacovered by the signal shall be made familiar with the actual sound of thesignal - preferably as it sounds at their work location. Before placing thesystem into operation, all employees normally working in the area shall bemade acquainted with the signal by actual demonstration at their worklocations.(i) Exceptions from posting requirements. Notwithstanding the provisions ofparagraph (g) of this section:(1) A room or area is not required to be posted with a caution sign becauseof the presence of a sealed source, provided the radiation level 12 inches(30.48 cm) from the surface of the source container or housing does notexceed 5 millirem per hour.(2) Rooms or other areas in onsite medical facilities are not required to beposted with caution signs because of the presence of patients containingradioactive material, provided that there are personnel in attendance whoshall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposure of anyindividual to radiation or radioactive material in excess of the limitsestablished in the provisions of this section.(3) Caution signs are not required to be posted at areas or rooms containingradioactive materials for periods of less than 8 hours: Provided, That(i) The materials are constantly attended during such periods by anindividual who shall take the precautions necessary to prevent the exposureof any individual to radiation or radioactive materials in excess of thelimits established in the provisions of this section; and(ii) Such area or room is subject to the employer's control.(j) Exemptions for radioactive materials packaged for shipment. Radioactivematerials packaged and labeled in accordance with regulations of theDepartment of Transportation published in 49 CFR Chapter I, are exempt fromthe labeling and posting requirements of this subpart during shipment,provided that the inside containers are labeled in accordance with theprovisions of paragraph (g) of this section.(i) Instruction of personnel, posting. (1) Employers regulated by theNuclear Regulatory Commission shall be governed by 10 CFR part 20 standards.Employers in a State named in paragraph (r)(3) of this section shall begoverned by the requirements of the laws and regulations of that State. Allother employers shall be regulated by the following:(2) All individuals working in or frequenting any portion of a radiationarea shall be informed of the occurrence of radioactive materials or ofradiation in such portions of the radiation area; shall be instructed in thesafety problems associated with exposure to such materials or radiation andin precautions or devices to minimize exposure; shall be instructed in theapplicable provisions of this section for the protection of employees fromexposure to radiation or radioactive materials; and shall be advised ofreports of radiation exposure which employees may request pursuant to theregulations in this section.(3) Each employer to whom this section applies shall post a current copy ofits provisions and a copy of the operating procedures applicable to the workconspicuously in such locations as to insure that employees working in orfrequenting radiation areas will observe these documents on the way to andfrom their place of employment, or shall keep such documents available forexamination of employees upon request.(l) Storage of radioactive materials. Radioactive materials stored in anonradiation area shall be secured against unauthorized removal from theplace of storage.(m) Waste disposal. No employer shall dispose of radioactive material exceptby transfer to an authorized recipient, or in a manner approved by theNuclear Regulatory Commission or a State named in paragraph (r)(3) of thissection.(n) Notification of incidents - (1) Immediate notification. Each employershall immediately notify the Assistant Secretary of Labor or his dulyauthorized representative, for employees not protected by the NuclearRegulatory Commission by means of 10 CFR part 20; paragraph (r)(2) of thissection, or the requirements of the laws and regulations of States named inparagraph (r)(3) of this section, by telephone or telegraph of any incidentinvolving radiation which may have caused or threatens to cause:(i) Exposure of the whole body of any individual to 25 rems or more ofradiation; exposure of the skin of the whole body of any individual to 150rems or more of radiation; or exposure of the feet, ankles, hands, orforearms of any individual to 375 rems or more of radiation; or(ii) The release of radioactive material in concentrations which, ifaveraged over a period of 24 hours, would exceed 5,000 times the limitspecified for such materials in Table II of appendix B to 10 CFR part 20.(2) Twenty-four hour notification. Each employer shall within 24 hoursfollowing its occurrence notify the Assistant Secretary of Labor or his dulyauthorized representative for employees not protected by the NuclearRegulatory Commission by means of 10 CFR part 20; paragraph (r)(2) of thissection, or the requirements of the laws and applicable regulations of Statesnamed in paragraph (r)(3) of this section, by telephone or telegraph of anyincident involving radiation which may have caused or threatens to cause:(i) Exposure of the whole body of any individual to 5 rems or more ofradiation; exposure of the skin of the whole body of any individual to 30rems or more of radiation; or exposure of the feet, ankles, hands, orforearms to 75 rems or more of radiation; or(o) Reports of overexposure and excessive levels and concentrations. (1) Inaddition to any notification required by paragraph (n) of this section eachemployer shall make a report in writing within 30 days to the AssistantSecretary of Labor or his duly authorized representative, for employees notprotected by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by means of 10 CFR part 20; orunder paragraph (r)(2) of this section, or the requirements of the laws andregulations of States named in paragraph (r)(3) of this section, of eachexposure of an individual to radiation or concentrations of radioactivematerial in excess of any applicable limit in this section. Each reportrequired under this paragraph shall describe the extent of exposure ofpersons to radiation or to radioactive material; levels of radiation andconcentration of radioactive material involved, the cause of the exposure,levels of concentrations; and corrective steps taken or planned to assureagainst a recurrence.(2) In any case where an employer is required pursuant to the provisions ofthis paragraph to report to the U.S. Department of Labor any exposure of anindividual to radiation or to concentrations of radioactive material, theemployer shall also notify such individual of the nature and extent ofexposure. Such notice shall be in writing and shall contain the followingstatement: "You should preserve this report for future reference."(p) Records. (1) Every employer shall maintain records of the radiationexposure of all employees for whom personnel monitoring is required underparagraph (f) of this section and advise each of his employees of hisindividual exposure on at least an annual basis.(2) Every employer shall maintain records in the same units used in tablesin paragraph (d) of this section and appendix B to 10 CFR part 20.(q) Disclosure to former employee of individual employee's record. (1) Atthe request of a former employee an employer shall furnish to the employee areport of the employee's exposure to radiation as shown in records maintainedby the employer pursuant to paragraph (p)(1) of this section. Such reportshall be furnished within 30 days from the time the request is made, andshall cover each calendar quarter of the individual's employment involvingexposure to radiation or such lesser period as may be requested by theemployee. The report shall also include the results of any calculations andanalysis of radioactive material deposited in the body of the employee. Thereport shall be in writing and contain the following statement: "You shouldpreserve this report for future reference."(r) Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees - NRC contractors operating NRCplants and facilities - NRC Agreement State licensees or registrants. (1) Anyemployer who possesses or uses source material, byproduct material, orspecial nuclear material, as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, asamended, under a license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and inaccordance with the requirements of 10 CFR part 20 shall be deemed to be incompliance with the requirements of this section with respect to suchpossession and use.(2) NRC contractors operating NRC plants and facilities: Any employer whopossesses or uses source material, byproduct material, special nuclearmaterial, or other radiation sources under a contract with the NuclearRegulatory Commission for the operation of NRC plants and facilities and inaccordance with the standards, procedures, and other requirements forradiation protection established by the Commission for such contract pursuantto the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), shallbe deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section withrespect to such possession and use.(3) NRC-agreement State licensees or registrants:(i) Atomic Energy Act sources. Any employer who possesses or uses sourcematerial, byproduct material, or special nuclear material, as defined in theAtomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), and haseither registered such sources with, or is operating under a license issuedby, a State which has an agreement in effect with the Nuclear RegulatoryCommission pursuant to section 274(b) (42 U.S.C. 2021(b)) of the AtomicEnergy Act of 1954, as amended, and in accordance with the requirements ofthat State's laws and regulations shall be deemed to be in compliance withthe radiation requirements of this section, insofar as his possession and useof such material is concerned, unless the Secretary of Labor, afterconference with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall determine that theState's program for control of these radiation sources is incompatible withthe requirements of this section. Such agreements currently are in effectonly in the States of Alabama, Arkansas, California, Kansas, Kentucky,Florida, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Texas,Tennessee, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, Colorado, Louisiana, Nebraska, Washington,Maryland, North Dakota, South Carolina, and Georgia.(ii) Other sources. Any employer who possesses or uses radiation sourcesother than source material, byproduct material, or special nuclear material,as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2011 etseq.), and has either registered such sources with, or is operating under alicense issued by a State which has an agreement in effect with the NuclearRegulatory Commission pursuant to section 274(b) (42 U.S.C. 2021(b)) of theAtomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and in accordance with therequirements of that State's laws and regulations shall be deemed to be incompliance with the radiation requirements of this section, insofar as hispossession and use of such material is concerned, provided the State'sprogram for control of these radiation sources is the subject of a currentlyeffective determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor that such programis compatible with the requirements of this section. Such determinationscurrently are in effect only in the States of Alabama, Arkansas, California,Kansas, Kentucky, Florida, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, NorthCarolina, Texas, Tennessee, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, Colorado, Louisiana,Nebraska, Washington, Maryland, North Dakota, South Carolina, and Georgia.1926.55 Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and mists. [Amended]9. In 1926.55(a), the following new sentence is added to the end of theparagraph: "See Appendix A to this section." In addition, a new table isadded as Appendix A to the section. The text of the new appendix reads asfollows:Appendix A to 1926.55 - 1970 American Conference of Governmental IndustrialHygienists' Threshold Limit Values of Airborne ContaminantsThreshold Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants for ConstructionNOTE: Because of the length of the table, explanatory Footnotes applicableto all substances are given below as well as at the end of the table.Footnotes specific only to a limited number of substances are also shownwithin the table.Footnote(1) [Reserved] Footnote(2) See Mineral Dusts Table. Footnote(3) UseAsbestos Limit 1926.58. Footnote(4) See 1926.58 Footnote(*) The PELs are8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceilinglimit. Footnote(**) As determined from breathing-zone air samples.Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air byvolume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr. Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance percubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact;when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate. Footnote(c) [Reserved]Footnote(d) The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based onthe substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound,measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given - not CASnumbers for the individual compounds. Footnote(e) [Reserved] Footnote(f)[Reserved] Footnote(g) For sectors excluded from 1926.1128 the limit is 10ppm TWA. Footnote(h) Where OSHA has published a proposal for a substance buthas not issued a final rule, the proposal is referenced and the existinglimit is published. Footnote(i) [Reserved] Footnote(j) Millions of particlesper cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-fieldtechniques. Footnote(k) The percentage of crystalline silica in the formulais the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances inwhich other methods have been shown to be applicable. Footnote(l) [Reserved]Footnote(m) Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwiseregulated. Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value asfollows: Footnote(A(1)) [Reserved] Footnote(A(2)) Polytetrafluoroethylenedecomposition products. Because these products decompose in part byhydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in airas fluoride to provide an index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pendingdetermination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations shaouldbe minimal. Footnote(A(3)) Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. Thecomposition of these materials varies gratly and thus a single TLV for alltypes of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene,other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at theappropriate TLV. Footnote(E) Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is theavailable oxygen which shall be at least 19.5 percent and be within therequirements addressing explosion in part 1926.THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION
SubstanceCAS No (d)ppm (a)mg/m(3)(h)Skin Design -ation
Abate;
See Temephos
Acetaldehyde75-07-0200360
Acetic acid64-19-71025
Acetic anhydride108-24-7520
Acetone67-64-110002400
Acetonitrile75-05-84070
2-Acetylaminofluorine;
See 1926.1114
53-96-3
Acetylene74-86-2E
Acetylene dichloride;
See 1,2-Dichloroethylene Acetylene tetrabromide
79-27-6114
Acrolein107-02-80.10.25
Acrylamide79-06-1 0.3X
Acrylonitrile;
See 1926.1145
107-13-1
Aldrin309-00-2 0.25X
Allyl alcohol107-18-625X
Allyl chloride107-05-113
Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE)106-92-3(C)10(C)45
Allyl propyl disulfide2179-59-1212
alpha-Alumina
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1344-28-1 15
5
Aluminum (as Al) Metal
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7429-90-5 15
5
Alundum;
See alpha-Alumina
4-Aminodiphenyl;
See 1926.1111
92-67-1
2-Aminoethanol;
See Ethanolamine
2-Aminopyridine504-29-00.52
Ammonia7664-41-75035
Ammonium sulfamate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7773-06-0 15
5
n-Amyl acetate628-63-7100525
sec-Amyl acetate626-38-0125650
Aniline and homologs62-53-3519X
Anisidine (o-,p-isomers)29191-52-4 0.5X
Antimony and compounds (as Sb)7440-36-0 0.5
ANTU (alpha Naphthylthiourea)86-88-4 0.3
Argon7440-37-1E
Arsenic, inorganic compounds (as As);
See 1926.1118
7440-38-2
Arsenic, organic compounds (as As)7440-38-2 0.5
Arsine7784-42-10.050.2
Asbestos;
See 1926.58
Azinphos-methyl86-50-0 0.2X
Barium, soluble compounds (as Ba)7440-39-3 0.5
Barium sulfate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7727-43-7 15
5
Benomyl
Total dust
Respirable fraction
17804-35-2 15
5
Benzene(g);
See 1926.1128
71-43-2
Benzidine;
See 1926.1110
92-87-5
p-Benzoquinone;
See Quinone
Benzo(a)pyrene;
See Coal tar pitch volatiles
Benzoyl peroxide94-36-0 5
Benzyl chloride100-44-715
Beryllium and beryllium compounds (as Be)7440-41-7 0.002
Biphenyl;
See Diphenyl
Bismuth telluride, Undoped
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1304-82-1 15
5
Bisphenol A;
See Diglycidyl ether
Boron oxide
Total dust
1303-86-2 15
Boron tribromide10294-33-4110
Boron trifluoride7637-07-2(C)1(C)3
Bromine7726-95-60.10.7
Bromine pentafluoride7789-30-20.10.7
Bromoform75-25-20.55X
Butadiene (1,3-Butadiene)(h)106-99-010002200
Butanethiol;
See Butyl mercaptan
2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone)78-93-3200590
2-Butoxyethanol111-76-250240X
n-Butyl-acetate123-86-4150710
sec-Butyl acetate105-46-4200950
tert-Butyl-acetate540-88-5200950
n-Butyl alcohol71-36-3100300
sec-Butyl alcohol78-92-2150450
tert-Butyl alcohol75-65-0100300
Butylamine109-73-9(C)5(C)15X
tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO(3))1189-85-1 (C)0.1X
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE)2426-08-650270
Butyl mercaptan109-79-50.51.5
p-tert-Butyltoluene98-51-11060
Cadmium dust fume (as Cd);
See 1910.1027
7440-43-9
Calcium Carbonate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1317-65-3 15
5
Calcium hydroxide
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1305-62-0 15
5
Calcium oxide1305-78-8 5
Calcium silicate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1344-95-2 15
5
Calcium sulfate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7778-18-9 15
5
Camphor, synthetic76-22-2 2
Carbaryl (Sevin)63-25-2 5
Carbon black1333-86-4 3.5
Carbon dioxide124-38-950009000
Carbon disulfide75-15-02060X
Carbon monoxide630-08-05055
Carbon tetrachloride56-23-51065X
Cellulose
Total dust
Respirable fraction
9004-34-6 15
5
Chlordane57-74-9 0.5X
Chlorinated camphene8001-35-2 0.5X
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide55720-99-5 0.5
Chlorine7782-50-513
Chlorine trifluoride7790-91-2(C)0.1(C)0.4
Chloroacetaldehyde107-20-0(C)1(C)3
a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride)532-27-40.050.3
Chlorobenzene108-90-775350
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile2698-41-10.050.4
Chlorobromomethane74-97-52001050
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene;
See beta-Chloroprene
Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine)(PCB)53469-21-9 1X
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine)(PCB)11097-69-1 0.5X
1-Chloro-2,
3-epoxypropane;
See Epichlorohydrin
2-Chloroethanol;
See Ethylene chlorohydrin
Chloroethylene;
See Vinyl chloride
Chloroform (Trichloromethane)67-66-350240
bis(Chloromethyl) ether;
See 1926.1108
542-88-1
Chloromethyl methyl ether;
See 1926.1106
107-30-2
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane600-25-920100
Chloropicrin76-06-20.10.7
beta-Chloroprene126-99-82590X
2-Chloro-6 (trichloromethyl) pyridine
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1929-82-4 15
5
Chromic acid and
chromates (as CrO(3))Varies with compound 0.1
Chromium (II) compounds (as Cr)7440-47-3 0.5
Chromium (III) compounds (as Cr)7440-47-3 0.5
Chromium metal and insol salts (as Cr)7440-47-3 1
Chrysene;
See Coal tar pitch volatiles
Clopidol
Total dust
Respirable fraction
2971-90-6 15
5
Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene soluble fraction), anthracene, BaP, phenanthrene, acridine, chrysene, pyrene65966-93-2 0.2
Cobalt metal, dust, and fume (as Co)7440-48-4 0.1
Coke oven emissions;
See 1926.1129
0.15
Copper
Fume (as Cu)
Dusts and mists (as Cu)
7440-50-8 0.1
1
Corundum;
See Emery
Cotton dust (raw) 1
Crag herbicide (Sesone)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
136-78-7 15
5
Cresol, all isomers1319-77-3522X
Crotonaldehyde123-73-9
4170-30-3
26
Cumene98-82-850245X
Cyanides (as CN)Varies with Compound 5
Cyanogen460-19-510
Cyclohexane110-82-73001050
Cyclohexanol108-93-050200
Cyclohexanone108-94-150200
Cyclohexene110-83-83001015
Cyclonite121-82-4 1.5X
Cyclopentadiene542-92-775200
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)94-75-7 10
Decaborane17702-41-90.050.3X
Demeton (Systox)8065-48-3 0.1X
Diacetone alcohol (4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone)123-42-250240
1,2-Diaminoethane;
See Ethylenediamine
Diazomethane334-88-30.20.4
Diborane19287-45-70.10.1
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (CBCP);
See 1926.1144
96-12-8
1,2-Dibromoethane;
See Ethylene dibromide
Dibutyl phosphate107-66-415
Dibutyl phthalate84-74-2 5
Dichloroacetylene7572-29-4(C)0.1(C)0.4
o-Dichlorobenzene95-50-1(C)50(C)300
p-Dichlorobenzene106-46-775450
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine;
See 1926.1107
91-94-1
Dichlorodifluoromethane75-71-810004950
1,3-Dichloro-5, 5-dimethyl hydantoin118-52-5 0.2
Dichlorodiphenyltri-chloroethane (DDT)50-29-3 1X
1,1-Dichloroethane75-34-3100400
1,2-Dichloroethane;
See Ethylene dichloride
1,2-Dichloroethylene540-59-0200790
Dichloroethyl ether111-44-4(C)15(C)90X
Dichloromethane;
See Methylene chloride
Dichloromonofluoro-methane75-43-410004200
1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane594-72-9(C)10(C)60
1,2-Dichloropropane;
See Propylene dichloride
Dichlorotetrafluoro-ethane76-14-210007000
Dichlorvos (DDVP)62-73-7 1X
Dicyclopentadienyl iron
Total dust
Respirable fraction
102-54-5 15
5
Dieldrin60-57-1 0.25X
Diethylamine109-89-72575
2-Diethylaminoethanol100-37-81050X
Diethylene triamine111-40-0(C)10(C)42X
Diethyl ether;
See Ethyl ether
Difluorodibromomethane75-61-6100860
Diglycidyl ether (DGE)2238-07-5(C)0.5(C)2.8
Dihydroxybenzene;
See Hydroquinone
Diisobutyl ketone108-83-850290
Diisopropylamine108-18-9520X
4-Dimethylaminoazo-benzene;
See 1926.1115
60-11-7
Dimethoxymethane;
See Methylal
Dimethyl acetamide127-19-51035X
Dimethylamine124-40-31018
Dimethylaminobenzene;
See Xylidine
Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline)121-69-7525X
Dimethylbenzene;
See Xylene
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2, 2-dichloroethyl phosphate300-76-5 3
Dimethylformamide68-12-21030X
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone;
See Diisobutyl ketone
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine57-14-70.51X
Dimethylphthalate131-11-3 5
Dimethyl sulfate77-78-115X
Dinitrobenzene
(all isomers)
(ortho)
(meta)
(para)

528-29-0
99-65-0
100-25-4


1

X
Dinitro-o-cresol534-52-1 0.2X
Dinitrotoluene25321-14-6 1.5X
Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide)123-91-1100360X
Diphenyl (Biphenyl)92-52-40.21
Diphenylamine122-39-4 10
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate;
See Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether34590-94-8100600X
Di-sec octyl phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate)117-81-7 5
Emery
Total dust
Respirable fraction
12415-34-8 15
5
Endosulfan115-29-7 0.1X
Endrin72-20-8 0.1X
Epichlorohydrin106-89-8519X
EPN2104-64-5 0.5X
1,2-Epoxypropane;
See Propylene oxide
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol;
See Glycidol
Ethane74-84-0E
Ethanethiol;
See Ethyl mercaptan
Ethanolamine141-43-536
2-Ethoxyethanol (Cellosolve)110-80-5200740X
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve acetate)111-15-9100540X
Ethyl acetate141-78-64001400
Ethyl acrylate140-88-525100X
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol)64-17-510001900
Ethylamine75-04-71018
Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-heptanone)541-85-525130
Ethyl benzene100-41-4100435
Ethyl bromide74-96-4200890
Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone)106-35-450230
Ethyl chloride75-00-310002600
Ethyl ether60-29-74001200
Ethyl formate109-94-4100300
Ethyl mercaptan75-08-10.51
Ethyl silicate78-10-4100850
Ethylene74-85-1E
Ethylene chlorohydrin107-07-3516X
Ethylenediamine107-15-31025
Ethylene dibromide106-93-4(C)25(C)190X
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)107-06-250200
Ethylene glycol dinitrate628-96-6(C)0.2(C)1X
Ethylene glycol methyl acetate;
See Methyl cellosolve acetate
Ethyleneimine;
See 1926.1112
151-56-4
Ethylene oxide;
See 1926.1147
75-21-8
Ethylidene chloride;
See 1,1-Dichlorethane
N-Ethylmorpholine100-74-32094X
Ferbam
Total dust
14484-64-1 15
Ferrovanadium dust12604-58-9 1
Fibrous Glass
Total dust
Respirable fraction
15
5
Fluorides (as F)Varies with compound 2.5
Fluorine7782-41-40.10.2
Fluorotrichloromethane (Trichloro-fluoromethane)75-69-410005600
Formaldehyde;
See 1926.1148
50-00-0
Formic acid64-18-659
Furfural98-01-1520X
Furfuryl alcohol98-00-050200
Gasoline8006-61-9 A(3)
Glycerin (mist)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
56-81-5 15
5
Glycidol556-52-550150
Glycol monoethyl ether;
See 2-Ethoxyethanol
Graphite, natural
respirable dust
7782-42-5(2)(2)(2)
Graphite, synthetic
Total dust
Respirable Fraction
15
5
Guthion;
See Azinphos methyl
Gypsum
Total dust
Respirable fraction
13397-24-5 15
5
Hafnium7440-58-6 0.5
Helium7440-59-7E
Heptachlor76-44-8 0.5X
Heptane (n-Heptane)142-82-55002000
Hexachloroethane67-72-1110X
Hexachloronaphthalene1335-87-1 0.2X
n-Hexane110-54-35001800
2-Hexanone (Methyl n-butyl ketone)591-78-6100410
Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone)108-10-1100410
sec-Hexyl acetate108-84-950300
Hydrazine302-01-211.3X
Hydrogen1333-74-0E
Hydrogen bromide10035-10-6310
Hydrogen chloride7647-01-0(C)5(C)7
Hydrogen cyanide74-90-81011X
Hydrogen fluoride (as F)7664-39-332
Hydrogen peroxide7722-84-111.4
Hydrogen selenide (as Se)7783-07-50.05
Hydrogen sulfide7783-06-41015
Hydroquinone123-31-9 2
Indene95-13-61045
Indium and compounds (as in)7440-74-6 0.1
Iodine7553-56-2(C)0.1(C)1
Iron oxide fume1309-37-1 10
Iron salts (soluble) (as Fe)Varies with compound 1
Isomyl acetate123-92-2100525
Isomyl alcohol (primary and secondary)123-51-3100360
Isobutyl acetate110-19-0150700
Isobutyl alcohol78-83-1100300
Isophorone78-59-125140
Isopropyl acetate108-21-4250950
Isopropyl alcohol67-63-0400980
Isopropylamine75-31-0512
Isopropyl ether108-20-35002100
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE)4016-14-250240
Kaolin
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1332-58-7 15
5
Ketene463-51-40.50.9
Lead inorganic (as Pb);7439-92-1 0.2
Limestone
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1317-65-3 15
5
Lindane58-89-9 0.5X
Lithium hydride7580-67-8 0.025
LPG (Liquified petroleum gas)68476-85-710001800
Magnesite
Total dust
Respirable fraction
546-93-0 15
5
Magnesium oxide fume
Total Particulate
1309-48-4 15
Malathion
Total dust
121-75-5 15X
Maleic anhydride108-31-60.25
Manganese compounds (as Mn)7439-96-5 (C)5
Manganese fume (as Mn)7439-96-5 (C)5
Marble
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1317-65-3 15
5
Mercury (aryl and inorganic)(as Hg)7439-97-6 0.1X
Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as Hg)7439-97-6 0.01X
Mercury (vapor) (as Hg)7439-97-6 0.1X
Mesityl oxide141-79-725100
Methane74-82-8E
Methanethiol;
See Methyl mercaptan
Methoxychlor
Total dust
72-43-5 15
2-Methoxyethanol; (Methyl cellosolve)109-86-42580X
2- Methoxyethyl acetate (Methyl cellosolve acetate)110-49-625120X
Methyl acetate79-20-9200610
Methyl acetylene (Propyne)74-99-710001650
Methyl acetylene propadiene mixture (MAPP) 10001800
Methyl acrylate96-33-31035X
Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane)109-87-510003100
Methyl alcohol67-56-1200260
Methylamine74-89-51012
Methyl amyl alcohol;
See Methyl Isobutyl carbinol
Methyl n-amyl ketone110-43-0100465
Methyl bromide74-83-9(C)20(C)80X
Methyl butyl ketone;
See 2-Hexanone
Methyl cellosolve;
See 2-Methoxyethanol
Methyl cellosolve acetate;
See 2-Methoxyethyl acetate
Methyl chloride74-87-3100210
Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloro-ethane)71-55-63501900
Methylcyclohexane108-87-25002000
Methylcyclohexanol25639-42-3100470
o-Methylcyclohexanone583-60-8100460X
Methylene chloride(h)
See 56 FR 57036
75-09-25001740
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK);
See 2-Butanone
Methyl formate107-31-3100250
Methyl hydrazine (Monomethyl hydrazine)60-34-4(C)0.2(C)0.35X
Methyl iodide74-88-4528X
Methyl isoamyl ketone110-12-3100475
Methyl isobutyl carbinol108-11-225100X
Methyl isobutyl ketone;
See Hexone
Methyl isocyanate624-83-90.020.05X
Methyl mercaptan74-93-10.51
Methyl methacrylate80-62-6100410100
Methyl propyl ketone;
See 2-Pentanone
Methyl silicate681-84-5530
alpha-Methyl styrene98-83-9(C)100(C)480
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI)101-68-8(C)0.02(C)0.2
Mica;
See Silicates
Mineral wool
Total dust
Respirable dust
15
5
Molybdenum (as Mo)
Soluble compounds
Insoluble Compounds
Total dust
7439-98-7 5

15

Monomethyl aniline100-61-829X
Monomethyl hydrazine;
See Methyl hydrazine
Morpholine110-91-82070X
Naphtha (Coal tar)8030-30-6100400
Naphthalene91-20-31050
alpha-Naphthylamine;
See 1926.1104
134-32-7
beta-Naphthylamine;
See 1926.1109
91-59-8
Neon7440-01-9E
Nickel carbonyl (as Ni)13463-39-30.0010.007
Nickel, metal and insoluble compounds (as Ni)7440-02-0 1
Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni)7440-02-0 1
Nicotine54-11-5 0.5X
Nitric acid7697-37-225
Nitric oxide10102-43-92530
p-Nitroaniline100-01-616X
Nitrobenzene98-95-315X
p-Nitrochlorobenzene100-00-5 1X
4-Nitrodiphenyl;
See 1926.1103
92-93-3
Nitroethane79-24-3100310
Nitrogen7727-37-9E
Nitrogen dioxide10102-44-0(C)5(C)9
Nitrogen trifluoride7783-54-21029
Nitroglycerin55-63-0(C)0.2(C)2X
Nitromethane75-52-5100250
1-Nitropropane108-03-22590
2-Nitropropane79-46-92590
N-Nitrosodimethylamine;
See 1926.1116
62-79-9
Nitrotoluene (all isomers)
o-isomer
m-isomer
p-isomer

88-72-2
99-08-1
99-99-0
530X
Nitrotrichloromethane;
See Chloropicrin
Nitrous oxide10024-97-2E
Octachloronaphthalene2234-13-1 0.1X
Octane111-65-94001900
Oil mist, mineral8012-95-1 5
Osmium tetroxide(as Os)20816-12-0 0.002
Oxalic acid144-62-7 1
Oxygen difluoride7783-41-70.050.1
Ozone10028-15-60.10.2
Paraquat, respirable dust4685-14-7
1910-42-5
2074-50-2
0.5X
Parathion56-38-2 0.1X
Particulates not otherwise regulated
Total dust organic and inorganic
15
PCB;
See Chlorodiphenyl (42% and 54% chlorine)
Pentaborane19624-22-70.0050.01
Pentachloronaphthalene1321-64-8 0.5X
Pentachlorophenol87-86-5 0.5X
Pentaerythritol
Total dust
Respirable fraction
115-77-5 15
5
Pentane109-66-05001500
2-Pentanone (Methyl propyl ketone)107-87-9200700
Perchloroethylene (Tetrachloroethylene)127-18-4100670
Perchloromethyl mercaptan594-42-30.10.8
Perchloryl fluoride7616-94-6313.5
Perlite
Total dust
Respirable fraction
93763-70-3 15
5
Petroleum distillates (Naphtha)(Rubber Solvent) A(3)
Phenol108-95-2519X
p-Phenylene diamine106-50-3 0.1X
Phenyl ether, vapor101-84-817
Phenyl ether-biphenyl mixture, vapor 17
Phenylethylene;
See Styrene
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE)122-60-11060
Phenylhydrazine100-63-0522X
Phosdrin (Mevinphos)7786-34-7 0.1X
Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride)75-44-50.10.4
Phosphine7803-51-20.30.4
Phosphoric acid7664-38-2 1
Phosphorus (yellow)7723-14-0 0.1
Phosphorus pentachloride10026-13-8 1
Phosphorus pentasulfide1314-80-3 1
Phosphorus trichloride7719-12-20.53
Phthalic anhydride85-44-9212
Picloram
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1918-02-1 15
5
Picric acid88-89-1 0.1
Piperazine dihydrochloride142-64-3 X
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1, 3-indandione)83-26-1 0.1
Plaster of paris
Total dust
Respirable fraction
26499-65-0 15
5
Platinum (as Pt)
Metal
Soluble Salts
7440-06-4 0.002
Polytetrafluoroethylene
decomposition
products
A(2)
Portland cement
Total dust
Respirable fraction
65997-15-1

5

10
15
Propargyl alcohol107-19-71 X
beta-Propriolactone;
See 1926.1113
57-57-8
Propionic acid79-09-4
n-Propyl acetate109-60-4200840
n-Propyl alcohol71-23-8200500
n-Propyl nitrate627-13-425110
Propylene dichloride78-87-575350
Propylene imine75-55-825X
Propylene oxide75-56-9100240
Propyne;
See Methyl acetylene
Pyrethrum8003-34-7 5
Pyridine110-86-1515
Quinone106-51-40.10.4
RDX:
See Cyclonite
Rhodium (as Rh), metal fume and insoluble compounds7440-16-6 0.1
Rhodium (as Rh), soluble compounds7440-16-6 0.001
Ronnel299-84-3 10
Rotenone83-79-4 5
Rouge
Total dust
Respirable fraction
15
5
Selenium compounds (as Se)7782-49-2 0.2
Selenium hexafluoride (as Se)7783-79-10.050.4
Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel112926-00-8(2)(2)(2)
Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous earth, containing less than 1% crystalline silica61790-53-2(2)(2)(2)
Silica, crystalline cristobalite, respirable dust14464-46-1(2)(2)(2)
Silica, crystalline quartz, respirable dust14808-60-7(2)(2)(2)
Silica, crystalline tripoli (as quartz), respirable dust1317-95-9(2)(2)(2)
Silica, crystalline tridymite, respirable dust15468-32-3(2)(2)(2)
Silica, fused, respirable dust60676-86-0(2)(2)(2)
Silicates (less than 1% crystalline silica) Mica (respirable dust)
Soapstone, total dust
Soapstone, respirable dust
Talc (containing asbestos)

12001-26-2
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
(2)
(2)
(2)
(3)
Talc (containing no asbestos), respirable dust
Tremolite

14807-96-6
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
Silicon
Total dust
Respirable fraction
7440-21-3 15
5
Silicon carbide
Total dust
Respirable fraction
409-21-2 15
5
Silver, metal and soluble compounds (as Ag)7440-22-4 0.01
Soapstone;
See Silicates
Sodium fluoroacetate62-74-8 0.05X
Sodium hydroxide1310-73-2 2
Starch
Total dust
Respirable fraction
9005-25-8 15
5
Stibine7803-52-30.10.5
Stoddard solvent8052-41-32001150
Strychnine57-24-9 0.15
Styrene100-42-510042050
Sucrose
Total dust
Respirable fraction
57-50-1 15
5
Sulfur dioxide7446-09-5513
Sulfur hexafluoride2551-62-410006000
Sulfuric acid7664-93-9 1
Sulfur monochloride10025-67-916
Sulfur pentafluoride5714-22-70.0250.25
Sulfuryl fluoride2699-79-8520
Systox;
See Demeton
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-tri-chlorophenoxyacetic acid)93-76-5 10
Talc;
See Silicates
Tantalum, metal and oxide dust7440-25-7 5
TEDP (Sulfotep)3689-24-5 0.2X
Teflon decomposition products A2
Tellurium and compounds (as Te)13494-80-9 0.1
Tellurium hexafluoride(as Te)7783-80-40.020.2
Temephos
Total dust
Respirable fraction
3383-96-8 15
5
TEPP (Tetraethyl pyrophosphaate)107-49-3 0.05X
Terphenylis26140-60-3(C)1(C)9
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2, 2-difluoroethane76-11-95004170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1, 2-difluoroethane76-12-05004170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane79-34-5535X
Tetrachoroethylene;
See Perchloroethylene
Tetrachloromethane;
SeeCarbon tetrachloride
Tetrachloronaphthalene1335-88-2 2X
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb)78-00-2 0.1X
Tetrahydrofuran109-99-9200590
Tetramethyl lead, (as Pb)75-74-1 0.15X
Tetramethyl succinonitrile3333-52-60.53X
Tetranitromethane509-14-818
Tetryl (2,4,6-Trinitro-phenylmethyl-nitramine)479-45-8 1.5X
Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl)7440-28-0 0.1X
4,4'-Thiobis(6-tert, Butyl-m-cresol)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
96-69-5 15
5
Thiram137-26-8 5
Tin, inorganic compounds (except oxides) (as Sn)7440-31-5 2
Tin, organic compounds (as Sn)7440-31-5 0.1
Tin oxide (as Sn)
Total dust
Respirable fraction
21651-19-4 15
5
Titanium dioxide
Total dust
13463-67-7 15
Toluene108-88-3200750100
Toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI)584-84-9(C)0.02(C)0.14
o-Toluidine95-53-4522X
Toxaphene;
See Chlorinated camphene
Tremolite;
See Silicates
Tributyl phosphate126-73-8 5
1,1,1-Trichloroethane;
See Methyl chloroform
1,1,2-Trichloroethane79-00-51045X
Trichloroethylene79-01-6100535
Trichloromethane;
See Chloroform
Trichloronaphthalene1321-65-9 5X
1,2,3-Trichloropropane96-18-450300
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2, 2-trifluoroethane76-13-110007600
Triethylamine121-44-825100
Trifluorobromomethane75-63-810006100
Trimethyl benzene25551-13-725120
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl;
See Picric acid
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl-methyl nitramine;
See Tetryl
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)118-96-7 15X
Triorthocresyl phosphate78-30-8 0.1
Triphenyl phosphate115-86-6 3
Tungsten (as W)
Insoluble compounds
Soluble compounds
7440-33-7 5
1
Turpentine8006-64-2100560
Uranium (as U)
Soluble compounds
Insoluble compounds
7440-61-1 0.2
0.2
Vanadium Respirable dust
(as V(2)O(5))
Fume (as V(2)O(5))
1314-62-1 (C)0.5
(C)0.1
Vegetable oil mist
Total dust
Respirable fraction
15
5
Vinyl benzene;
See Styrene
Vinyl chloride;
See 1926.1117
75-01-4
Vinyl cyanide;
See Acrylonitrile
Vinyl toluene25013-15-4100480
Warfarin81-81-2 0.1
Xylenes (o-, m-, p-isomers)1330-20-7100435
Xylidine1300-73-8525X
Yttrium7440-65-5 1
Zinc chloride fume7646-85-7 1
Zinc oxide fume1314-13-2 5
Zinc oxide
Total dust
Respirable fraction
1314-13-2 15
5
Zinc stearate
Total dust
Respirable fraction
557-05-1 15
5
Zirconium compounds (as Zr)7440-67-7 5

MINERAL DUSTS

Substancemppcf(j)
SILICA:
Crystalline
Quartz. Threshold limit calculated from the formula

250(k)

percent SiO(2)+5
Cristobalite.
Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous earth
20

SILICATES (less than 1 percent crystalline silica)
Mica
Portland cement
Soapstone
Talc (non-asbestiform)
Talc (fibrous), use asbestos limit
Graphite (natural)

20
50
20
20
--
15

Inert or Nuisance Particulates:(m)50 (or 15 mg/m(3) whichever is the the smaller) of total dust less than 1 percent SiO(2)
Conversion factors.
mppcf X 35.3 = million particles
per cubic meter = particles per c.c.
Footnote(1) [Reserved] Footnote(2) See Mineral Dusts Table. Footnote(3) Use Asbestos Limit 1926.58. Footnote(4) See 1926.58 Footnote(*) The PELs are8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceilinglimit. Footnote(**) As determined from breathing-zone air samples. Footnote(a) Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air byvolume at 25 degrees C and 760 torr. Footnote(b) Milligrams of substance percubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact;when listed with a ppm entry, it is approximate. Footnote(c) [Reserved]Footnote(d) The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based onthe substance name. For an entry covering more than one metal compound,measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is given - not CASnumbers for the individual compounds. Footnote(e) [Reserved] Footnote(f) [Reserved] Footnote(g) For sectors excluded from 1926.1128 the limit is 10ppm TWA. Footnote(h) Where OSHA has published a proposal for a substance buthas not issued a final rule, the proposal is referenced and the existinglimit is published. Footnote(i) [Reserved] Footnote(j) Millions of particlesper cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-fieldtechniques. Footnote(k) The percentage of crystalline silica in the formulais the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those instances inwhich other methods have been shown to be applicable. Footnote(l) [Reserved]Footnote(m) Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwiseregulated. Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value asfollows: Footnote(A(1)) [Reserved] Footnote(A(2)) Polytetrafluoroethylenedecomposition products. Because these products decompose in part byhydrolysis in alkaline solution, they can be quantitatively determined in airas fluoride to provide an index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pendingdetermination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations shaouldbe minimal. Footnote(A(3)) Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. Thecomposition of these materials varies gratly and thus a single TLV for alltypes of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene,other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at theappropriate TLV. Footnote(E) Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is theavailable oxygen which shall be at least 19.5 percent and be within therequirements addressing explosion in part 1926.10. In 1926.57, new paragraphs (f) - (i) are added to read as follows:1926.57 Ventilation.(f) "Abrasive blasting" - (1) "Definitions applicable to this paragraph" -(i) "Abrasive." A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.(ii) "Abrasive-blasting respirator." A continuous flow air-line respiratorconstructed so that it will cover the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders toprotect him from rebounding abrasive.(iii) "Blast cleaning barrel." A complete enclosure which rotates on anaxis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order toexpose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blastspray.(iv) "Blast cleaning room." A complete enclosure in which blastingoperations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room tooperate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.(v) "Blasting cabinet." An enclosure where the operator stands outside andoperates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.(vi) "Clean air." Air of such purity that it will not cause harm ordiscomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.(vii) "Dust Collector." A device or combination of devices for separatingdust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.(viii) "Exhaust ventilation system." A system for removing contaminated airfrom a space, comprising two or more of the following elements (A) enclosureor hood, (B) duct work, (C) dust collecting equipment, (D) exhauster, and (E)discharge stack.(ix) "Particulate-filter respirator." An air purifying respirator, commonlyreferred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust orfume from the air passing through the device.(x) "Respirable dust." Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through theupper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.(xi) "Rotary blast cleaning table." An enclosure where the pieces to becleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automaticallythrough a series of blast sprays.(xii) "Abrasive blasting." The forcible application of an abrasive to asurface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.(2) "Dust hazards from abrasive blasting." (i) Abrasives and the surfacecoatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized duringblasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirablesize. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall beconsidered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.(ii) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone ofthe abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below thelevels specified in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part.(iii) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only inautomatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may bepresent, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system andall electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American NationalStandard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, andVapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), and Subpart S of thispart. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build upof static charges. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may bepresent, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collectorshall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located onsides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case ofexplosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire ProtectionAssociation Explosion venting Guide. NFPA 68-1954.(3) "Blast-cleaning enclosure." (i) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall beexhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will bemaintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.(A) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged thatby the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive ordust particles into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visiblespurts of dust will not be observed.(B) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance ofthe dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.(C) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and theexhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove thedusty air within the enclosure.(D) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observationwindows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.(E) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets atall small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspectedregularly and replaced when needed.{1} Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed. {2} Door onblast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, exceptthat where there is a small operator access door, the large work access doormay be closed or opened from the outside only.(4) "Exhaust ventilation system." (i) The construction, installation,inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to theprinciples and requirements set forth in American National StandardFundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961.(a) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.(b) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipmentshall be checked when the installation is completed and periodicallythereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever anappreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, thesystem shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.(ii) In installation where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaustventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon forthe removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasiveseparator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.(iii) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be dischargedthrough dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be set up so thatthe accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating otherworking areas.(5) "Personal protective equipment." (i) Only respiratory protectiveequipment approved by the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior(see 30 CFR part 11) shall be used for protection of personnel against dustsproduced during abrasive-blasting operations.(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blastingoperators:(A) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or (B) When usingsilica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are notphysically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or(C) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting mayexceed the limits set in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part andthe nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in anexhaust-ventilated enclosure.(iii) Particulate filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filterrespirators, properly fitted, may be used for short, intermittent, oroccasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, orunloading shipments of sand at a receiving point, when it is not feasible tocontrol the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means.Respirators used shall be approved (see 30 CFR part 11) for protectionagainst the specific type of dust encountered.(A) Dust-filter respirators may be used to protect the operator of outsideabrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materialshaving low toxicities.(B) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protectionwhere silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials areblasted.(iv) A respiratory protection program as defined and described in 1926.103,shall be established wherever it is necessary to use respiratory protectiveequipment.(v) Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves andaprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury where heavy piecesof work are handled.(A) Safety shoes shall conform to the requirements of American NationalStandard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear, Z41.1-1967.(B) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied to theoperator when the respirator design does not provide such protection and toany other personnel working in the vicinity of abrasive blasting operations.This equipment shall conform to the requirements of 1926.102.(6) Air supply and air compressors. The air for abrasive-blastingrespirators shall be free of harmful quantities of dust, mists, or noxiousgases, and shall meet the requirements for air purity set forth in ANSIZ9.2-1960. The air from the regular compressed air line of the plant may beused for the abrasive-blasting respirator if:(i) A trap and carbon filter are installed and regularly maintained, toremove oil, water, scale, and odor, (ii) A pressure reducing diaphragm orvalve is installed to reduce the pressure down to requirements of theparticular type of abrasive-blasting respirator, and (iii) An automaticcontrol is provided to either sound an alarm or shut down the compressor incase of overheating.(7) "Operational procedures and general safety." Dust shall not be permittedto accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blastingenclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Aisles and walkwaysshall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create aslipping hazard.(8) "Scope." (i)(a) This paragraph applies to all operations where anabrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure,or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, or steamcleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid ofabrasives.(g) "Grinding, polishing, and buffing operations" - (1) "Definitionsapplicable to this paragraph" -(i) "Abrasive cutting-off wheels." Organic-bonded wheels, the thickness ofwhich is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter for those up to,and including, 20 inches (50.8 cm) in diameter, and not more thanone-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches (50.8 cm) indiameter, used for a multitude of operations variously known as cutting,cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, and the like. Thewheels may be "solid" consisting of organic-bonded abrasive materialthroughout, "steel centered" consisting of a steel disc with a rim oforganic-bonded material molded around the periphery, or of the "insertedtooth" type consisting of a steel disc with organic-bonded abrasive teeth orinserts mechanically secured around the periphery.(ii) "Belts." All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for grinding,polishing, or buffing purposes.(iii) "Branch pipe." The part of an exhaust system piping that is connecteddirectly to the hood or enclosure.(iv) "Cradle." A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground orpolished is placed.(v) "Disc wheels." All power-driven rotatable discs faced with abrasivematerials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or polishing on theside of the assembled disc.(vi) "Entry loss." The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing into aduct or hood. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.(vii) "Exhaust system." A system consisting of branch pipes connected tohoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means forseparating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, and adischarge stack to outside.(viii) "Grinding wheels." All power-driven rotatable grinding or abrasivewheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, consisting ofabrasive particles held together by artificial or natural bonds and used forperipheral grinding.(ix) "Header pipe (main pipe)." A pipe into which one or more branch pipesenter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the exhaustsystem.(x) "Hoods and enclosures." The partial or complete enclosure around thewheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during operation.(xi) "Horizontal double-spindle disc grinder." A grinding machine carryingtwo power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon the insideends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for grinding two surfacessimultaneously.(xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carryingan abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, rotatablesingle horizontal spindle.(xiii) "Polishing and buffing wheels." All power-driven rotatable wheelscomposed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, paper, andmay be coated with abrasives on the periphery of the wheel for purposes ofpolishing, buffing, and light grinding.(xiv) "Portable grinder." Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, orbuffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be manually manipulated.(xv) "Scratch brush wheels." All power-driven rotatable wheels made fromwire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing purposes.(xvi) "Swing-frame grinder." Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing,or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with its supportingframework can be manipulated over stationary objects.(xvii) "Velocity pressure (vp)." The kinetic pressure in the direction offlow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. It isusually expressed in inches of water gauge.(xviii) "Vertical spindle disc grinder." A grinding machine having avertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive discwheel.(2) "Application." Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing isperformed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators,exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in 1926.55 or otherpertinent sections of this part, a local exhaust ventilation system shall beprovided and used to maintain employee exposures within the prescribedlimits.(3) "Hood and branch pipe requirements." (i) Hoods connected to exhaustsystems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, located, and placedso that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be projected into the hoodsin the direction of the air flow. No wheels, discs, straps, or belts shallbe operated in such manner and in such direction as to cause the dust anddirt particles to be thrown into the operator's breathing zone.(ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, andspecial-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall havenot less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table D-57.1 with arecommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the branch and3,500 feet per minute in the main. The entry losses from all hoods exceptthe vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 velocity pressurefor a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered takeoff. Theentry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood is shown in figureD-57.1 (following paragraph (g) of this section).TABLE D-57.1 - GRINDING AND ABRASIVE CUTTING-OFF WHEELS
Wheel diameter, inches (cm)Wheel width, inches (cm)Minimum exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
To 9 (22.86)1½ (3.81)220
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64)2 (5.08)390
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26)3 (7.62)500
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96)4 (10.16)610
ver 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2)5 (12.7)880
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)6 (15.24)1,200
For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table D-57.1, increase theexhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.Example:If wheel width = 4 1/2 inches (11.43 cm), then 4.5 + 4 X 610 = 686 (roundedto 690).(iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels mounted onfloor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines shall have notless than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table D-57.2.TABLE D-57.2 - BUFFING AND POLISHING WHEELS
Wheel diameter, inches (cm)Wheel width, inches (cm)Minimum exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
To 9 (22.86)2 (5.08)300
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64)3 (7.62)500
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26)4 (10.16)610
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96)5 (12.7)740
ver 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2)6 (15.24)1,040
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)6 (15.24)1,200
(iv) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc grindersshall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the grindingoperation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaustvolumes as shown in Table D-57.3.TABLE D-57.3 - HORIZONTAL SINGLE-SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm)Exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
Up to 12 (30.48)220
Over 12 to 19 (30.48 to 48.26390
Over 19 to 30 (48.26 to 76.2)610
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44)880
(v) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc grindersshall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood shall beconnected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown inTable D-57.4.TABLE D-57.4 - HORIZONTAL DOUBLE-SPINDLE DISCGRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm)Exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
Up to 19 (48.26)610 Over 19 to 25
(48.26 to 63.5)880 Over 25 to 30
(63.5 to 76.2)1,200 Over 30 to 53
(76.2 to 134.62)1,770 Over 53 to 72
(134.62 to 182.88)6,280
(vi) Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc grindersshall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in the operation.The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaustvolumes as shown in Table D-57.5.TABLE D-57.5 - VERTICAL SPINDLE DISC GRINDER
Disc diameter, inches (cm)One-half or more of disc coveredDisc not covered
Number(1)Exhaust foot (3)/ min.Number(1)Exhaust foot (3)/ min.
Up to 20 (50.8)15002780
Over 20 to 30 (50.8 to 76.2)278021,480
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62)21,77043,530
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to 182.88)23,14056,010
Footnote(1) Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or equaldistribution provided by other means.(vii) Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to removedust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be connected tobranch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table D-57.6.TABLE D-57.6 - GRINDING AND POLISHING BELTS
Belts width, inches (cm)Exhaust volume (feet(3)/min.)
Up to 3 (7.62)220
Over 3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7)300
Over 5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78)390
Over 7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86)500
Over 9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94)610
Over 11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02)740
(viii) Cradles and swing-frame grinders. Where cradles are used forhandling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large partialenclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average air velocity of150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire opening of theenclosure. Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted in the same manneras provided for cradles. (See fig. D-57.3) (ix) Where the work is outsidethe hood, air volumes must be increased as shown in American StandardFundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,Z9.2-1960 (section 4, exhaust hoods).(4) "Exhaust systems." (i) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, andbuffing operations should be designed in accordance with American StandardFundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,Z9.2-1960.(ii) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations shallbe tested in the manner described in American Standard Fundamentals Governingthe Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.(iii) All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust collectors.(5) "Hood and enclosure design." (i) - (A) It is the dual function ofgrinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator fromthe hazards of bursting wheels as well as to provide a means for the removalof dust and dirt generated. All hoods shall be not less in structuralstrength than specified in the American National Standard Safety Code for theUse, Care, and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, B7.1-1970.(B) Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines employed, itis necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine inquestion, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to theoperation.(ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders shall bedesigned in accordance with figure D-57.2. The adjustable tongue shown inthe figure shall be kept in working order and shall be adjusted withinone-fourth inch (0.635 cm) of the wheel periphery at all times.(iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths asindicated in figure D-57.3.(iv) Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work permits,shall be conducted within a partial enclosure. The opening in the enclosureshall be no larger than is actually required in the operation and an averageface air velocity of not less than 200 feet per minute shall be maintained.(v) Hoods for polishing and buffing, and scratch-brush wheels shall beconstructed to conform as closely to figure D-57.4 as the nature of the workwill permit.(vi) Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed within apartial enclosure similar to figure D-57.5. The operator shall be positionedoutside the working face of the opening of the enclosure. The face openingof the enclosure should not be any greater in area than that actuallyrequired for the performance of the operation and the average air velocityinto the working face of the enclosure shall not be less than 150 feet perminute.(vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be constructedto conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in figure D-57.1. It isessential that there be a space between the back of the wheel and the hood,and a space around the periphery of the wheel of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) inorder to permit the suction to act around the wheel periphery. The openingon the side of the disc shall be no larger than is required for the grindingoperation, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlet.(viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood encirclingthe wheels and grinding chamber similar to the illustrated in figure D-57.2.The openings for passing the work into the grinding chamber should be kept assmall as possible, but must never be less than twice the area of the branchoutlets.(ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood soconstructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc and thelighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of the hood asshown in figure D-57.1.(x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close to theoperation as possible. The hood should extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch(2.54 cm) wide openings should be provided on either side. Figure D-57.3shows a typical hood for a belt operation. (For Figures and Tables, see printed copy)(6) "Scope." This paragraph (g), prescribes the use of exhaust hoodenclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases generatedthrough the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.(h) "Spray finishing operations" - (1) "Definitions applicable to thisparagraph" - (i) "Spray-finishing operations." Spray-finishing operations areemployment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are utilized indispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, treated, or cleaned.Such methods of deposit may involve either automatic, manual, orelectrostatic deposition but do not include metal spraying or metallizing,dipping, flow coating, roller coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or spraywashing and degreasing as conducted in self-contained washing and degreasingmachines or systems.(ii) "Spray booth." Spray booths are defined and described in 1926.66(a).(See sections 103, 104, and 105 of the Standard for Spray Finishing UsingFlammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969).(iii) "Spray room." A spray room is a room in which spray-finishingoperations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from otherareas.(iv) "Minimum maintained velocity." Minimum maintained velocity is thevelocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet minimumspecified requirements for health and safety.(2) "Location and application." Spray booths or spray rooms are to be usedto enclose or confine all operations. Spray-finishing operations shall belocated as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard for SprayFinishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.(3) "Design and construction of spray booths." (i) Spray booths shall bedesigned and constructed in accordance with 1926.66(b)(1) through (4) and (6)through (10)(see sections 301-304 and 306-310 of the Standard for SprayFinishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969), forgeneral construction specifications. For a more detailed discussion offundamentals relating to this subject, see ANSI Z9.2-1960.(A) Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of ignitionshall conform to the requirements of 1926.66(b)(10) and (c). (See section 310and chapter 4 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable andCombustible Materials NFPA No. 33-1969.) (B) In no case shall combustiblematerial be used in the construction of a spray booth and supply or exhaustduct connected to it.(ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 6 1/2 feet (1.976 m) highand shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work location in thebooth to a booth exit or open booth front. In booths where the open front isthe only exit, such exits shall be not less than 3 feet (0.912 m) wide. Inbooths having multiple exits, such exits shall not be less than 2 feet (0.608m) wide, provided that the maximum distance from the work location to theexit is 25 feet (7.6 m) or less. Where booth exits are provided with doors,such doors shall open outward from the booth.(iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray collectors shallconform to the requirements of 1926.66(b)(4) and (5). (See sections 304 and305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and CombustibleMaterials, NFPA No. 33-1969.) (A) Overspray filters shall be installed andmaintained in accordance with the requirements of 1926.66(b)(5), (see section305 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and CombustibleMaterials, NFPA No. 33-1969), and shall only be in a location easilyaccessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.(B) Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, areinstalled which will result in design air distribution across the booth crosssection, it is permissible to operate the booth without the filters in place.(iv)(A) For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber enclosure,within which intimate contact of contaminated air and cleaning water or othercleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or heavierand adequately protected against corrosion.(B) Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or otherdevices. Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for creating andmaintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate matter from theexhaust air stream.(v) Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other suitablenon-combustible material. If pits are used as collecting tanks, they shallbe concrete, masonry, or other material having similar properties.(A) Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens toprevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box. Meansfor automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be provided.Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged. They shall terminate at least onepipe diameter above the safety overflow level of the tank.(B) Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of hazardousdeposits.(vi) Pump manifolds, raisers, and headers shall be adequately sized toinsure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the waterchamber.(4) "Design and construction of spray rooms." (i) Spray rooms, includingfloors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other noncombustiblematerial.(ii) Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.(iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the atmosphere inthe breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in accordance with therequirements of paragraph (h)(6)(ii) of this section.(iv) Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations shallconform to the requirements for spray booths.(5) "Ventilation." (i) Ventilation shall be provided in accordance withprovisions of 1926.66(d)(see chapter 5 of the Standard for Spray FinishingUsing Flammable or Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969); and inaccordance with the following:(A) Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the distribution ofexhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of sufficient strength orrigidity to withstand the differential air pressure or other superficiallyimposed loads for which the equipment is designed and also to facilitatecleaning. Construction specifications shall be at least equivalent to thoseof paragraph (h)(5)(iii) of this section.(ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray boothsor surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.(A) If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and jointsshall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of harmfulquantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through whichductwork passes.(B) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flowrequirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.(C) Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length tosustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure which is exertedupon it under normal operating conditions.(iii) [Reserved] (A) Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supportedthroughout its length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation ininterior during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exertedupon it.(B) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design practicewhich shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of duct, number ofturns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and character of materials beingexhausted. See American National Standard Z9.2-1960 for further details andexplanation concerning elements of design.(C) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either lock-seamed,riveted, or welded. For other than steel construction, equivalent securingof joints shall be provided.(D) Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially fastenedtogether and lapped in the direction of airflow. At least every fourth jointshall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, or of equivalentfastening security.(E) Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet(2.736 to 3.648 m) of running length for ducts up to 12 inches (0.304 m) indiameter, but the distance between clean-out doors may be greater for largerpipes. (See 8.3.21 of American National Standard Z9.1-1951.) A clean-outdoor or doors shall be provided for servicing the fan and where necessary, adrain shall be provided.(F) Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the roof orwall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open space orfire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall. When ductspass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic fire dampers onboth sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch steel plates may beused in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not exceeding 18 inches(45.72 cm) in diameter.(G) Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this standard shallnot be connected to ducts ventilating any other process or any chimney orflue used for conveying any products of combustion.(6) "Velocity and air flow requirements." (i) Except where a spray booth hasan adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into all openings ofa spray booth shall be not less than that specified in Table D-57.7 for theoperating conditions specified. An adequate air replacement system is onewhich introduces replacement air upstream or above the object being sprayedand is so designed that the velocity of air in the booth cross section is notless than that specified in Table D-57.7 when measured upstream or above theobject being sprayed.TABLE D-57.7 - MINIMUM MAINTAINED VELOCITIES INTO SPRAY BOOTHS
Operating conditions for objects completely inside boothCrossdraft, f.p.m.Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
DesignRange
Electrostatic and automatic airless operation contained in booth without operator.

Air-operated guns, manual or automatic.

Negligible.

Up to 50

50 large booth.
100 large booth.

100 small booth.

50-75
75-125

75-125

Air-operated guns, manual or automatic.Up to 100.150 small booth.
150 large booth.
125-175
125-175
200 small booth..150-250
NOTES:(1) Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spraybooth is dependent upon the relationship of the depth of the booth to itsheight and width.(2) Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such designshould be sought. Crossdrafts in excess of 100fpm (feet per minute) shouldnot be permitted.(3) Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and materialwaste in addition to creating a backlash that may carry overspray and fumesinto adjacent work areas.(4) Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed"Design." However, booths operating with velocities shown in the columnheaded "Range" are in compliance with this standard.(ii) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (h)(6)(i) of this sectionthe total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be such as todilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower explosive limit ofthe solvent being sprayed. An example of the method of calculating thisvolume is given below.Example: To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common solventsused in spray finishing, see Table D-57.8. Column 1 gives the number of cubicfeet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the lower explosivelimit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note that the quantity of solventwill be diminished by the quality of solids and nonflammables contained inthe finish.To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the vaporfrom 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive limit, applythe following formula:Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent = 4 (100-LEL) (cubic feetof vapor per gallon) + LELUsing toluene as the solvent.(1) LEL of toluene from Table D-57.8, column 2, is 1.4 percent.(2)Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table D-57.8, column 1, is 30.4 cubicfeet per gallon.(3) Dilution volume required = 4 (100 - 1.4) 30.4 + 1.4 = 8,564 cubic feet.(4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, multiplythe dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the number of gallonsof solvent evaporated per minute.TABLE D-57.8 - LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT OF SOME COMMONLY USED SOLVENTS
SolventCubic feet per gallon of vapor of liquid at 70 deg. F (21.11 deg. C).Lower explosive limit in percent by volume of air at 70 deg. F (21.11 deg. C).
Column 1Column 2
Acetone44.02.6
Amyl Acetate (iso)21.6(1) 1.0
Amyl Alcohol (n)29.61.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso)29.61.2
Benzene36.8(1) 1.4
Butyl Acetate (n)24.81.7
Butyl Alcohol (n)35.21.4
Butyl Cellosolve24.81.1
Cellosolve33.61.8
Cellosolve Acetate23.21.7
Cyclohexnone31.2(1) 1.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene42.45.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene42.49.7
Ethyl Acetate32.82.5
Ethyl Alcohol55.24.3
Ethyl Lactate28.0(1) 1.5
Methyl Acetate40.03.1
Methyl Alcohol80.87.3
Methyl Cellosolve40.82.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone36.01.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone30.41.5
Naphtha (VM&P) (76 deg. Naphtha)22.40.9
Naphtha (100 deg. Flash) Safety Solvent - Stoddard Solvent23.21.0
Propyl Acetate (n)27.22.8
Propyl Acetate (iso)28.01.1
Propyl Alcohol (n)44.82.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso)44.02.0
Toluene30.41.4
Turpentine20.80.8
Xylene (o)26.41.0
Footnote(1) At 212 deg. F (100 deg. C).(iii) - (A) When an operator must position himself in a booth downstream ofthe object being sprayed, an air supplied respirator or other type ofrespirator approved by the bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interioror specified in ANSI Z88.2-1969 for the material being sprayed should be usedby the operator.(B) Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall beclosed when spray painting.(7) "Make-up air." (i) Clean fresh air, free of contamination from adjacentindustrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall be supplied toa spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume of air exhaustedthrough the spray booth.(ii) Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-closingdoors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when thebooth or room is in use for spraying. The velocity of air through suchdoors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute. If the fancharacteristics are such that the required air flow through the booth will beprovided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or louvers may beused.(iii)(A) Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, the fanstatic pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the filters aredirty to the extent that they require cleaning or replacement.(B) The rating of filters shall be governed by the test data supplied by themanufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage shall be installed to show thepressure drop across the filters. This gage shall be marked to show thepressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or replacement. Filtersshall be placed or cleaned whenever the pressure drop across them becomesexcessive or whenever the air flow through the face of the booth falls belowthat specified in Table D-57.7.(iv)(A) Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, before orat the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided in all placeswhere the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain below 55 deg. F.(12.77 deg. C.) for appreciable periods of time during the operation of thebooth except where adequate and safe means of radiant heating for alloperating personnel affected is provided. The replacement air during theheating seasons shall be maintained at not less than 65 deg. F. (18.33 deg.C.) at the point of entry into the spray booth or spray room. When otherwiseunheated make-up air would be at a temperature of more than 10 deg. F. belowroom temperature, its temperature shall be regulated as provided in section3.6.3 of ANSI Z9.2-1960.(B) As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with thepreceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray room orbooth is located may be employed provided that all occupied parts of thebuilding are maintained at not less than 65 deg. F. (18.33 deg. C.) when theexhaust system is in operation or the general heating system supplemented byother sources of heat may be employed to meet this requirement.(C) No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spraybooth.(D) Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products ofcombustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the productsof combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a flueterminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air enters thebuilding.(E) Where Make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of combustion arenot mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through an independent flueto a point outside the building remote from all points where make-up airenters the building, it is not necessary to comply with paragraph(h)(7)(iv)(F) of this section.(F) Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room is heatedby gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with the supply air,the following precautions must be taken:{1} The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn workmenin a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state in themake-up air.{2} The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners mustnot exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per million)of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the mixtureif the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame failure were mixed with allof the make-up air supplied.{3} A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and productsof combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners to the spraybooth or room.(8) "Scope." Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose orconfine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (h). Thisparagraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of buildings, fixedtanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable spraying apparatus notused repeatedly in the same location.(i) "Open surface tanks" - (1) "General." (i) This paragraph applies to alloperations involving the immersion of materials in liquids, or in the vaporsof such liquids, for the purpose of cleaning or altering the surface oradding to or imparting a finish thereto or changing the character of thematerials, and their subsequent removal from the liquid or vapor, draining,and drying. These operating include washing, electroplating, anodizing,pickling, quenching, dying, dipping, tanning, dressing, bleaching,degreasing, alkaline cleaning, stripping, rinsing, digesting, and othersimilar operation.(ii) Except where specific construction specifications are prescribed inthis section, hoods, ducts, elbows, fans, blowers, and all other exhaustsystem parts, components, and supports thereof shall be so constructed as tomeet conditions of service and to facilitate maintenance and shall conform inconstruction to the specifications contained in American National StandardFundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,Z9.2-1960.(2) "Classification of open-surface tank operations." (i) Open-surface tankoperations shall be classified into 16 classes, numbered A-1 to D-57.4,inclusive.(ii) "Determination of class." Class is determined by two factors, hazardpotential designated by a letter from A to D, inclusive, and rate of gas,vapor, or mist evolution designated by a number from 1 to 4, inclusive (forexample, B.3).(iii) Hazard potential is an index, on a scale of from A to D, inclusive, ofthe severity of the hazard associated with the substance contained in thetank because of the toxic, flammable, or explosive nature of the vapor, gas,or mist produced there from. The toxic hazard is determined from theconcentration, measured in parts by volume of a gas or vapor, per millionparts by volume of contaminated air (p.p.m.), or in milligrams of mist percubic meter of air (mg./m(3)), below which ill effects are unlikely to occurto the exposed worker. The concentrations shall be those in 1926.55 or otherpertinent sections of this part.(iv) The relative fire or explosion hazard is measured in degrees Fahrenheitin terms of the closed-cup flash point of the substance in the tank.Detailed information on the prevention of fire hazards in dip tanks may befound in Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, NFPA No.34-1966, National Fire Protection Association. Where the tank contains amixture of liquids, other than organic solvents, whose effects are additive,the hygienic standard of the most toxic component (for example, the onehaving the lowest p.p.m. or mg./m(3)) shall be used, except where suchsubstance constitutes an insignificantly small faction of the mixture. Formixtures of organic solvents, their combined effect, rather than that ofeither individually, shall determine the hazard potential. In the absence ofinformation to the contrary, the effects shall be considered as additive. Ifthe sum of the ratios of the airborne concentration of each contaminant tothe toxic concentration of that contaminant exceeds unity, the toxicconcentration shall be considered to have been exceeded. (See Note A toparagraph (i)(2)(v) of this section.) (v) Hazard potential shall bedetermined from Table D-57.9, with the value indicating greater hazard beingused. When the hazardous material may be either a vapor with a thresholdlimit value (TLV) in p.p.m. or a mist with a TLV in mg./m(3), the TLVindicating the greater hazard shall be used (for example, A takes precedenceover B or C; B over C; C over D).Note A:(c(1)+TLV(1))+(c(2)+TLV(2))+(c(3)+TLV(3))+;... (c(N)+TLV(N))1 where: c=Concentration measured at the operation in p.p.m.TABLE D-57.9 - DETERMINATION OF HAZARD POTENTIAL
Hazard potentialToxicity group
Gas or vapor (p.p.m.)Mist
(mg./m(3))
Flash point in
degrees F. (C.)
A0-100-0.1
B11-1000.11-1.0Under 100 (37.77)
C101-5001.1-10100 - 200 (37.77-93.33)
DOver 500Over 10Over 200 (93.33)
(vi) Rate of gas, vapor, or mist evolution is a numerical index, on a scaleof from 1 to 4, inclusive, both of the relative capacity of the tank toproduce gas, vapor, or mist and of the relative energy with which it isprojected or carried upwards from the tank. Rate is evaluated in terms of(A) The temperature of the liquid in the tank in degrees Fahrenheit; (B) Thenumber of degrees Fahrenheit that this temperature is below the boiling pointof the liquid in degrees Fahrenheit;(C) The relative evaporation of the liquid in still air at room temperaturein an arbitrary scale -- fast, medium, slow, or nil; and(D) The extent that the tank gases or produces mist in an arbitrary scale --high, medium, low, and nil. (See Table D-57.10, Note 2.) Gassing depends uponelectrochemical or mechanical processes, the effects of which have to beindividually evaluated for each installation (see Table D-57.10, Note 3).(vii) Rate of evolution shall be determined from Table D-57.10. Whenevaporation and gassing yield different rates, the lowest numerical valueshall be used.TABLE D-57.10 - DETERMINATION OF RATE OF GAS, VAPOR, OR MIST EVOLUTION(1)
RateLiquid temperature,
deg. F (C)
Degrees below
boiling point
Relative
evaporation(2)
Gassing(3)
1.Over 200 (93.33)0-20FastHigh
2.150-200 (65.55-93.33)21-50MediumMedium
3.94-149 (34.44-65)51-100SlowLow
4.Under 94 (34.44)Over 100NilNil
Footnote(1) In certain classes of equipment, specifically vapor degreasers,an internal condenser or vapor level thermostat is used to prevent the vaporfrom leaving the tank during normal operation. In such cases, rate of vaporevolution from the tank into the workroom is not dependent upon the factorslisted in the table, but rather upon abnormalities of operating procedure,such as carryout of vapors from excessively fast action, dragout of liquid byentrainment in parts, contamination of solvent by water and other materials,or improper heat balance. When operating procedure is excellent, effectiverate of evolution may be taken as 4. When operating procedure is average,the effective rate of evolution may be taken as 3.Footnote(2) Relative evaporation rate is determined according to the methodsdescribed by A. K. Doolittle in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 27p. 1169, (3) where time for 100-percent evaporation is as follows: Fast: 0-3hours; Medium: 3-12 hours; Slow: 12-50 hours; Nil: more than 50 hours.Footnote(3) Gassing means the formation by chemical or electrochemicalaction of minute bubbles of gas under the surface of the liquid in the tankand is generally limited to aqueous solutions.(3) "Ventilation." Where ventilation is used to control potential exposuresto workers as defined in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, it shall beadequate to reduce the concentration of the air contaminant to the degreethat a hazard to the worker does not exist. Methods of ventilation arediscussed in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design andOperation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.(4) "Control requirements." (i) Control velocities shall conform to TableD-57.11 in all cases where the flow of air past the breathing or working zoneof the operator and into the hoods is undisturbed by local environmentalconditions, such as open windows, wall fans, unit heaters, or movingmachinery.(ii) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which(A) Project overthe entire tank;(B) Are fixed in position in such a location that the headof the workman, in all his normal operating positions while working at thetank, is in front of all hood openings; and(C) Are completely enclosed on at least two sides, shall be considered to beexhausted through an enclosing hood.(D) The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to be exhaustedthrough an enclosing hood shall be not less than the product of the controlvelocity times the net area of all openings in the enclosure through whichair can flow into the hood.TABLE D-57.11 - CONTROL VELOCITIES IN FEET PER MINUTE (F.P.M.) FOR UNDISTURBED LOCATIONS
ClassEnclosing hoodLateral exhaust(1)Canopy hood(2)
One open sideTwo open sidesThree open sidesFour open sides
B-1 and A-2 100 150 150 Do not useDo not use
A-3(2), B-1, B-2, and C-175100100125175
A-3, C-2, and D-1(3) 65 90 75 100 150
B-4(2), C-3, and D-2(3) 50 75 50 75 125
A-4, C-4, D-3(3), and D-4{4}
Footnote(1) See Table D-57.12 for computation of ventilation rate.Footnote(2) Do not use canopy hood for Hazard Potential A processes.Footnote(3) Where complete control of hot water is desired, design as nexthighest class.Footnote(4) General room ventilation required.(iii) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which do not project over theentire tank, and in which the direction of air movement into the hood orhoods is substantially horizontal, shall be considered to be laterallyexhausted. The quantity of air in cubic feet per minute necessary to belaterally exhausted per square foot of tank area in order to maintain therequired control velocity shall be determined from Table D-57.12 for allvariations in ratio of tank width (W) to tank length (L). The total quantityof air in cubic feet per minute required to be exhausted per tank shall benot less than the product of the area of tank surface times the cubic feetper minute per square foot of tank area, determined from Table D-57.12.(A) For lateral exhaust hoods over 42 inches (1.06 m) wide, or where it isdesirable to reduce the amount of air removed from the workroom, air supplyslots or orifices shall be provided along the side or the center of the tankopposite from the exhaust slots. The design of such systems shall meet thefollowing criteria:{1} The supply air volume plus the entrained air shall not exceed 50 percentof the exhaust volume.{2} The velocity of the supply airstream as it reaches the effective controlarea of the exhaust slot shall be less than the effective velocity over theexhaust slot area.TABLE D-57.12 - MINIMUM VENTILATION RATE IN CUBIC FEET OF AIRPER MINUTE PER SQUARE FOOT OF TANK AREA FOR LATERAL EXHAUST
Required minimum control velocity, f.p.m. (from
Table D-57.11)
C.f.m. per sq. ft. to maintain required minimumvelocities at following ratios
(tank width (W)/tank length (L)(1),(2)
0.0-0.09 0.1-0.24 0.25-0.49 0.5-0.99 1.0-2.0
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of tank when one hood is against a wall or baffle(2).
Also for a manifold along tank centerline(3).
5050607590100
757590110130150
100100125150175200
150150190225260300
Hood along one side or two parallel sides of free standing tank not against wall or baffle.
507590100110125
75110130150170190
100150175200225250
150225260300340375
Footnote(1) It is not practicable to ventilate across the long dimension ofa tank whose ratio W/L exceeds 2.0.It is undesirable to do so when W/L exceeds 1.0. For circular tanks withlateral exhaust along up to 1/2 the circumference, use W/L=1.0; for overone-half the circumference use W/L=0.5.Footnote(2) Baffle is a vertical plate the same length as the tank, and withthe top of the plate as high as the tank is wide. If the exhaust hood is onthe side of a tank against a building wall or close to it, it is perfectlybaffled.Footnote(3) Use W/2 as tank width in computing when manifold is alongcenterline, or when hoods are used on two parallel sides of a tank.Tank Width (W) means the effective width over which the hood must pull airto operate (for example, where the hood face is set back from the edge of thetank, this set back must be added in measuring tank width). The surface areaof tanks can frequently be reduced and better control obtained (particularlyon conveyorized systems) by using covers extending from the upper edges ofthe slots toward the center of the tank.{3} The vertical height of the receiving exhaust hood, including any baffle,shall not be less than one-quarter the width of the tank.{4} The supply airstream shall not be allowed to impinge on obstructionsbetween it and the exhaust slot in such a manner as to significantlyinterfere with the performance of the exhaust hood.{5} Since most failure of push-pull systems result from excessive supply airvolumes and pressures, methods of measuring and adjusting the supply airshall be provided. When satisfactory control has been achieved, theadjustable features of the hood shall be fixed so that they will not bealtered.(iv) All tanks exhausted by means of hoods which project over the entiretank, and which do not conform to the definition of enclosing hoods, shall beconsidered to be overhead canopy hoods. The quantity of air in cubic feetper minute necessary to be exhausted through a canopy hood shall be not lessthan the product of the control velocity times the net area of all openingsbetween the bottom edges of the hood and the top edges of the tank.(v) The rate of vapor evolution (including steam or products of combustion)from the process shall be estimated. If the rate of vapor evolution is equalto or greater than 10 percent of the calculated exhaust volume required, theexhaust volume shall be increased in equal amount.(5) "Spray cleaning and degreasing." Wherever spraying or other mechanicalmeans are used to disperse a liquid above an open-surface tank, control mustbe provided for the airborne spray. Such operations shall be enclosed ascompletely as possible. The inward air velocity into the enclosure shall besufficient to prevent the discharge of spray into the workroom. Mechanicalbaffles may be used to help prevent the discharge of spray. Spray paintingoperations are covered by paragraph (h) of this section.(6) "Control means other than ventilation." Tank covers, foams, beads,chips, or other materials floating on the tank surface so as to confinegases, mists, or vapors to the area under the cover or to the foam, bead, orchip layer; or surface tension depressive agents added to the liquid in thetank to minimize mist formation, or any combination thereof, may all be usedas gas, mist, or vapor control means for open-surface tank operations,provided that they effectively reduce the concentrations of hazardousmaterials in the vicinity of the worker below the limits set in accordancewith paragraph (i)(2) of this section.(7) "System design." (i) The equipment for exhausting air shall havesufficient capacity to produce the flow of air required in each of the hoodsand openings of the system.(ii) The capacity required in paragraph (i)(7)(i) of this section shall beobtained when the airflow producing equipment is operating against thefollowing pressure losses, the sum of which is the static pressure:(A) Entrance losses into the hood.(B) Resistance to airflow inbranch pipe including bends and transformations.(C) Entrance loss into the main pipe.(D) Resistance to airflow inmain pipe including bends and transformations.(E) Resistance of mechanical equipment; that is, filters, washers,condensers, absorbers, etc., plus their entrance and exit losses.(F) Resistance in outlet duct and discharge stack.(iii) Two or moreoperations shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either oneor the combination of the substances removed may constitute a fire,explosion, or chemical reaction hazard in the duct system. Traps or otherdevices shall be provided to insure that condensate in ducts does not drainback into any tank.(iv) The exhaust system, consisting of hoods, ducts, air mover, anddischarge outlet, shall be designed in accordance with American NationalStandard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local ExhaustSystems, Z9.2-1960, or the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by theAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists 1970. Airflow andpressure loss data provided by the manufacturer of any air cleaning deviceshall be included in the design calculations.(8) "Operation." (i) The required airflow shall be maintained at all timesduring which gas, mist, or vapor is emitted from the tank, and at all timesthe tank, the draining, or the drying area is in operation or use. When thesystem is first installed, the airflow from each hood shall be measured bymeans of a pitot traverse in the exhaust duct and corrective action taken ifthe flow is less than that required. When the proper flow is obtained, thehood static pressure shall be measured and recorded. At intervals of notmore than 3 months operation, or after a prolonged shutdown period, the hoodsand duct system shall be inspected for evidence or corrosion or damage. Inany case where the airflow is found to be less than required, it shall beincreased to the required value. (Information on airflow and static pressuremeasurement and calculations may be found in American National StandardFundamental Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems,Z9.2-1960, or in the manual, Industrial Ventilation, published by theAmerican Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.)(ii) The exhaustsystem shall discharge to the outer air in such a manner that the possibilityof its effluent entering any building is at a minimum. Recirculation shallonly be through a device for contaminant removal which will prevent thecreation of a health hazard in the room or area to which the air isrecirculated.(iii) A volume of outside air in the range of 90 percent to 110 percent ofthe exhaust volume shall be provided to each room having exhaust hoods. Theoutside air supply shall enter the workroom in such a manner as not to bedetrimental to any exhaust hood. The airflow of the makeup air system shallbe measured on installation. Corrective action shall be taken when theairflow is below that required. The makeup air shall be uncontaminated.(9) "Personal protection." (i) All employees working in and aroundopen-surface tank operations must be instructed as to the hazards of theirrespective jobs, and in the personal protection and first aid proceduresapplicable to these hazards.(ii) All persons required to work in such a manner that their feet maybecome wet shall be provided with rubber or other impervious boots or shoes,rubbers, or wooden-soled shoes sufficient to keep feet dry.(iii) All persons required to handle work wet with a liquid other than watershall be provided with gloves impervious to such a liquid and of a lengthsufficient to prevent entrance of liquid into the tops of the gloves. Theinterior of gloves shall be kept free from corrosive or irritatingcontaminants.(iv) All persons required to work in such a manner that their clothing, maybecome wet shall be provided with such aprons, coats, jackets, sleeves, orother garments made of rubber, or of other materials impervious to liquidsother than water, as are required to keep their clothing dry. Aprons shallextend well below the top of boots to prevent liquid splashing into theboots. Provision of dry, clean, cotton clothing along with rubber shoes orshort boots and an apron impervious to liquids other than water shall beconsidered a satisfactory substitute where small parts are cleaned, plated,or acid dipped in open tanks and rapid work is required.(v) Whenever there is a danger of splashing, for example, when additions aremade manually to the tanks, or when acids and chemicals are removed from thetanks, the employees so engaged shall be required to wear eithertight-fitting chemical goggles or an effective face shield. See 1926.102.(vi) When, during emergencies as described in paragraph (i)(11)(v) of thissection, workers must be in areas where concentrations of air contaminantsare greater than the limit set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section, oroxygen concentrations are less than 19.5 percent, they shall be required towear respirators adequate to reduce their exposure to a level below thesebelow these limits, or to provide adequate oxygen. Such respirators shallalso be provided in marked, quickly accessible storage compartments built forthe purpose, when there exits the possibility of accidental release ofhazardous concentrations of air contaminants. Respirators shall be approvedby the U.S. Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior and shall beselected by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualifiedsource. Respirators shall be used in accordance with 1926.103, and personswho may require them shall be trained in their use.(vii) Near each tank containing a liquid which may burn, irritate, orotherwise be harmful to the skin if splashed upon the worker's body, thereshall be a supply of clean cold water. The water pipe (carrying a pressurenot exceeding 25 pounds(11.325 kg)) shall be provided with a quick openingvalve and at least 48 inches (1.216 m) of hose not smaller than three-fourthsinch, so that no time may be lost in washing off liquids from the skin orclothing. Alternatively, deluge showers and eye flushes shall be provided incases where harmful chemicals may be splashed on parts of the body.(viii) Operators with sores, burns, or other skin lesions requiring medicaltreatment shall not be allowed to work at their regular operations until soauthorized by a physician. Any small skin abrasions, cuts, rash, or opensores which are found or reported shall be treated by a properly designatedperson so that chances of exposures to the chemicals are removed. Workersexposed to chromic acids shall have a periodic examination made of nostrilsand other parts of the body, to detect incipient ulceration.(ix) Sufficient washing facilities, including soap, individual towels, andhot water, shall be provided for all persons required to use or handle anyliquids which may burn, irritate, or otherwise be harmful to the skin, on thebasis of at least one basin (or its equivalent) with a hot water faucet forevery 10 employees, See 1926.51(f).(x) Locker space or equivalent clothing storage facilities shall be providedto prevent contamination of street clothing.(xi) First aid facilities specific to the hazards of the operationsconducted shall be readily available.(10) "Special precautions for cyanide." Dikes or other arrangements shall beprovided to prevent the possibility of intermixing of cyanide and acid in theevent of tank rupture.(11) "Inspection, maintenance, and installation." (i) Floors and platformsaround tanks shall be prevented from becoming slippery both by original typeof construction and by frequent flushing. They shall be firm, sound, and ofthe design and construction to minimize the possibility of tripping.(ii) Before cleaning the interior of any tank, the contents shall be drainedoff, and the cleanout doors shall be opened where provided. All pockets intanks or pits, where it is possible for hazardous vapors to collect, shall beventilated and cleared of such vapors.(iii) Tanks which have been drained to permit employees to enter for thepurposes of cleaning, inspection, or maintenance may contain atmosphereswhich are hazardous to life or health, through the presence of flammable ortoxic air contaminants, or through the absence of sufficient oxygen. Beforeemployees shall be permitted to enter any such tank, appropriate tests of theatmosphere shall be made to determine if the limits set by paragraph(i)(2)(iii) of this section are exceeded, or if the oxygen concentration isless than 19.5 percent.(iv) If the tests made in accordance with paragraph (i)(1)(iii) of thissection indicate that the atmosphere in the tank is unsafe, before anyemployee is permitted to enter the tank, the tank shall be ventilated untilthe hazardous atmosphere is removed, and ventilation shall be continued so asto prevent the occurrence of a hazardous atmosphere as long as an employee isin the tank.(v) If, in emergencies, such as rescue work, it is necessary to enter a tankwhich may contain a hazardous atmosphere, suitable respirators, such asself-contained breathing apparatus; hose mask with blower, if there is apossibility of oxygen deficiency; or a gas mask, selected and operated inaccordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this section, shall be used. If acontaminant in the tank can cause dermatitis, or be absorbed through theskin, the employee entering the tank shall wear protective clothing. Atleast one trained standby employee, with suitable respirator, shall bepresent in the nearest uncontaminated area. The standby employee must beable to communicate with the employee in the tank and be able to haul him outof the tank with a lifeline if necessary.(vi) Maintenance work requiring welding or open flame, where toxic metalfumes such a cadmium, chromium, or lead may be evolved, shall be done onlywith sufficient local exhaust ventilation to prevent the creation of a healthhazard, or be done with respirators selected and used in accordance withparagraph (i)(9)(iv) of this section. Welding, or the use of open flamesnear any solvent cleaning equipment shall be permitted only after suchequipment has first been thoroughly cleared of solvents and vapors.(12) "Vapor degreasing tanks." (i) In any vapor degreasing tank equippedwith a condenser or vapor level thermostat, the condenser or thermostat shallkeep the level of vapors below the top edge of the tank by a distance atleast equal to one-half the tank width, or at least 36 inches (0.912 m),whichever is shorter.(ii) Where gas is used as a fuel for heating vapor degreasing tanks, thecombustion chamber shall be of tight construction, except for such openingsas the exhaust flue, and those that are necessary for supplying air forcombustion. Flues shall be of corrosion-resistant construction and shallextend to the outer air. If mechanical exhaust is used on this flue, a draftdiverter shall be used. Special precautions must be taken to prevent solventfumes from entering the combustion air of this or any other heater whenchlorinated or fluorinated hydrocarbon solvents (for example,trichloroethylene, Freon) are used.(iii) Heating elements shall be so designed and maintained that theirsurface temperature will not cause the solvent or mixture to decompose, breakdown, or be converted into an excessive quantity of vapor.(iv) Tanks or machines of more than 4 square feet (0.368 m(2)) of vaporarea, used for solvent cleaning or vapor degreasing, shall be equipped with asuitable cleanout or sludge doors located near the bottom of each tank orstill. These doors shall be so designed and gasketed that there will be noleakage of solvent when they are closed.(13) "Scope." (i) This paragraph (i) applies to all operations involving theimmersion of materials in liquids, or in the vapors of such liquids, for thepurpose of cleaning or altering their surfaces, or adding or imparting afinish thereto, or changing the character of the materials, and theirsubsequent removal from the liquids or vapors, draining, and drying. Suchoperations include washing, electroplating, anodizing, pickling, quenching,dyeing, dipping, tanning, dressing, bleaching, degreasing, alkaline cleaning,stripping, rinsing, digesting, and other similar operations, but do notinclude molten materials handling operations, or surface coating operations.(ii) "Molton materials handling operations" means all operations, other thanwelding, burining, and soldering operations, involving the use, melting,smelting, or pouring of metals, alloys, salts, or other similar substances inthe molten state. Such operations also include heat treating baths,descaling baths, die casting stereotyping, galvanizing, tinning, and similaroperations.(iii) "Surface coating operations" means all operations involving theapplication of protective, decorative, adhesive, or strengthening coating orimpregnation to one or more surfaces, or into the interstices of any objector material, by means of spraying, spreading, flowing, brushing, rollcoating, pouring, cementing, or similar means; and any subsequent draining ordrying operations excluding open-tank operations.11. In subpart D, a new 1926.64 is added to read as follows:1926.64 Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals."Purpose." This section contains requirements for preventing or minimizingthe consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, orexplosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosionhazards.(a) "Application." (1) This section applies to the following:(i) A process which involves a chemical at or above the specified thresholdquantities listed in Appendix A to this section;(ii) A process which involves a flammable liquid or gas (as defined in1926.59(c) of this part) on site in one location, in a quantity of 10,000pounds (4535.9 kg) or more except for:(A) Hydrocarbon fuels used solely for workplace consumption as a fuel(e.g., propane used for comfort heating, gasoline for vehicle refueling), ifsuch fuels are not a part of a process containing another highly hazardouschemical covered by this standard;(B) Flammable liquids stored in atmospheric tanks or transferred which arekept below their normal boiling point without benefit of chilling orrefrigeration.(2) This section does not apply to:(i) Retail facilities;(ii) Oil or gas well drilling or servicing operations; or,(iii)Normally unoccupied remote facilities. (b) "Definitions." Atmospheric tankmeans a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures fromatmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g. (pounds per square inch gauge, 3.45Kpa)."Boiling point" means the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). For the purposes ofthis section, where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the materialin question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, the10 percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the StandardMethod of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, may beused as the boiling point of the liquid."Catastrophic release" means a major uncontrolled emission, fire, orexplosion, involving one or more highly hazardous chemicals, that presentsserious danger to employees in the workplace."Facility" means the buildings, containers or equipment which contain aprocess."Highly hazardous chemical" means a substance possessing toxic, reactive,flammable, or explosive properties and specified by paragraph (a)(1) of thissection."Hot work" means work involving electric or gas welding, cutting, brazing,or similar flame or spark-producing operations."Normally unoccupied remote facility" means a facility which is operated,maintained or serviced by employees who visit the facility only periodicallyto check its operation and to perform necessary operating or maintenancetasks. No employees are permanently stationed at the facility. Facilitiesmeeting this definition are not contiguous with, and must be geographicallyremote from all other buildings, processes or persons."Process" means any activity involving a highly hazardous chemical includingany use, storage, manufacturing, handling, or the on-site movement of suchchemicals, or combination of these activities. For purposes of thisdefinition, any group of vessels which are interconnected and separatevessels which are located such that a highly hazardous chemical could beinvolved in a potential release shall be considered a single process."Replacement in kind" means a replacement which satisfies the designspecification."Trade secret" means any confidential formula, pattern, process, device,information or compilation of information that is used in an employer'sbusiness, and that gives the employer an opportunity to obtain an advantageover competitors who do not know or use it. Appendix D contained in 1926.59sets out the criteria to be used in evaluating trade secrets.(c) "Employee participation." (1) Employers shall develop a written plan ofaction regarding the implementation of the employee participation required bythis paragraph.(2) Employers shall consult with employees and their representatives on theconduct and development of process hazards analyses and on the development ofthe other elements of process safety management in this standard.(3) Employers shall provide to employees and their representatives accessto process hazard analyses and to all other information required to bedeveloped under this standard.(d) "Process safety information." In accordance with the schedule set forthin paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the employer shall complete acompilation of written process safety information before conducting anyprocess hazard analysis required by the standard. The compilation of writtenprocess safety information is to enable the employer and the employeesinvolved in operating the process to identify and understand the hazardsposed by those processes involving highly hazardous chemicals. This processsafety information shall include information pertaining to the hazards of thehighly hazardous chemicals used or produced by the process, informationpertaining to the technology of the process, and information pertaining tothe equipment in the process.(1) "Information pertaining to the hazards of the highly hazardous chemicalsin the process." This information shall consist of at least the following:
  1. Toxicity information;
  2. Permissible exposure limits;
  3. Physical data;
  4. Reactivity data:
  5. Corrosivity data;
  6. Thermal and chemical stability data; and
  7. Hazardous effects of inadvertent mixing of different materialsthat could foreseeably occur.
Note: Material Safety Data Sheets meeting the requirements of 29 CFR1926.59(g) may be used to comply with this requirement to the extent theycontain the information required by this subparagraph.(2) "Information pertaining to the technology of the process."(i) Information concerning the technology of the process shall include atleast the following:(A) A block flow diagram or simplified process flow diagram (see Appendix Bto this section);(B) Process chemistry;(C) Maximum intended inventory;(D) Safe upper and lower limits for such items as temperatures, pressures,flows or compositions; and,(E) An evaluation of the consequences ofdeviations, including those affecting the safety and health of employees.(ii) Where the original technical information no longer exists, suchinformation may be developed in conjunction with the process hazard analysisin sufficient detail to support the analysis.(3) "Information pertaining to the equipment in the process."(i)Information pertaining to the equipment in the process shall include:(A) Materials of construction;(B) Piping and instrument diagrams (P&ID's);(C) Electrical classification;(D) Relief system design and design basis;(E) Ventilation system design;(F) Design codes and standards employed;(G) Material and energy balances for processes built after May 26, 1992;and,(H) Safety systems (e.g. interlocks, detection or suppression systems).(ii) The employer shall document that equipment complies with recognizedand generally accepted good engineering practices.(iii) For existing equipment designed and constructed in accordance withcodes, standards, or practices that are no longer in general use, theemployer shall determine and document that the equipment is designed,maintained, inspected, tested, and operating in a safe manner.(e) "Process hazard analysis." (1) The employer shall perform an initialprocess hazard analysis (hazard evaluation) on processes covered by thisstandard. The process hazard analysis shall be appropriate to the complexityof the process and shall identify, evaluate, and control the hazards involvedin the process. Employers shall determine and document the priority orderfor conducting process hazard analyses based on a rationale which includessuch considerations as extent of the process hazards, number of potentiallyaffected employees, age of the process, and operating history of the process. The process hazard analysis shall be conducted as soon as possible, but notlater than the following schedule:(i) No less than 25 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shallbe completed by May 26, 1994;(ii) No less than 50 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shallbe completed by May 26, 1995;(iii) No less than 75 percent of the initial process hazards analyses shallbe completed by May 26, 1996;(iv) All initial process hazards analyses shall be completed by May 26,1997.(v) Process hazards analyses completed after May 26, 1987 which meet therequirements of this paragraph are acceptable as initial process hazardsanalyses. These process hazard analyses shall be updated and revalidated,based on their completion date, in accordance with paragraph (e)(6) of thisstandard.(2) The employer shall use one or more of the following methodologies thatare appropriate to determine and evaluate the hazards of the process beinganalyzed.(i) What-If;(ii) Checklist;(iii) What-If/Checklist;(iv) Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP);(v) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA);(vi) Fault-Tree Analysis; or (vii) An appropriate equivalentmethodology.(3) The process hazard analysis shall address: (i) The hazardsof the process;(ii) The identification of any previous incident which had alikely potential for catastrophic consequences in the workplace;(iii) Engineering and administrative controls applicable to the hazards andtheir interrelationships such as appropriate application of detectionmethodologies to provide early warning of releases. (Acceptable detectionmethods might include process monitoring and control instrumentation withalarms, and detection hardware such as hydrocarbon sensors.);(iv) Consequences of failure of engineering and administrative controls;(v) Facility siting;(vi) Human factors; and(vii) A qualitative evaluation of a range of the possible safety and healtheffects of failure of controls on employees in the workplace.(4) The process hazard analysis shall be performed by a team with expertisein engineering and process operations, and the team shall include at leastone employee who has experience and knowledge specific to the process beingevaluated. Also, one member of the team must be knowledgeable in thespecific process hazard analysis methodology being used.(5) The employer shall establish a system to promptly address the team'sfindings and recommendations; assure that the recommendations are resolved ina timely manner and that the resolution is documented; document what actionsare to be taken; complete actions as soon as possible; develop a writtenschedule of when these actions are to be completed; communicate the actionsto operating, maintenance and other employees whose work assignments are inthe process and who may be affected by the recommendations or actions.(6) At least every five (5) years after the completion of the initialprocess hazard analysis, the process hazard analysis shall be updated andrevalidated by a team meeting the requirements in paragraph (e)(4) of thissection, to assure that the process hazard analysis is consistent with thecurrent process.(7) Employers shall retain process hazards analyses and updates orrevalidations for each process covered by this section, as well as thedocumented resolution of recommendations described in paragraph (e)(5) ofthis section for the life of the process.(f) "Operating procedures." (1) The employer shall develop and implementwritten operating procedures that provide clear instructions for safelyconducting activities involved in each covered process consistent with theprocess safety information and shall address at least the following elements.(i) Steps for each operating phase:(A) Initial startup;(B) Normal operations;(C) Temporary operations;(D) Emergency shutdown including the conditions under which emergencyshutdown is required, and the assignment of shutdown responsibility toqualified operators to ensure that emergency shutdown is executed in a safeand timely manner.(E) Emergency operations;(F) Normal shutdown; and,(G) Startup following a turnaround, orafter an emergency shutdown.(ii) Operating limits:(A) Consequences ofdeviation; and(B) Steps required to correct or avoid deviation.(iii)Safety and health considerations:(A) Properties of, and hazards presentedby, the chemicals used in the process;(B) Precautions necessary to prevent exposure, including engineeringcontrols, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment;(C) Control measures to be taken if physical contact or airborne exposureoccurs;(D) Quality control for raw materials and control of hazardous chemicalinventory levels; and,(E) Any special or unique hazards.(iv) Safetysystems and their functions.(2) Operating procedures shall be readilyaccessible to employees who work in or maintain a process.(3) The operating procedures shall be reviewed as often as necessary toassure that they reflect current operating practice, including changes thatresult from changes in process chemicals, technology, and equipment, andchanges to facilities. The employer shall certify annually that theseoperating procedures are current and accurate.(4) The employer shall develop and implement safe work practices to providefor the control of hazards during operations such as lockout/tagout; confinedspace entry; opening process equipment or piping; and control over entranceinto a facility by maintenance, contractor, laboratory, or other supportpersonnel. These safe work practices shall apply to employees and contractoremployees.(g) "Training" - (1) "Initial training." (i) Each employee presentlyinvolved in operating a process, and each employee before being involved inoperating a newly assigned process, shall be trained in an overview of theprocess and in the operating procedures as specified in paragraph (f) of thissection. The training shall include emphasis on the specific safety andhealth hazards, emergency operations including shutdown, and safe workpractices applicable to the employee's job tasks.(ii) In lieu of initial training for those employees already involved inoperating a process on May 26, 1992, an employer may certify in writing thatthe employee has the required knowledge, skills, and abilities to safelycarry out the duties and responsibilities as specified in the operatingprocedures.(2) "Refresher training." Refresher training shall be provided at leastevery three years, and more often if necessary, to each employee involved inoperating a process to assure that the employee understands and adheres tothe current operating procedures of the process. The employer, inconsultation with the employees involved in operating the process, shalldetermine the appropriate frequency of refresher training.(3) "Training documentation." The employer shall ascertain that eachemployee involved in operating a process has received and understood thetraining required by this paragraph. The employer shall prepare a recordwhich contains the identity of the employee, the date of training, and themeans used to verify that the employee understood the training.(h) "Contractors" - (1) "Application." This paragraph applies to contractorsperforming maintenance or repair, turnaround, major renovation, or specialtywork on or adjacent to a covered process. It does not apply to contractorsproviding incidental services which do not influence process safety, such asjanitorial work, food and drink services, laundry, delivery or other supplyservices.(2) "Employer responsibilities." (i) The employer, when selecting acontractor, shall obtain and evaluate information regarding the contractemployer's safety performance and programs.(ii) The employer shall inform contract employers of the known potentialfire, explosion, or toxic release hazards related to the contractor's workand the process.(iii) The employer shall explain to contract employers the applicableprovisions of the emergency action plan required by paragraph (n) of thissection.(iv) The employer shall develop and implement safe work practicesconsistent with paragraph (f)(4) of this section, to control the entrance,presence and exit of contract employers and contract employees in coveredprocess areas.(v) The employer shall periodically evaluate the performance of contractemployers in fulfilling their obligations as specified in paragraph (h)(3) ofthis section.(vi) The employer shall maintain a contract employee injury and illness logrelated to the contractor's work in process areas.(3) "Contract employer responsibilities." (i) The contract employer shallassure that each contract employee is trained in the work practices necessaryto safely perform his/her job.(ii) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee isinstructed in the known potential fire, explosion, or toxic release hazardsrelated to his/her job and the process, and the applicable provisions of theemergency action plan.(iii) The contract employer shall document that each contract employee hasreceived and understood the training required by this paragraph. Thecontract employer shall prepare a record which contains the identity of thecontract employee, the date of training, and the means used to verify thatthe employee understood the training.(iv) The contract employer shall assure that each contract employee followsthe safety rules of the facility including the safe work practices requiredby paragraph (f)(4) of this section.(v) The contract employer shall advise the employer of any unique hazardspresented by the contract employer's work, or of any hazards found by thecontract employer's work.(i) "Pre-startup safety review." (1) The employer shall perform apre-startup safety review for new facilities and for modified facilities whenthe modification is significant enough to require a change in the processsafety information.(2) The pre-startup safety review shall confirm that prior to theintroduction of highly hazardous chemicals to a process:(i) Construction and equipment is in accordance with design specifications;(ii) Safety, operating, maintenance, and emergency procedures are in placeand are adequate;(iii) For new facilities, a process hazard analysis has been performed andrecommendations have been resolved or implemented before startup; andmodified facilities meet the requirements contained in management of change,paragraph (l).(iv) Training of each employee involved in operating a process has beencompleted.(j) "Mechanical integrity" - (1) "Application." Paragraphs (j)(2) through(j)(6) of this section apply to the following process equipment:(i) Pressure vessels and storage tanks;(ii) Piping systems (including piping components such as valves);(iii) Relief and vent systems and devices;(iv) Emergency shutdown systems;(v) Controls (including monitoring devices and sensors, alarms, andinterlocks) and,(vi) Pumps. (2) "Written procedures." The employer shallestablish and implement written procedures to maintain the on-going integrityof process equipment.(3) "Training for process maintenance activities." The employer shall traineach employee involved in maintaining the on-going integrity of processequipment in an overview of that process and its hazards and in theprocedures applicable to the employee's job tasks to assure that the employeecan perform the job tasks in a safe manner.(4) "Inspection and testing." (i) Inspections and tests shall be performedon process equipment.(ii) Inspection and testing procedures shall follow recognized andgenerally accepted good engineering practices.(iii) The frequency of inspections and tests of process equipment shall beconsistent with applicable manufacturers' recommendations and goodengineering practices, and more frequently if determined to be necessary byprior operating experience.(iv) The employer shall document each inspection and test that has beenperformed on process equipment. The documentation shall identify the date ofthe inspection or test, the name of the person who performed the inspectionor test, the serial number or other identifier of the equipment on which theinspection or test was performed, a description of the inspection or testperformed, and the results of the inspection or test.(5) "Equipment deficiencies." The employer shall correct deficiencies inequipment that are outside acceptable limits (defined by the process safetyinformation in paragraph (d) of this section) before further use or in a safeand timely manner when necessary means are taken to assure safe operation.(6) "Quality assurance." (i) In the construction of new plants andequipment, the employer shall assure that equipment as it is fabricated issuitable for the process application for which they will be used.(ii) Appropriate checks and inspections shall be performed to assure thatequipment is installed properly and consistent with design specifications andthe manufacturer's instructions.(iii) The employer shall assure that maintenance materials, spare parts andequipment are suitable for the process application for which they will beused.(k) "Hot work permit." (1) The employer shall issue a hot work permit forhot work operations conducted on or near a covered process.(2) The permit shall document that the fire prevention and protectionrequirements in 29 CFR 1926.352 have been implemented prior to beginning thehot work operations; it shall indicate the date(s) authorized for hot work;and identify the object on which hot work is to be performed. The permitshall be kept on file until completion of the hot work operations.(l) "Management of change." (1) The employer shall establish and implementwritten procedures to manage changes (except for "replacements in kind") toprocess chemicals, technology, equipment, and procedures; and, changes tofacilities that affect a covered process.(2) The procedures shall assure that the following considerations areaddressed prior to any change:(i) The technical basis for the proposed change;(ii) Impact of change on safety and health;(iii) Modifications to operating procedures;(iv) Necessary time period for the change; and,(v) Authorizationrequirements for the proposed change.(3) Employees involved in operating aprocess and maintenance and contract employees whose job tasks will beaffected by a change in the process shall be informed of, and trained in, thechange prior to start-up of the process or affected part of theprocess.(4) If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in theprocess safety information required by paragraph (d) of this section, suchinformation shall be updated accordingly.(5) If a change covered by this paragraph results in a change in theoperating procedures or practices required by paragraph (f) of this section,such procedures or practices shall be updated accordingly.(m) "Incident investigation." (1) The employer shall investigate eachincident which resulted in, or could reasonably have resulted in acatastrophic release of highly hazardous chemical in the workplace.(2) An incident investigation shall be initiated as promptly as possible,but not later than 48 hours following the incident.(3) An incident investigation team shall be established and consist of atleast one person knowledgeable in the process involved, including a contractemployee if the incident involved work of the contractor, and other personswith appropriate knowledge and experience to thoroughly investigate andanalyze the incident.(4) A report shall be prepared at the conclusion of the investigation whichincludes at a minimum:(i) Date of incident;(ii) Date investigation began;(iii) A description of the incident;(iv) The factors that contributed to the incident; and,(v) Anyrecommendations resulting from the investigation.(5) The employer shallestablish a system to promptly address and resolve the incident reportfindings and recommendations. Resolutions and corrective actions shall bedocumented.(6) The report shall be reviewed with all affected personnel whose jobtasks are relevant to the incident findings including contract employeeswhere applicable.(7) Incident investigation reports shall be retained for fiveyears.(n) Emergency planning and response. The employer shall establishand implement an emergency action plan for the entire plant in accordancewith the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.35(a). In addition, the emergency actionplan shall include procedures for handling small releases. Employers coveredunder this standard may also be subject to the hazardous waste and emergencyresponse provisions contained in 29 CFR 1926.65(a), (p) and (q).(o) "Compliance audits." (1) Employers shall certify that they haveevaluated compliance with the provisions of this section at least every threeyears to verify that the procedures and practices developed under thestandard are adequate and are being followed.(2) The compliance audit shall be conducted by at least one personknowledgeable in the process.(3) A report of the findings of the audit shall be developed.(4)The employer shall promptly determine and document an appropriate response toeach of the findings of the compliance audit, and document that deficiencieshave been corrected.(5) Employers shall retain the two (2) most recent compliance audit reports.(p) "Trade secrets." (1) Employers shall make all information necessary tocomply with the section available to those persons responsible for compilingthe process safety information (required by paragraph (d) of this section),those assisting in the development of the process hazard analysis (requiredby paragraph (e) of this section), those responsible for developing theoperating procedures (required by paragraph (f) of this section), and thoseinvolved in incident investigations (required by paragraph (m) of thissection), emergency planning and response (paragraph (n) of this section) andcompliance audits (paragraph (o) of this section) without regard to possibletrade secret status of such information.(2) Nothing in this paragraph shall preclude the employer from requiringthe persons to whom the information is made available under paragraph (p)(1)of this section to enter into confidentiality agreements not to disclose theinformation as set forth in 29 CFR 1926.59.(3) Subject to the rules and procedures set forth in 29 CFR 1926.59(i) (1)through (12), employees and their designated representatives shall haveaccess to trade secret information contained within the process hazardanalysis and other documents required to be developed by this standard.Appendix A to 1926.64 - List of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, Toxicsand Reactives (Mandatory)This Appendix contains a listing of toxic and reactive highly hazardouschemicals which present a potential for a catastrophic event at or above thethreshold quantity.
Chemical NameCAS**TQ**
Acetaldehyde75-07-02500
Acrolein (2-Propenal)107-02-8150
Acrylyl Chloride814-68-6250
Allyl Chloride107-05-11000
Allylamine107-11-91000
AlkylaluminumsVaries5000
Ammonia, Anhydrous7664-41-710000
Ammonia solutions (greater than 44% ammonia by weight)7664-41-715000
Ammonium Perchlorate7790-98-9500
Ammonium Permanganate7787-36-27500
Arsine (also called Arsenic Hydride)7784-42-1100
Bis(Chloromethyl) Ether542-88-1100
Boron Trichloride10294-34-52500
Boron Trifluoride7637-07-2250
Bromine7726-95-61500
Bromine Chloride13863-41-71500
Bromine Pentafluoride7789-30-22500
Bromine Trifluoride7787-71-515000
3-Bromopropyne (also called Propargyl Bromide)106-96-7100
Butyl Hydroperoxide (Tertiary)75-91-25000
Butyl Perbenzoate (Tertiary)614-45-97500
Carbonyl Chloride (see Phosgene)75-44-5100
* Carbonyl Fluoride353-50-42500
Cellulose Nitrate (concentration greater than 12.6% nitrogen9004-70-02500
Chlorine7782-50-51500
Chlorine Dioxide10049-04-41000
Chlorine Pentrafluoride13637-63-31000
Chlorine Trifluoride7790-91-21000
Chlorodiethylaluminum (also called Diethylaluminum Chloride)96-10-65000
1-Chloro-2,4-Dinitrobenzene97-00-75000
Chloromethyl Methyl Ether107-30-2500
Chloropicrin76-06-2500
Chloropicrin and Methyl Bromide mixtureNone1500
Chloropicrin and Methyl Chloride mixtureNone1500
Commune Hydroperoxide80-15-95000
Cyanogen460-19-52500
Cyanogen Chloride506-77-4500
Cyanuric Fluoride675-14-9100
Diastole Peroxide (concentration greater than 70%)110-22-55000
Diazomethane334-88-3500
Dibenzoyl Peroxide94-36-07500
Diborane19287-45-7100
Dibutyl Peroxide (Tertiary)110-05-45000
Dichloro Acetylene7572-29-4250
Dichlorosilane4109-96-02500
Diethylzinc557-20-010000
Diisopropyl Peroxydicarbonate105-64-67500
Dilauroyl Peroxide105-74-87500
Dimethyldichlorosilane75-78-51000
Dimethylhydrazine, 1,1-57-14-71000
Dimethylamine, Anhydrous124-40-32500
2,4-Dinitroaniline97-02-95000
Ethyl Methyl Ketone Peroxide (also Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide; concentration greater than 60%)1338-23-45000
Ethyl Nitrite109-95-55000
Ethylamine75-04-77500
Ethylene Fluorohydrin371-62-0100
Ethylene Oxide75-21-85000
Ethyleneimine151-56-41000
Fluorine7782-41-41000
Formaldehyde (Formalin)50-00-01000
Furan110-00-9500
Hexafluoroacetone684-16-25000
Hydrochloric Acid, Anhydrous7647-01-05000
Hydrofluoric Acid, Anhydrous7664-39-31000
Hydrogen Bromide10035-10-65000
Hydrogen Chloride7647-01-05000
Hydrogen Cyanide, Anhydrous74-90-81000
Hydrogen Fluoride7664-39-31000
Hydrogen Peroxide (52% by weight or greater)7722-84-17500
Hydrogen Selenide7783-07-5150
Hydrogen Sulfide7783-06-41500
Hydroxylamine7803-49-82500
Iron, Pentacarbonyl13463-40-6250
Isopropylamine75-31-05000
Ketene463-51-4100
Methacrylaldehyde78-85-31000
Methacryloyl Chloride920-46-7150
Methacryloyloxyethyl Isocyanate30674-80-7100
Methyl Acrylonitrile126-98-7250
Methylamine, Anhydrous74-89-51000
Methyl Bromide74-83-92500
Methyl Chloride74-87-315000
Methyl Chloroformate79-22-1500
Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (concentration greater than 60%)1338-23-45000
Methyl Fluoroacetate453-18-9100
Methyl Fluorosulfate421-20-5100
Methyl Hydrazine60-34-4100
Methyl Iodide74-88-47500
Methyl Isocyanate624-83-9250
Methyl Mercaptan74-93-15000
Methyl Vinyl Ketone79-84-4100
Methyltrichlorosilane75-79-6500
Nickel Carbonly (Nickel Tetracarbonyl)13463-39-3150
Nitric Acid (94.5% by weight or greater)7697-37-2500
Nitric Oxide10102-43-9250
Nitroaniline (para Nitroaniline)100-01-65000
Nitromethane75-52-52500
Nitrogen Dioxide10102-44-0250
Nitrogen Oxides (NO; NO(2); N2O4; N2O3)10102-44-0250
Nitrogen Tetroxide (also called Nitrogen Peroxide)10544-72-6250
Nitrogen Trifluoride7783-54-25000
Nitrogen Trioxide10544-73-7250
Oleum (65% to 80% by weight; also called Fuming Sulfuric Acid)8014-94-71000
Osmium Tetroxide20816-12-0100
Oxygen Difluoride (Fluorine Monoxide)7783-41-7100
Ozone10028-15-6100
Pentaborane19624-22-7100
Peracetic Acid (concentration greater 60% Acetic Acid; also called Peroxyacetic Acid)79-21-01000
Perchloric Acid (concentration greater than 60% by weight)7601-90-35000
Perchloromethyl Mercaptan594-42-3150
Perchloryl Fluoride7616-94-65000
Peroxyacetic Acid (concentration greater than 60% Acetic Acid; also called Peracetic Acid)79-21-01000
Phosgene (also called Carbonyl Chloride)75-44-5100
Phosphine (Hydrogen Phosphide)7803-51-2100
Phosphorus Oxychloride (also called Phosphoryl Chloride)10025-87-31000
Phosphorus Trichloride7719-12-21000
Phosphoryl Chloride (also called Phosphorus Oxychloride)10025-87-31000
Propargyl Bromide106-96-7100
Propyl Nitrate627-3-42500
Sarin107-44-8100
Selenium Hexafluoride7783-79-11000
Stibine (Antimony Hydride)7803-52-3500
Sulfur Dioxide (liquid)7446-09-51000
Sulfur Pentafluoride5714-22-7250
Sulfur Tetrafluoride7783-60-0250
Sulfur Trioxide (also called Sulfuric Anhydride)7446-11-91000
Sulfuric Anhydride (also called Sulfur Trioxide)7446-11-91000
Tellurium Hexafluoride7783-80-4250
Tetrafluoroethylene116-14-35000
Tetrafluorohydrazine10036-47-25000
Tetramethyl Lead75-74-11000
Thionyl Chloride7719-09-7250
Trichloro (Chloromethyl) Silane1558-25-4100
Trichloro (dichlorophenyl) Silane27137-85-52500
Trichlorosilane10025-78-25000
Trifluorochloroethylene79-38-910000
Trimethyoxysilane2487-90-31500
Footnote(*) Chemical Abstract Service Number Footnote(**) ThresholdQuantity in Pounds (Amount necessary to be covered by thisstandard.)1926.64 Appendix B Block Flow Diagram and Simplified Process Flow Diagram(Nonmandatory)EXAMPLE OF A BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM (For Illustration A, see printed copy) EXAMPLE OF A PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (For Illustration B, see printed copy)1926.64 Appendix C Compliance Guidelines and Recommendations for ProcessSafety Management (Nonmandatory)This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers andemployees in complying with the requirements of this section, as well asprovides other helpful recommendations and information. Examples presented inthis appendix are not the only means of achieving the performance goals inthe standard. This appendix neither adds nor detracts from the requirementsof the standard.1. "Introduction to Process Safety Management." The major objective ofprocess safety management of highly hazardous chemicals is to preventunwanted releases of hazardous chemicals especially into locations whichcould expose employees and others to serious hazards. An effective processsafety management program requires a systematic approach to evaluating thewhole process. Using this approach the process design, process technology,operational and maintenance activities and procedures, nonroutine activitiesand procedures, emergency preparedness plans and procedures, trainingprograms, and other elements which impact the process are all considered inthe evaluation. The various lines of defense that have been incorporatedinto the design and operation of the process to prevent or mitigate therelease of hazardous chemicals need to be evaluated and strengthened toassure their effectiveness at each level. Process safety management is theproactive identification, evaluation and mitigation or prevention of chemicalreleases that could occur as a result of failures in process, procedures orequipment.The process safety management standard targets highly hazardous chemicalsthat have the potential to cause a catastrophic incident. This standard as awhole is to aid employers in their efforts to prevent or mitigate episodicchemical releases that could lead to a catastrophe in the workplace andpossibly to the surrounding community. To control these types of hazards,employers need to develop the necessary expertise, experiences, judgment andproactive initiative within their workforce to properly implement andmaintain an effective process safety management program as envisioned in theOSHA standard. This OSHA standard is required by the Clean Air ActAmendments as is the Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Management Plan.Employers, who merge the two sets of requirements into their process safetymanagement program, will better assure full compliance with each as well asenhancing their relationship with the local community.While OSHA believes process safety management will have a positive effect onthe safety of employees in workplaces and also offers other potentialbenefits to employers (increased productivity), smaller businesses which mayhave limited resources available to them at this time, might consideralternative avenues of decreasing the risks associated with highly hazardouschemicals at their workplaces. One method which might be considered is thereduction in the inventory of the highly hazardous chemical. This reductionin inventory will result in a reduction of the risk or potential for acatastrophic incident. Also, employers including small employers may be ableto establish more efficient inventory control by reducing the quantities ofhighly hazardous chemicals on site below the established thresholdquantities. This reduction can be accomplished by ordering smaller shipmentsand maintaining the minimum inventory necessary for efficient and safeoperation. When reduced inventory is not feasible, then the employer mightconsider dispersing inventory to several locations on site. Dispersingstorage into locations where a release in one location will not cause arelease in another location is a practical method to also reduce the risk orpotential for catastrophic incidents.2. "Employee Involvement in Process Safety Management." Section 304 of theClean Air Act Amendments states that employers are to consult with theiremployees and their representatives regarding the employers efforts in thedevelopment and implementation of the process safety management programelements and hazard assessments. Section 304 also requires employers totrain and educate their employees and to inform affected employees of thefindings from incident investigations required by the process safetymanagement program. Many employers, under their safety and health programs,have already established means and methods to keep employees and theirrepresentatives informed about relevant safety and health issues andemployers may be able to adapt these practices and procedures to meet theirobligations under this standard. Employers who have not implemented anoccupational safety and health program may wish to form a safety and healthcommittee of employees and management representatives to help the employermeet the obligations specified by this standard. These committees can becomea significant ally in helping the employer to implement and maintain aneffective process safety management program for all employees.3. "Process Safety Information." Complete and accurate written informationconcerning process chemicals, process technology, and process equipment isessential to an effective process safety management program and to a processhazards analysis. The compiled information will be a necessary resource to avariety of users including the team that will perform the process hazardsanalysis as required under paragraph (e); those developing the trainingprograms and the operating procedures; contractors whose employees will beworking with the process; those conducting the pre-startup reviews; localemergency preparedness planners; and insurance and enforcement officials.The information to be compiled about the chemicals, including processintermediates, needs to be comprehensive enough for an accurate assessment ofthe fire and explosion characteristics, reactivity hazards, the safety andhealth hazards to workers, and the corrosion and erosion effects on theprocess equipment and monitoring tools. Current material safety data sheet(MSDS) information can be used to help meet this requirement which must besupplemented with process chemistry information including runaway reactionand over pressure hazards if applicable.Process technology information will be a part of the process safetyinformation package and it is expected that it will include diagrams of thetype shown in Appendix B of this section as well as employer establishedcriteria for maximum inventory levels for process chemicals; limits beyondwhich would be considered upset conditions; and a qualitative estimate of theconsequences or results of deviation that could occur if operating beyond theestablished process limits. Employers are encouraged to use diagrams whichwill help users understand the process.A block flow diagram is used to show the major process equipment andinterconnecting process flow lines and show flow rates, stream composition,temperatures, and pressures when necessary for clarity. The block flowdiagram is a simplified diagram.Process flow diagrams are more complex and will show all main flow streamsincluding valves to enhance the understanding of the process, as well aspressures and temperatures on all feed and product lines within all majorvessels, in and out of headers and heat exchangers, and points of pressureand temperature control. Also, materials of construction information, pumpcapacities and pressure heads, compressor horsepower and vessel designpressures and temperatures are shown when necessary for clarity. Inaddition, major components of control loops are usually shown along with keyutilities on process flow diagrams.Piping and instrument diagrams (P&Ids) may be the more appropriate type ofdiagrams to show some of the above details and to display the information forthe piping designer and engineering staff. The P&Ids are to be used todescribe the relationships between equipment and instrumentation as well asother relevant information that will enhance clarity. Computer softwareprograms which do P&Ids or other diagrams useful to the information package,may be used to help meet this requirement.The information pertaining to process equipment design must be documented.In other words, what were the codes and standards relied on to establish goodengineering practice. These codes and standards are published by suchorganizations as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, AmericanPetroleum Institute, American National Standards Institute, National FireProtection Association, American Society for Testing and Materials, NationalBoard of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, National Association ofCorrosion Engineers, American Society of Exchange Manufacturers Association,and model building code groups.In addition, various engineering societies issue technical reports whichimpact process design. For example, the American Institute of ChemicalEngineers has published technical reports on topics such as two phase flowfor venting devices. This type of technically recognized report wouldconstitute good engineering practice.For existing equipment designed and constructed many years ago in accordancewith the codes and standards available at that time and no longer in generaluse today, the employer must document which codes and standards were used andthat the design and construction along with the testing, inspection andoperation are still suitable for the intended use. Where the processtechnology requires a design which departs from the applicable codes andstandards, the employer must document that the design and construction issuitable for the intended purpose.4. "Process Hazard Analysis." A process hazard analysis (PHA), sometimescalled a process hazard evaluation, is one of the most important elements ofthe process safety management program. A PHA is an organized and systematiceffort to identify and analyze the significance of potential hazardsassociated with the processing or handling of highly hazardous chemicals. APHA provides information which will assist employers and employees in makingdecisions for improving safety and reducing the consequences of unwanted orunplanned releases of hazardous chemicals. A PHA is directed towardanalyzing potential causes and consequences of fires, explosions, releases oftoxic or flammable chemicals and major spills of hazardous chemicals. ThePHA focuses on equipment, instrumentation, utilities, human actions (routineand nonroutine), and external factors that might impact the process. Theseconsiderations assist in determining the hazards and potential failure pointsor failure modes in a process.The selection of a PHA methodology or technique will be influenced by manyfactors including the amount of existing knowledge about the process. Is it aprocess that has been operated for a long period of time with little or noinnovation and extensive experience has been generated with its use? Or, isit a new process or one which has been changed frequently by the inclusion ofinnovative features? Also, the size and complexity of the process willinfluence the decision as to the appropriate PHA methodology to use. All PHAmethodologies are subject to certain limitations. For example, the checklistmethodology works well when the process is very stable and no changes aremade, but it is not as effective when the process has undergone extensivechange. The checklist may miss the most recent changes and consequently thechanges would not be evaluated. Another limitation to be considered concernsthe assumptions made by the team or analyst. The PHA is dependent on goodjudgment and the assumptions made during the study need to be documented andunderstood by the team and reviewer and kept for a future PHA.The team conducting the PHA need to understand the methodology that is goingto be used. A PHA team can vary in size from two people to a number ofpeople with varied operational and technical backgrounds. Some team membersmay only be a part of the team for a limited time. The team leader needs tobe fully knowledgeable in the proper implementation of the PHA methodologythat is to be used and should be impartial in the evaluation. The other fullor part time team members need to provide the team with expertise in areassuch as process technology, process design, operating procedures andpractices, including how the work is actually performed, alarms, emergencyprocedures, instrumentation, maintenance procedures, both routine andnonroutine tasks, including how the tasks are authorized, procurement ofparts and supplies, safety and health, and any other relevant subject as theneed dictates. At least one team member must be familiar with the process.The ideal team will have an intimate knowledge of the standards, codes,specifications and regulations applicable to the process being studied. Theselected team members need to be compatible and the team leader needs to beable to manage the team and the PHA study. The team needs to be able to worktogether while benefiting from the expertise of others on the team or outsidethe team, to resolve issues, and to forge a consensus on the findings of thestudy and the recommendations.The application of a PHA to a process may involve the use of differentmethodologies for various parts of the process. For example, a processinvolving a series of unit operations of varying sizes, complexities, andages may use different methodologies and team members for each operation.Then the conclusions can be integrated into one final study and evaluation. Amore specific example is the use of a checklist PHA for a standard boiler orheat exchanger and the use of a Hazard and Operability PHA for the overallprocess. Also, for batch type processes like custom batch operations, ageneric PHA of a representative batch may be used where there are only smallchanges of monomer or other ingredient ratios and the chemistry is documentedfor the full range and ratio of batch ingredients. Another process that mightconsider using a generic type of PHA is a gas plant. Often these plants aresimply moved from site to site and therefore, a generic PHA may be used forthese movable plants. Also, when an employer has several similar size gasplants and no sour gas is being processed at the site, then a generic PHA isfeasible as long as the variations of the individual sites are accounted forin the PHA. Finally, when an employer has a large continuous process whichhas several control rooms for different portions of the process such as for adistillation tower and a blending operation, the employer may wish to do eachsegment separately and then integrate the final results.Additionally, small businesses which are covered by this rule, will oftenhave processes that have less storage volume, less capacity, and lesscomplicated than processes at a large facility. Therefore, OSHA wouldanticipate that the less complex methodologies would be used to meet theprocess hazard analysis criteria in the standard. These process hazardanalyses can be done in less time and with a few people being involved. Aless complex process generally means that less data, P&Ids, and processinformation is needed to perform a process hazard analysis.Many small businesses have processes that are not unique, such as coldstorage lockers or water treatment facilities. Where employer associationshave a number of members with such facilities, a generic PHA, evolved from achecklist or what-if questions, could be developed and used by each employereffectively to reflect his/her particular process; this would simplifycompliance for them.When the employer has a number of processes which require a PHA, theemployer must set up a priority system of which PHAs to conduct first. Apreliminary or gross hazard analysis may be useful in prioritizing theprocesses that the employer has determined are subject to coverage by theprocess safety management standard. Consideration should first be given tothose processes with the potential of adversely affecting the largest numberof employees. This prioritizing should consider the potential severity of achemical release, the number of potentially affected employees, the operatinghistory of the process such as the frequency of chemical releases, the age ofthe process and any other relevant factors. These factors would suggest aranking order and would suggest either using a weighing factor system or asystematic ranking method. The use of a preliminary hazard analysis wouldassist an employer in determining which process should be of the highestpriority and thereby the employer would obtain the greatest improvement insafety at the facility.Detailed guidance on the content and application of process hazard analysismethodologies is available from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers'Center for Chemical Process Safety (see Appendix D).5. "Operating Procedures and Practices." Operating procedures describetasks to be performed, data to be recorded, operating conditions to bemaintained, samples to be collected, and safety and health precautions to betaken. The procedures need to be technically accurate, understandable toemployees, and revised periodically to ensure that they reflect currentoperations. The process safety information package is to be used as aresource to better assure that the operating procedures and practices areconsistent with the known hazards of the chemicals in the process and thatthe operating parameters are accurate. Operating procedures should bereviewed by engineering staff and operating personnel to ensure that they areaccurate and provide practical instructions on how to actually carry out jobduties safely.Operating procedures will include specific instructions or details on whatsteps are to be taken or followed in carrying out the stated procedures.These operating instructions for each procedure should include the applicablesafety precautions and should contain appropriate information on safetyimplications. For example, the operating procedures addressing operatingparameters will contain operating instructions about pressure limits,temperature ranges, flow rates, what to do when an upset condition occurs,what alarms and instruments are pertinent if an upset condition occurs, andother subjects. Another example of using operating instructions to properlyimplement operating procedures is in starting up or shutting down theprocess. In these cases, different parameters will be required from those ofnormal operation. These operating instructions need to clearly indicate thedistinctions between startup and normal operations such as the appropriateallowances for heating up a unit to reach the normal operating parameters.Also the operating instructions need to describe the proper method forincreasing the temperature of the unit until the normal operating temperatureparameters are achieved.Computerized process control systems add complexity to operatinginstructions. These operating instructions need to describe the logic of thesoftware as well as the relationship between the equipment and the controlsystem; otherwise, it may not be apparent to the operator.Operating procedures and instructions are important for training operatingpersonnel. The operating procedures are often viewed as the standardoperating practices (SOPs) for operations. Control room personnel andoperating staff, in general, need to have a full understanding of operatingprocedures. If workers are not fluent in English then procedures andinstructions need to be prepared in a second language understood by theworkers. In addition, operating procedures need to be changed when there isa change in the process as a result of the management of change procedures.The consequences of operating procedure changes need to be fully evaluatedand the information conveyed to the personnel. For example, mechanicalchanges to the process made by the maintenance department (like changing avalve from steel to brass or other subtle changes) need to be evaluated todetermine if operating procedures and practices also need to be changed. Allmanagement of change actions must be coordinated and integrated with currentoperating procedures and operating personnel must be oriented to the changesin procedures before the change is made. When the process is shutdown inorder to make a change, then the operating procedures must be updated beforestartup of the process.Training in how to handle upset conditions must be accomplished as well aswhat operating personnel are to do in emergencies such as when a pump sealfails or a pipeline ruptures. Communication between operating personnel andworkers performing work within the process area, such as nonroutine tasks,also must be maintained. The hazards of the tasks are to be conveyed tooperating personnel in accordance with established procedures and to thoseperforming the actual tasks. When the work is completed, operating personnelshould be informed to provide closure on the job.6. "Employee Training." All employees, including maintenance and contractoremployees, involved with highly hazardous chemicals need to fully understandthe safety and health hazards of the chemicals and processes they work withfor the protection of themselves, their fellow employees and the citizens ofnearby communities. Training conducted in compliance with 1926.59, theHazard Communication standard, will help employees to be more knowledgeableabout the chemicals they work with as well as familiarize them with readingand understanding MSDS. However, additional training in subjects such asoperating procedures and safety work practices, emergency evacuation andresponse, safety procedures, routine and nonroutine work authorizationactivities, and other areas pertinent to process safety and health will needto be covered by an employer's training program.In establishing their training programs, employers must clearly define theemployees to be trained and what subjects are to be covered in theirtraining. Employers in setting up their training program will need toclearly establish the goals and objectives they wish to achieve with thetraining that they provide to their employees. The learning goals orobjectives should be written in clear measurable terms before the trainingbegins. These goals and objectives need to be tailored to each of thespecific training modules or segments. Employers should describe theimportant actions and conditions under which the employee will demonstratecompetence or knowledge as well as what is acceptable performance.Hands-on-training where employees are able to use their senses beyondlistening, will enhance learning. For example, operating personnel, who willwork in a control room or at control panels, would benefit by being trainedat a simulated control panel or panels. Upset conditions of various typescould be displayed on the simulator, and then the employee could go throughthe proper operating procedures to bring the simulator panel back to thenormal operating parameters. A training environment could be created to helpthe trainee feel the full reality of the situation but, of course, undercontrolled conditions. This realistic type of training can be very effectivein teaching employees correct procedures while allowing them to also see theconsequences of what might happens if they do not follow establishedoperating procedures. Other training techniques using videos or on-the-jobtraining can also be very effective for teaching other job tasks, duties, orother important information. An effective training program will allow theemployee to fully participate in the training process and to practice theirskill or knowledge.Employers need to periodically evaluate their training programs to see ifthe necessary skills, knowledge, and routines are being properly understoodand implemented by their trained employees. The means or methods forevaluating the training should be developed along with the training programgoals and objectives. Training program evaluation will help employers todetermine the amount of training their employees understood, and whether thedesired results were obtained. If, after the evaluation, it appears that thetrained employees are not at the level of knowledge and skill that wasexpected, the employer will need to revise the training program, provideretraining, or provide more frequent refresher training sessions until thedeficiency is resolved. Those who conducted the training and those whoreceived the training should also be consulted as to how best to improve thetraining process. If there is a language barrier, the language known to thetrainees should be used to reinforce the training messages and information.Careful consideration must be given to assure that employees includingmaintenance and contract employees receive current and updated training. Forexample, if changes are made to a process, impacted employees must be trainedin the changes and understand the effects of the changes on their job tasks(e.g., any new operating procedures pertinent to their tasks). Additionally,as already discussed the evaluation of the employee's absorption of trainingwill certainly influence the need for training.7. "Contractors." Employers who use contractors to perform work in andaround processes that involve highly hazardous chemicals, will need toestablish a screening process so that they hire and use contractors whoaccomplish the desired job tasks without compromising the safety and healthof employees at a facility. For contractors, whose safety performance on thejob is not known to the hiring employer, the employer will need to obtaininformation on injury and illness rates and experience and should obtaincontractor references. Additionally, the employer must assure that thecontractor has the appropriate job skills, knowledge and certifications (suchas for pressure vessel welders). Contractor work methods and experiencesshould be evaluated. For example, does the contractor conducting demolitionwork swing loads over operating processes or does the contractor avoid suchhazards? Maintaining a site injury and illness log for contractors is anothermethod employers must use to track and maintain current knowledge of workactivities involving contract employees working on or adjacent to coveredprocesses. Injury and illness logs of both the employer's employees andcontract employees allow an employer to have full knowledge of process injuryand illness experience. This log will also contain information which will beof use to those auditing process safety management compliance and thoseinvolved in incident investigations.Contract employees must perform their work safely. Considering thatcontractors often perform very specialized and potentially hazardous taskssuch as confined space entry activities and nonroutine repair activities itis quite important that their activities be controlled while they are workingon or near a covered process. A permit system or work authorization systemfor these activities would also be helpful to all affected employers. The useof a work authorization system keeps an employer informed of contractemployee activities, and as a benefit the employer will have bettercoordination and more management control over the work being performed in theprocess area. A well run and well maintained process where employee safetyis fully recognized will benefit all of those who work in the facilitywhether they be contract employees or employees of the owner.8. "Pre-Startup Safety." For new processes, the employer will find a PHAhelpful in improving the design and construction of the process from areliability and quality point of view. The safe operation of the new processwill be enhanced by making use of the PHA recommendations before finalinstallations are completed. P&Ids are to be completed along with having theoperating procedures in place and the operating staff trained to run theprocess before startup. The initial startup procedures and normal operatingprocedures need to be fully evaluated as part of the pre-startup review toassure a safe transfer into the normal operating mode for meeting the processparameters.For existing processes that have been shutdown for turnaround, ormodification, etc., the employer must assure that any changes other than"replacement in kind" made to the process during shutdown go through themanagement of change procedures. P&Ids will need to be updated as necessary,as well as operating procedures and instructions. If the changes made to theprocess during shutdown are significant and impact the training program, thenoperating personnel as well as employees engaged in routine and nonroutinework in the process area may need some refresher or additional training inlight of the changes. Any incident investigation recommendations, complianceaudits or PHA recommendations need to be reviewed as well to see what impactsthey may have on the process before beginning the startup.9. "Mechanical Integrity." Employers will need to review their maintenanceprograms and schedules to see if there are areas where "breakdown"maintenance is used rather than an on-going mechanical integrity program.Equipment used to process, store, or handle highly hazardous chemicals needsto be designed, constructed, installed and maintained to minimize the risk ofreleases of such chemicals. This requires that a mechanical integrityprogram be in place to assure the continued integrity of process equipment.Elements of a mechanical integrity program include the identification andcategorization of equipment and instrumentation, inspections and tests,testing and inspection frequencies, development of maintenance procedures,training of maintenance personnel, the establishment of criteria foracceptable test results, documentation of test and inspection results, anddocumentation of manufacturer recommendations as to meantime to failure forequipment and instrumentation.The first line of defense an employer has available is to operate andmaintain the process as designed, and to keep the chemicals contained. Thisline of defense is backed up by the next line of defense which is thecontrolled release of chemicals through venting to scrubbers or flares, or tosurge or overflow tanks which are designed to receive such chemicals, etc.These lines of defense are the primary lines of defense or means to preventunwanted releases. The secondary lines of defense would include fixed fireprotection systems like sprinklers, water spray, or deluge systems, monitorguns, etc., dikes, designed drainage systems, and other systems which wouldcontrol or mitigate hazardous chemicals once an unwanted release occurs.These primary and secondary lines of defense are what the mechanicalintegrity program needs to protect and strengthen these primary and secondarylines of defenses where appropriate.The first step of an effective mechanical integrity program is to compileand categorize a list of process equipment and instrumentation for inclusionin the program. This list would include pressure vessels, storage tanks,process piping, relief and vent systems, fire protection system components,emergency shutdown systems and alarms and interlocks and pumps. For thecategorization of instrumentation and the listed equipment the employer wouldprioritize which pieces of equipment require closer scrutiny than others.Meantime to failure of various instrumentation and equipment parts would beknown from the manufacturers data or the employer's experience with theparts, which would then influence the inspection and testing frequency andassociated procedures. Also, applicable codes and standards such as theNational Board Inspection Code, or those from the American Society forTesting and Material, American Petroleum Institute, National Fire ProtectionAssociation, American National Standards Institute, American Society ofMechanical Engineers, and other groups, provide information to help establishan effective testing and inspection frequency, as well as appropriatemethodologies.The applicable codes and standards provide criteria for external inspectionsfor such items as foundation and supports, anchor bolts, concrete or steelsupports, guy wires, nozzles and sprinklers, pipe hangers, groundingconnections, protective coatings and insulation, and external metal surfacesof piping and vessels, etc. These codes and standards also provideinformation on methodologies for internal inspection, and a frequency formulabased on the corrosion rate of the materials of construction. Also, erosionboth internal and external needs to be considered along with corrosioneffects for piping and valves. Where the corrosion rate is not known, amaximum inspection frequency is recommended, and methods of developing thecorrosion rate are available in the codes. Internal inspections need to coveritems such as vessel shell, bottom and head; metallic linings; nonmetalliclinings; thickness measurements for vessels and piping; inspection forerosion, corrosion, cracking and bulges; internal equipment like trays,baffles, sensors and screens for erosion, corrosion or cracking and otherdeficiencies. Some of these inspections may be performed by state or localgovernment inspectors under state and local statutes. However, each employerneeds to develop procedures to ensure that tests and inspections areconducted properly and that consistency is maintained even where differentemployees may be involved. Appropriate training is to be provided tomaintenance personnel to ensure that they understand the preventivemaintenance program procedures, safe practices, and the proper use andapplication of special equipment or unique tools that may be required. Thistraining is part of the overall training program called for in the standard.A quality assurance system is needed to help ensure that the propermaterials of construction are used, that fabrication and inspectionprocedures are proper, and that installation procedures recognize fieldinstallation concerns. The quality assurance program is an essential part ofthe mechanical integrity program and will help to maintain the primary andsecondary lines of defense that have been designed into the process toprevent unwanted chemical releases or those which control or mitigate arelease. "As built" drawings, together with certifications of coded vesselsand other equipment, and materials of construction need to be verified andretained in the quality assurance documentation. Equipment installation jobsneed to be properly inspected in the field for use of proper materials andprocedures and to assure that qualified craftsmen are used to do the job.The use of appropriate gaskets, packing, bolts, valves, lubricants andwelding rods need to be verified in the field. Also, procedures forinstallation of safety devices need to be verified, such as the torque on thebolts on ruptured disc installations, uniform torque on flange bolts, properinstallation of pump seals, etc. If the quality of parts is a problem, itmay be appropriate to conduct audits of the equipment supplier's facilitiesto better assure proper purchases of required equipment which is suitable forits intended service. Any changes in equipment that may become necessarywill need to go through the management of change procedures.10. "Nonroutine Work Authorizations." Nonroutine work which is conducted inprocess areas needs to be controlled by the employer in a consistent manner.The hazards identified involving the work that is to be accomplished must becommunicated to those doing the work, but also to those operating personnelwhose work could affect the safety of the process. A work authorizationnotice or permit must have a procedure that describes the steps themaintenance supervisor, contractor representative or other person needs tofollow to obtain the necessary clearance to get the job started. The workauthorization procedures need to reference and coordinate, as applicable,lockout/tagout procedures, line breaking procedures, confined space entryprocedures and hot work authorizations. This procedure also needs to provideclear steps to follow once the job is completed in order to provide closurefor those that need to know the job is now completed and equipment can bereturned to normal.11. "Managing Change." To properly manage changes to process chemicals,technology, equipment and facilities, one must define what is meant bychange. In this process safety management standard, change includes allmodifications to equipment, procedures, raw materials and processingconditions other than "replacement in kind." These changes need to beproperly managed by identifying and reviewing them prior to implementation ofthe change. For example, the operating procedures contain the operatingparameters (pressure limits, temperature ranges, flow rates, etc.) and theimportance of operating within these limits. While the operator must havethe flexibility to maintain safe operation within the established parameters,any operation outside of these parameters requires review and approval by awritten management of change procedure.Management of change covers such as changes in process technology andchanges to equipment and instrumentation. Changes in process technology canresult from changes in production rates, raw materials, experimentation,equipment unavailability, new equipment, new product development, change incatalyst and changes in operating conditions to improve yield or quality.Equipment changes include among others change in materials of construction,equipment specifications, piping pre-arrangements, experimental equipment,computer program revisions and changes in alarms and interlocks. Employersneed to establish means and methods to detect both technical changes andmechanical changes.Temporary changes have caused a number of catastrophes over the years, andemployers need to establish ways to detect temporary changes as well as thosethat are permanent. It is important that a time limit for temporary changesbe established and monitored since, without control, these changes may tendto become permanent. Temporary changes are subject to the management ofchange provisions. In addition, the management of change procedures are usedto insure that the equipment and procedures are returned to their original ordesigned conditions at the end of the temporary change. Proper documentationand review of these changes is invaluable in assuring that the safety andhealth considerations are being incorporated into the operating proceduresand the process.Employers may wish to develop a form or clearance sheet to facilitate theprocessing of changes through the management of change procedures. A typicalchange form may include a description and the purpose of the change, thetechnical basis for the change, safety and health considerations,documentation of changes for the operating procedures, maintenanceprocedures, inspection and testing, P&Ids, electrical classification,training and communications, pre-startup inspection, duration if a temporarychange, approvals and authorization. Where the impact of the change is minorand well understood, a check list reviewed by an authorized person withproper communication to others who are affected may be sufficient. However,for a more complex or significant design change, a hazard evaluationprocedure with approvals by operations, maintenance, and safety departmentsmay be appropriate. Changes in documents such as P&Ids, raw materials,operating procedures, mechanical integrity programs, electricalclassifications, etc., need to be noted so that these revisions can be madepermanent when the drawings and procedure manuals are updated. Copies ofprocess changes need to be kept in an accessible location to ensure thatdesign changes are available to operating personnel as well as to PHA teammembers when a PHA is being done or one is being updated.12. "Investigation of Incidents." Incident investigation is the process ofidentifying the underlying causes of incidents and implementing steps toprevent similar events from occurring. The intent of an incidentinvestigation is for employers to learn from past experiences and thus avoidrepeating past mistakes. The incidents for which OSHA expects employers tobecome aware and to investigate are the types of events which result in orcould reasonably have resulted in a catastrophic release. Some of the eventsare sometimes referred to as "near misses," meaning that a seriousconsequence did not occur, but could have.Employers need to develop in-house capability to investigate incidents thatoccur in their facilities. A team needs to be assembled by the employer andtrained in the techniques of investigation including how to conductinterviews of witnesses, needed documentation and report writing. Amulti-disciplinary team is better able to gather the facts of the event andto analyze them and develop plausible scenarios as to what happened, and why. Team members should be selected on the basis of their training, knowledgeand ability to contribute to a team effort to fully investigate the incident. Employees in the process area where the incident occurred should beconsulted, interviewed or made a member of the team. Their knowledge of theevents form a significant set of facts about the incident which occurred.The report, its findings and recommendations are to be shared with those whocan benefit from the information. The cooperation of employees is essentialto an effective incident investigation. The focus of the investigationshould be to obtain facts, and not to place blame. The team and theinvestigation process should clearly deal with all involved individuals in afair, open and consistent manner.13. "Emergency Preparedness." Each employer must address what actionsemployees are to take when there is an unwanted release of highly hazardouschemicals. Emergency preparedness or the employer's tertiary (third) linesof defense are those that will be relied on along with the secondary lines ofdefense when the primary lines of defense which are used to prevent anunwanted release fail to stop the release. Employers will need to decide ifthey want employees to handle and stop small or minor incidental releases.Whether they wish to mobilize the available resources at the plant and havethem brought to bear on a more significant release. Or whether employerswant their employees to evacuate the danger area and promptly escape to apreplanned safe zone area, and allow the local community emergency responseorganizations to handle the release. Or whether the employer wants to usesome combination of these actions. Employers will need to select how manydifferent emergency preparedness or tertiary lines of defense they plan tohave and then develop the necessary plans and procedures, and appropriatelytrain employees in their emergency duties and responsibilities and thenimplement these lines of defense.Employers at a minimum must have an emergency action plan which willfacilitate the prompt evacuation of employees when an unwanted release ofhighly hazardous chemical. This means that the employer will have a planthat will be activated by an alarm system to alert employees when to evacuateand, that employees who are physically impaired, will have the necessarysupport and assistance to get them to the safe zone as well. The intent ofthese requirements is to alert and move employees to a safe zone quickly.Delaying alarms or confusing alarms are to be avoided. The use of processcontrol centers or similar process buildings in the process area as safeareas is discouraged. Recent catastrophes have shown that a large life losshas occurred in these structures because of where they have been sited andbecause they are not necessarily designed to withstand over-pressures fromshockwaves resulting from shockwaves resulting from explosions in the processarea.Unwanted incidental releases of highly hazardous chemicals in the processarea must be addressed by the employer as to what actions employees are totake. If the employer wants employees to evacuate the area, then theemergency action plan will be activated. For outdoor processes where winddirection is important for selecting the safe route to a refuge area, theemployer should place a wind direction indicator such as a wind sock orpennant at the highest point that can be seen throughout the process area.Employees can move in the direction of cross wind to upwind to gain safeaccess to the refuge area by knowing the wind direction.If the employer wants specific employees in the release area to control orstop the minor emergency or incidental release, these actions must be plannedfor in advance and procedures developed and implemented. Preplanning forhandling incidental releases for minor emergencies in the process area needsto be done, appropriate equipment for the hazards must be provided, andtraining conducted for those employees who will perform the emergency workbefore they respond to handle an actual release. The employer's trainingprogram, including the Hazard Communication standard training is to addressthe training needs for employees who are expected to handle incidental orminor releases.Preplanning for releases that are more serious than incidental releases isanother important line of defense to be used by the employer. When a seriousrelease of a highly hazardous chemical occurs, the employer throughpreplanning will have determined in advance what actions employees are totake. The evacuation of the immediate release area and other areas asnecessary would be accomplished under the emergency action plan. If theemployer wishes to use plant personnel such as a fire brigade, spill controlteam, a hazardous materials team, or use employees to render aid to those inthe immediate release area and control or mitigate the incident, theseactions are covered by 1926.65, the Hazardous Waste Operations and EmergencyResponse (HAZWOPER) standard. If outside assistance is necessary, such asthrough mutual aid agreements between employers or local government emergencyresponse organizations, these emergency responders are also covered byHAZWOPER. The safety and health protections required for emergencyresponders are the responsibility of their employers and of the on-sceneincident commander.Responders may be working under very hazardous conditions and therefore theobjective is to have them competently led by an on-scene incident commanderand the commander's staff, properly equipped to do their assigned worksafely, and fully trained to carry out their duties safely before theyrespond to an emergency. Drills, training exercises, or simulations with thelocal community emergency response planners and responder organizations isone means to obtain better preparedness. This close cooperation andcoordination between plant and local community emergency preparednessmanagers will also aid the employer in complying with the EnvironmentalProtection Agency's Risk Management Plan criteria.One effective way for medium to large facilities to enhance coordination andcommunication during emergencies for on plant operations and with localcommunity organizations is for employers to establish and equip an emergencycontrol center. The emergency control center would be sited in a safe zonearea so that it could be occupied throughout the duration of an emergency.The center would serve as the major communication link between the on-sceneincident commander and plant or corporate management as well as with thelocal community officials. The communication equipment in the emergencycontrol center should include a network to receive and transmit informationby telephone, radio or other means. It is important to have a backupcommunication network in case of power failure or one communication meansfails. The center should also be equipped with the plant layout andcommunity maps, utility drawings including fire water, emergency lighting,appropriate reference materials such as a government agency notificationlist, company personnel phone list, SARA Title III reports and materialsafety data sheets, emergency plans and procedures manual, a listing with thelocation of emergency response equipment, mutual aid information, and accessto meteorological or weather condition data and any dispersion modeling data.14. "Compliance Audits." Employers need to select a trained individual orassemble a trained team of people to audit the process safety managementsystem and program. A small process or plant may need only one knowledgeableperson to conduct an audit. The audit is to include an evaluation of thedesign and effectiveness of the process safety management system and a fieldinspection of the safety and health conditions and practices to verify thatthe employer's systems are effectively implemented. The audit should beconducted or lead by a person knowledgeable in audit techniques and who isimpartial towards the facility or area being audited. The essential elementsof an audit program include planning, staffing, conducting the audit,evaluation and corrective action, follow-up and documentation.Planning in advance is essential to the success of the auditing process.Each employer needs to establish the format, staffing, scheduling andverification methods prior to conducting the audit. The format should bedesigned to provide the lead auditor with a procedure or checklist whichdetails the requirements of each section of the standard. The names of theaudit team members should be listed as part of the format as well. Thechecklist, if properly designed, could serve as the verification sheet whichprovides the auditor with the necessary information to expedite the reviewand assure that no requirements of the standard are omitted. Thisverification sheet format could also identify those elements that willrequire evaluation or a response to correct deficiencies. This sheet couldalso be used for developing the follow-up and documentation requirements.The selection of effective audit team members is critical to the success ofthe program. Team members should be chosen for their experience, knowledge,and training and should be familiar with the processes and with auditingtechniques, practices and procedures. The size of the team will varydepending on the size and complexity of the process under consideration. Fora large, complex, highly instrumented plant, it may be desirable to have teammembers with expertise in process engineering and design, process chemistry,instrumentation and computer controls, electrical hazards andclassifications, safety and health disciplines, maintenance, emergencypreparedness, warehousing or shipping, and process safety auditing. The teammay use part-time members to provide for the depth of expertise required aswell as for what is actually done or followed, compared to what is written.An effective audit includes a review of the relevant documentation andprocess safety information, inspection of the physical facilities, andinterviews with all levels of plant personnel. Utilizing the audit procedureand checklist developed in the preplanning stage, the audit team cansystematically analyze compliance with the provisions of the standard and anyother corporate policies that are relevant. For example, the audit team willreview all aspects of the training program as part of the overall audit. Theteam will review the written training program for adequacy of content,frequency of training, effectiveness of training in terms of its goals andobjectives as well as to how it fits into meeting the standard'srequirements, documentation, etc. Through interviews, the team can determinethe employee's knowledge and awareness of the safety procedures, duties,rules, emergency response assignments, etc. During the inspection, the teamcan observe actual practices such as safety and health policies, procedures,and work authorization practices. This approach enables the team to identifydeficiencies and determine where corrective actions or improvements arenecessary.An audit is a technique used to gather sufficient facts and information,including statistical information, to verify compliance with standards.Auditors should select as part of their preplanning a sample size sufficientto give a degree of confidence that the audit reflects the level ofcompliance with the standard. The audit team, through this systematicanalysis, should document areas which require corrective action as well asthose areas where the process safety management system is effective andworking in an effective manner. This provides a record of the auditprocedures and findings, and serves as a baseline of operation data forfuture audits. It will assist future auditors in determining changes ortrends from previous audits.Corrective action is one of the most important parts of the audit. Itincludes not only addressing the identified deficiencies, but also planning,followup, and documentation. The corrective action process normally beginswith a management review of the audit findings. The purpose of this review isto determine what actions are appropriate, and to establish priorities,timetables, resource allocations and requirements and responsibilities. Insome cases, corrective action may involve a simple change in procedure orminor maintenance effort to remedy the concern. Management of changeprocedures need to be used, as appropriate, even for what may seem to be aminor change. Many of the deficiencies can be acted on promptly, while somemay require engineering studies or indepth review of actual procedures andpractices. There may be instances where no action is necessary and this is avalid response to an audit finding. All actions taken, including anexplanation where no action is taken on a finding, needs to be documented asto what was done and why.It is important to assure that each deficiency identified is addressed, thecorrective action to be taken noted, and the audit person or team responsiblebe properly documented by the employer. To control the corrective actionprocess, the employer should consider the use of a tracking system. Thistracking system might include periodic status reports shared with affectedlevels of management, specific reports such as completion of an engineeringstudy, and a final implementation report to provide closure for auditfindings that have been through management of change, if appropriate, andthen shared with affected employees and management. This type of trackingsystem provides the employer with the status of the corrective action. Italso provides the documentation required to verify that appropriatecorrective actions were taken on deficiencies identified in the audit.1926.64 Appendix D Sources of Further Information (Nonmandatory)1. Center for Chemical Process Safety, American Institute of ChemicalEngineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017, (212) 705-7319.2. "Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures," American Institute ofChemical Engineers; 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.3. "Guidelines for Technical Management of Chemical Process Safety," Centerfor Chemical Process Safety of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers;345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017.4. "Evaluating Process Safety in the Chemical Industry,"Chemical Manufacturers Association; 2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.5. "Safe Warehousing of Chemicals," Chemical Manufacturers Association;2501 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037.6. "Management of Process Hazards," American Petroleum Institute (APIRecommended Practice 750); 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.7. "Improving Owner and Contractor Safety Performance,"American Petroleum Institute (API Recommended Practice 2220); API, 1220 LStreet N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.8. Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA's Manager Guide), First Edition,September 1991; CMA, 2501 M Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037.9. "Improving Construction Safety Performance," Report A-3, The BusinessRoundtable; The Business Roundtable, 200 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10166.(Report includes criteria to evaluate contractor safety performance andcriteria to enhance contractor safety performance).10. "Recommended Guidelines for Contractor Safety and Health,"Texas Chemical Council; Texas Chemical Council, 1402 Nueces Street, Austin,TX 78701-1534.11. "Loss Prevention in the Process Industries," Volumes I and II; Frank P.Lees, Butterworth; London 1983.12. "Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines,"1989; U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration.13. "Safety and Health Guide for the Chemical Industry,"1986, (OSHA 3091); U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration; 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20210.14. "Review of Emergency Systems," June 1988; U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA), Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC20460.15. "Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis, Emergency Planning forExtremely Hazardous Substances," December 1987; U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency (EPA), Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) and U.S.Department of Transportation (DOT), Washington, DC 20460.16. "Accident Investigation...A New Approach," 1983, National SafetyCouncil; 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991.17. "Fire & Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide,"6th Edition, May 1987, Dow Chemical Company; Midland, Michigan 48674.18. "Chemical Exposure Index," May 1988, Dow Chemical Company; Midland,Michigan 48674.12. New 1926.65 is added to read as follows:1926.65 Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.(a) "Scope, application, and definitions" - (1) "Scope." This section coversthe following operations, unless the employer can demonstrate that theoperation does not involve employee exposure or the reasonable possibilityfor employee exposure to safety or health hazards:(i) Clean-up operations required by a governmental body, whether Federal,state, local or other involving hazardous substances that are conducted atuncontrolled hazardous waste sites (including, but not limited to, the EPA'sNational Priority Site List (NPL), state priority site lists, sitesrecommended for the EPA NPL, and initial investigations of governmentidentified sites which are conducted before the presence or absence ofhazardous substances has been ascertained);(ii) Corrective actions involving clean-up operations at sites covered bythe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended (42U.S.C. 6901 et seq.);(iii) Voluntary clean-up operations at sites recognized by Federal, state,local or other governmental bodies as uncontrolled hazardous waste sites;(iv) Operations involving hazardous wastes that are conducted at treatment,storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities regulated by 40 CFR parts 264 and 265pursuant to RCRA; or by agencies under agreement with U.S.E.P.A. to implementRCRA regulations; and(v) Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial threats ofreleases of, hazardous substances without regard to the location of thehazard.(2) "Application." (i) All requirements of part 1910 and part 1926 of title29 of the Code of Federal Regulations apply pursuant to their terms tohazardous waste and emergency response operations whether covered by thissection or not. If there is a conflict or overlap, the provision moreprotective of employee safety and health shall apply without regard to 29 CFR1926.20(e)(1).(ii) Hazardous substance clean-up operations within the scope of paragraphs(a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iii) of this section must comply with all paragraphsof this section except paragraphs (p) and (q).(iii) Operations within the scope of paragraph (a)(1)(iv) of this sectionmust comply only with the requirements of paragraph (p) of this section.Notes and Exceptions: (A) All provisions of paragraph (p) of this sectioncover any treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) operation regulated by 40 CFRparts 264 and 265 or by state law authorized under RCRA, and required to havea permit or interim status from EPA pursuant to 40 CFR 270.1 or from a stateagency pursuant to RCRA.(B) Employers who are not required to have a permit or interim statusbecause they are conditionally exempt small quantity generators under 40 CFR261.5 or are generators who qualify under 40 CFR 262.34 for exemptions fromregulation under 40 CFR parts 264, 265 and 270 ("excepted employers") are notcovered by paragraphs (p)(1) through (p)(7) of this section. Exceptedemployers who are required by the EPA or state agency to have their employeesengage in emergency response or who direct their employees to engage inemergency response are covered by paragraph (p)(8) of this section, andcannot be exempted by (p)(8)(i) of this section. Excepted employers who arenot required to have employees engage in emergency response, who direct theiremployees to evacuate in the case of such emergencies and who meet therequirements of paragraph (p)(8)(i) of this section are exempt from thebalance of paragraph (p)(8) of this section.(C) If an area is used primarily for treatment, storage or disposal, anyemergency response operations in that area shall comply with paragraph (p)(8)of this section. In other areas not used primarily for treatment, storage, ordisposal, any emergency response operations shall comply with paragraph (q)of this section. Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (q) of thissection shall be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements ofparagraph (p)(8) of this section.(iv) Emergency response operations for releases of, or substantial threatsof releases of, hazardous substances which are not covered by paragraphs(a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section must only comply with therequirements of paragraph (q) of this section.(3) "Definitions" - "Buddy system" means a system of organizing employeesinto work groups in such a manner that each employee of the work group isdesignated to be observed by at least one other employee in the work group.The purpose of the buddy system is to provide rapid assistance to employeesin the event of an emergency."Clean-up operation" means an operation where hazardous substances areremoved, contained, incinerated, neutralized, stabilized, cleared-up, or inany other manner processed or handled with the ultimate goal of making thesite safer for people or the environment."Decontamination" means the removal of hazardous substances from employeesand their equipment to the extent necessary to preclude the occurrence offoreseeable adverse health affects."Emergency response or responding to emergencies" means a response effort byemployees from outside the immediate release area or by other designatedresponders (i.e., mutual-aid groups, local fire departments, etc.) to anoccurrence which results, or is likely to result, in an uncontrolled releaseof a hazardous substance. Responses to incidental releases of hazardoussubstances where the substance can be absorbed, neutralized, or otherwisecontrolled at the time of release by employees in the immediate release area,or by maintenance personnel are not considered to be emergency responseswithin the scope of this standard. Responses to releases of hazardoussubstances where there is no potential safety or health hazard (i.e., fire,explosion, or chemical exposure) are not considered to be emergencyresponses."Facility" means (A) any building, structure, installation, equipment, pipeor pipeline (including any pipe into a sewer or publicly owned treatmentworks), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, storage container, motorvehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft, or (B) any site or area where ahazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, orotherwise come to be located; but does not include any consumer product inconsumer use or any water-borne vessel."Hazardous materials response (HAZMAT) team" means an organized group ofemployees, designated by the employer, who are expected to perform work tohandle and control actual or potential leaks or spills of hazardoussubstances requiring possible close approach to the substance. The teammembers perform responses to releases or potential releases of hazardoussubstances for the purpose of control or stabilization of the incident. AHAZMAT team is not a fire brigade nor is a typical fire brigade a HAZMATteam. A HAZMAT team, however, may be a separate component of a fire brigadeor fire department."Hazardous substance" means any substance designated or listed underparagraphs (A) through (D) of this definition, exposure to which results ormay result in adverse affects on the health or safety of employees:(A) Any substance defined under section 101(14) of CERCLA;(B) Any biological agent and other disease-causing agent which after releaseinto the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, orassimilation into any person, either directly from the environment orindirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably beanticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer,genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions inreproduction) or physical deformations in such persons or their offspring;(C) Any substance listed by the U.S. Department of Transportation ashazardous materials under 49 CFR 172.101 and appendices; and(D) Hazardous waste as herein defined. "Hazardous waste" means-(A) A waste or combination of wastes as defined in 40 CFR 261.3, or(B) Those substances defined as hazardous wastes in 49 CFR 171.8."Hazardous waste operation" means any operation conducted within the scopeof this standard."Hazardous waste site" or "Site" means any facility or location within thescope of this standard at which hazardous waste operations take place."Health hazard" means a chemical, mixture of chemicals or a pathogen forwhich there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one studyconducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute orchronic health effects may occur in exposed employees. The term "healthhazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxicagents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers,heptaotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on thehematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, ormucous membranes. It also includes stress due to temperature extremes.Further definition of the terms used above can be found in appendix A to 29CFR 1926.59."IDLH" or "Immediately dangerous to life or health" means an atmosphericconcentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses animmediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed adversehealth effects or would interfere with an individual's ability to escape froma dangerous atmosphere."Oxygen deficiency" means that concentration of oxygen by volume below whichatmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. It exists inatmospheres where the percentage of oxygen by volume is less than 19.5percent oxygen."Permissible exposure limit" means the exposure, inhalation or dermalpermissible exposure limit specified either in 1926.55, elsewhere in subpartD, or in other pertinent sections of this part."Published exposure level" means the exposure limits published in "NIOSHRecommendations for Occupational Health Standards" dated 1986 incorporated byreference, or if none is specified, the exposure limits published in thestandards specified by the American Conference of Governmental IndustrialHygienists in their publication "Threshold Limit Values and BiologicalExposure Indices for 1987-88" dated 1987 incorporated by reference."Post emergency response" means that portion of an emergency responseperformed after the immediate threat of a release has been stabilized oreliminated and clean-up of the site has begun. If post emergency response isperformed by an employer's own employees who were part of the initialemergency response, it is considered to be part of the initial response andnot post emergency response. However, if a group of an employer's ownemployees, separate from the group providing initial response, performs theclean-up operation, then the separate group of employees would be consideredto be performing post-emergency response and subject to paragraph (q)(11) ofthis section."Qualified person" means a person with specific training, knowledge andexperience in the area for which the person has the responsibility and theauthority to control."Site safety and health supervisor (or official)" means the individuallocated on a hazardous waste site who is responsible to the employer and hasthe authority and knowledge necessary to implement the site safety and healthplan and verify compliance with applicable safety and health requirements."Small quantity generator" means a generator of hazardous wastes who in anycalendar month generates no more than 1,000 kilograms (2,205 pounds) ofhazardous waste in that month."Uncontrolled hazardous waste site," means an area identified as anuncontrolled hazardous waste site by a governmental body, whether Federal,state, local or other where an accumulation of hazardous substances creates athreat to the health and safety of individuals or the environment or both.Some sites are found on public lands such as those created by formermunicipal, county or state landfills where illegal or poorly managed wastedisposal has taken place. Other sites are found on private property, oftenbelonging to generators or former generators of hazardous substance wastes.Examples of such sites include, but are not limited to, surface impoundments,landfills, dumps, and tank or drum farms. Normal operations at TSD sites arenot covered by this definition. (b) "Safety and health program."Note to (b): Safety and health programs developed and implemented to meetother Federal, state, or local regulations are considered acceptable inmeeting this requirement if they cover or are modified to cover the topicsrequired in this paragraph. An additional or separate safety and healthprogram is not required by this paragraph.(1) "General." (i) Employers shall develop and implement a written safetyand health program for their employees involved in hazardous wasteoperations. The program shall be designed to identify, evaluate, and controlsafety and health hazards, and provide for emergency response for hazardouswaste operations.(ii) The written safety and health program shall incorporate the following:(A) An organizational structure;(B) A comprehensive workplan;(C) A site-specific safety and health plan which need not repeat theemployer's standard operating procedures required in paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(F)of this section;(D) The safety and health training program;(E) The medical surveillance program;(F) The employer's standard operating procedures for safety and health;and (G) Any necessary interface between general program and site specificactivities.(iii) "Site excavation." Site excavations created during initial sitepreparation or during hazardous waste operations shall be shored or sloped asappropriate to prevent accidental collapse in accordance with subpart P of 29CFR part 1926.(iv) "Contractors and sub-contractors." An employer who retains contractoror sub-contractor services for work in hazardous waste operations shallinform those contractors, sub-contractors, or their representatives of thesite emergency response procedures and any potential fire, explosion, health,safety or other hazards of the hazardous waste operation that have beenidentified by the employer, including those identified in the employer'sinformation program.(v) "Program availability." The written safety and health program shall bemade available to any contractor or subcontractor or their representative whowill be involved with the hazardous waste operation; to employees; toemployee designated representatives; to OSHA personnel, and to personnel ofother Federal, state, or local agencies with regulatory authority over thesite.(2) "Organizational structure part of the site program" - (i) Theorganizational structure part of the program shall establish the specificchain of command and specify the overall responsibilities of supervisors andemployees. It shall include, at a minimum, the following elements:(A) A general supervisor who has the responsibility and authority to directall hazardous waste operations.(B) A site safety and health supervisor who has the responsibility andauthority to develop and implement the site safety and health plan and verifycompliance.(C) All other personnel needed for hazardous waste site operations andemergency response and their general functions and responsibilities.(D) The lines of authority, responsibility, and communication.(ii)The organizational structure shall be reviewed and updated as necessary toreflect the current status of waste site operations.(3) "Comprehensive workplan part of the site program." The comprehensiveworkplan part of the program shall address the tasks and objectives of thesite operations and the logistics and resources required to reach those tasksand objectives.(i) The comprehensive workplan shall address anticipated clean-up activitiesas well as normal operating procedures which need not repeat the employer'sprocedures available elsewhere.(ii) The comprehensive workplan shall define work tasks and objectives andidentify the methods for accomplishing those tasks and objectives.(iii) The comprehensive workplan shall establish personnel requirements forimplementing the plan.(iv) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation of thetraining required in paragraph (e) of this section.(v) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation of therequired informational programs required in paragraph (i) of this section.(vi) The comprehensive workplan shall provide for the implementation of themedical surveillance program described in paragraph (f) of this section.(4) "Site-specific safety and health plan part of the program" - (i)"General." The site safety and health plan, which must be kept on site, shalladdress the safety and health hazards of each phase of site operation andinclude the requirements and procedures for employee protection.(ii) "Elements." The site safety and health plan, as a minimum, shalladdress the following:(A) A safety and health risk or hazard analysis for each site task andoperation found in the workplan.(B) Employee training assignments to assure compliance with paragraph (e) ofthis section.(C) Personal protective equipment to be used by employees for each of thesite tasks and operations being conducted as required by the personalprotective equipment program in paragraph (g)(5) of this section.(D) Medical surveillance requirements in accordance with the program inparagraph (f) of this section.(E) Frequency and types of air monitoring, personnel monitoring, andenvironmental sampling techniques and instrumentation to be used, includingmethods of maintenance and calibration of monitoring and sampling equipmentto be used.(F) Site control measures in accordance with the site control programrequired in paragraph (d) of this section.(G) Decontamination procedures in accordance with paragraph (k) of thissection.(H) An emergency response plan meeting the requirements of paragraph (l) ofthis section for safe and effective responses to emergencies, including thenecessary PPE and other equipment.(I) Confined space entry procedures. (J) A spill containment programmeeting the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section.(iii) "Pre-entry briefing." The site specific safety and health plan shallprovide for pre-entry briefings to be held prior to initiating any siteactivity, and at such other times as necessary to ensure that employees areapprised of the site safety and health plan and that this plan is beingfollowed. The information and data obtained from site characterization andanalysis work required in paragraph (c) of this section shall be used toprepare and update the site safety and health plan.(iv) "Effectiveness of site safety and health plan." Inspections shall beconducted by the site safety and health supervisor or, in the absence of thatindividual, another individual who is knowledgeable in occupational safetyand health, acting on behalf of the employer as necessary to determine theeffectiveness of the site safety and health plan. Any deficiencies in theeffectiveness of the site safety and health plan shall be corrected by theemployer.(c) "Site characterization and analysis" - (1) "General." Hazardous wastesites shall be evaluated in accordance with this paragraph to identifyspecific site hazards and to determine the appropriate safety and healthcontrol procedures needed to protect employees from the identified hazards.(2) "Preliminary evaluation." A preliminary evaluation of a site'scharacteristics shall be performed prior to site entry by a qualified personin order to aid in the selection of appropriate employee protection methodsprior to site entry. Immediately after initial site entry, a more detailedevaluation of the site's specific characteristics shall be performed by aqualified person in order to further identify existing site hazards and tofurther aid in the selection of the appropriate engineering controls andpersonal protective equipment for the tasks to be performed.(3) "Hazard identification." All suspected conditions that may poseinhalation or skin absorption hazards that are immediately dangerous to lifeor health (IDLH), or other conditions that may cause death or serious harm,shall be identified during the preliminary survey and evaluated during thedetailed survey. Examples of such hazards include, but are not limited to,confined space entry, potentially explosive or flammable situations, visiblevapor clouds, or areas where biological indicators such as dead animals orvegetation are located.(4) "Required information." The following information to the extentavailable shall be obtained by the employer prior to allowing employees toenter a site:(i) Location and approximate size of the site.(ii) Description ofthe response activity and/or the job task to be performed.(iii) Duration of the planned employee activity.(iv) Sitetopography and accessibility by air and roads.(v) Safety and health hazardsexpected at the site.(vi) Pathways for hazardous substance dispersion.(vii)Present status and capabilities of emergency response teams that wouldprovide assistance to hazardous waste clean-up site employees at the time ofan emergency.(viii) Hazardous substances and health hazards involved or expected at thesite, and their chemical and physical properties.(5) "Personal protective equipment." Personal protective equipment (PPE)shall be provided and used during initial site entry in accordance with thefollowing requirements:(i) Based upon the results of the preliminary site evaluation, an ensembleof PPE shall be selected and used during initial site entry which willprovide protection to a level of exposure below permissible exposure limitsand published exposure levels for known or suspected hazardous substances andhealth hazards, and which will provide protection against other known andsuspected hazards identified during the preliminary site evaluation. If thereis no permissible exposure limit or published exposure level, the employermay use other published studies and information as a guide to appropriatepersonal protective equipment.(ii) If positive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus is not used aspart of the entry ensemble, and if respiratory protection is warranted by thepotential hazards identified during the preliminary site evaluation, anescape self-contained breathing apparatus of at least five minute's durationshall be carried by employees during initial site entry.(iii) If the preliminary site evaluation does not produce sufficientinformation to identify the hazards or suspected hazards of the site, anensemble providing protection equivalent to Level B PPE shall be provided asminimum protection, and direct reading instruments shall be used asappropriate for identifying IDLH conditions. (See appendix B for adescription of Level B hazards and the recommendations for Level B protectiveequipment.)(iv) Once the hazards of the site have been identified, theappropriate PPE shall be selected and used in accordance with paragraph (g)of this section.(6) "Monitoring." The following monitoring shall be conducted during initialsite entry when the site evaluation produces information that shows thepotential for ionizing radiation or IDLH conditions, or when the siteinformation is not sufficient reasonably to eliminate these possibleconditions:(i) Monitoring with direct reading instruments for hazardous levels ofionizing radiation.(ii) Monitoring the air with appropriate direct reading test equipment(i.e., combustible gas meters, detector tubes) for IDLH and other conditionsthat may cause death or serious harm (combustible or explosive atmospheres,oxygen deficiency, toxic substances).(iii) Visually observing for signs of actual or potential IDLH or otherdangerous conditions.(iv) An ongoing air monitoring program in accordance with paragraph (h) ofthis section shall be implemented after site characterization has determinedthe site is safe for the start-up of operations.(7) "Risk identification." (i) Once the presence and concentrations ofspecific hazardous substances and health hazards have been established, therisks associated with these substances shall be identified. Employees whowill be working on the site shall be informed of any risks that have beenidentified. In situations covered by the Hazard Communication Standard, 29CFR 1926.59, training required by that standard need not be duplicated. Note to (c)(7) - Risks to consider include, but are not limited to:
  1. Exposures exceeding the permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels.
  2. IDLH concentrations.
  3. Potential skin absorption and irritation sources.
  4. Potential eye irritation sources.
  5. Explosion sensitivity and flammability ranges.
  6. Oxygen deficiency.
(8) "Employee notification." Any information concerning the chemical,physical, and toxicologic properties of each substance known or expected tobe present on site that is available to the employer and relevant to theduties an employee is expected to perform shall be made available to theaffected employees prior to the commencement of their work activities. Theemployer may utilize information developed for the hazard communicationstandard for this purpose.(d) "Site control" - (1) "General." Appropriate site control proceduresshall be implemented to control employee exposure to hazardous substancesbefore clean-up work begins.(2) "Site control program." A site control program for protecting employeeswhich is part of the employer's site safety and health program required inparagraph (b) of this section shall be developed during the planning stagesof a hazardous waste clean-up operation and modified as necessary as newinformation becomes available.(3) "Elements of the site control program." The site control program shall,as a minimum, include: A site map; site work zones; the use of a "buddysystem"; site communications including alerting means for emergencies; thestandard operating procedures or safe work practices; and, identification ofthe nearest medical assistance. Where these requirements are coveredelsewhere they need not be repeated.(e) "Training" - (1) "General." (i) All employees working on site (such asbut not limited to equipment operators, general laborers and others) exposedto hazardous substances, health hazards, or safety hazards and theirsupervisors and management responsible for the site shall receive trainingmeeting the requirements of this paragraph before they are permitted toengage in hazardous waste operations that could expose them to hazardoussubstances, safety, or health hazards, and they shall receive review trainingas specified in this paragraph.(ii) Employees shall not be permitted to participate in or supervise fieldactivities until they have been trained to a level required by their jobfunction and responsibility.(2) "Elements to be covered." The training shall thoroughly cover thefollowing:(i) Names of personnel and alternates responsible for site safety and health;(ii) Safety, health and other hazards present on the site;(iii) Use of personal protective equipment;(iv) Work practices by which the employee can minimize risks from hazards;(v) Safe use of engineering controls and equipment on the site;(vi) Medical surveillance requirements, including recognition of symptomsand signs which might indicate overexposure to hazards; and(vii) The contents of paragraphs (G) through (J) of the site safety andhealth plan set forth in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section.(3) "Initial training." (i) General site workers (such as equipmentoperators, general laborers and supervisory personnel) engaged in hazardoussubstance removal or other activities which expose or potentially exposeworkers to hazardous substances and health hazards shall receive a minimum of40 hours of instruction off the site, and a minimum of three days actualfield experience under the direct supervision of a trained, experiencedsupervisor.(ii) Workers on site only occasionally for a specific limited task (such as,but not limited to, ground water monitoring, land surveying, or geo-physicalsurveying) and who are unlikely to be exposed over permissible exposurelimits and published exposure limits shall receive a minimum of 24 hours ofinstruction off the site, and the minimum of one day actual field experienceunder the direct supervision of a trained, experienced supervisor.(iii) Workers regularly on site who work in areas which have been monitoredand fully characterized indicating that exposures are under permissibleexposure limits and published exposure limits where respirators are notnecessary, and the characterization indicates that there are no healthhazards or the possibility of an emergency developing, shall receive aminimum of 24 hours of instruction off the site and the minimum of one dayactual field experience under the direct supervision of a trained,experienced supervisor.(iv) Workers with 24 hours of training who are covered by paragraphs(e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii) of this section, and who become general siteworkers or who are required to wear respirators, shall have the additional 16hours and two days of training necessary to total the training specified inparagraph (e)(3)(i).(4) "Management and supervisor training." On-site management and supervisorsdirectly responsible for, or who supervise employees engaged in, hazardouswaste operations shall receive 40 hours initial training, and three days ofsupervised field experience (the training may be reduced to 24 hours and oneday if the only area of their responsibility is employees covered byparagraphs (e)(3)(ii) and (e)(3)(iii)) and at least eight additional hours ofspecialized training at the time of job assignment on such topics as, but notlimited to, the employer's safety and health program and the associatedemployee training program, personal protective equipment program, spillcontainment program, and health hazard monitoring procedure and techniques.(5) "Qualifications for trainers." Trainers shall be qualified to instructemployees about the subject matter that is being presented in training. Suchtrainers shall have satisfactorily completed a training program for teachingthe subjects they are expected to teach, or they shall have the academiccredentials and instructional experience necessary for teaching the subjects.Instructors shall demonstrate competent instructional skills and knowledge ofthe applicable subject matter.(6) "Training certification." Employees and supervisors that have receivedand successfully completed the training and field experience specified inparagraphs (e)(1) through (e)(4) of this section shall be certified by theirinstructor or the head instructor and trained supervisor as havingsuccessfully completed the necessary training. A written certificate shall begiven to each person so certified. Any person who has not been so certifiedor who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(9) of this sectionshall be prohibited from engaging in hazardous waste operations.(7) "Emergency response." Employees who are engaged in responding tohazardous emergency situations at hazardous waste clean-up sites that mayexpose them to hazardous substances shall be trained in how to respond tosuch expected emergencies.(8) "Refresher training." Employees specified in paragraph (e)(1) of thissection, and managers and supervisors specified in paragraph (e)(4) of thissection, shall receive eight hours of refresher training annually on theitems specified in paragraph (e)(2) and/or (e)(4) of this section, anycritique of incidents that have occurred in the past year that can serve astraining examples of related work, and other relevant topics.(9) "Equivalent training." Employers who can show by documentation orcertification that an employee's work experience and/or training has resultedin training equivalent to that training required in paragraphs (e)(1) through(e)(4) of this section shall not be required to provide the initial trainingrequirements of those paragraphs to such employees and shall provide a copyof the certification or documentation to the employee upon request. However,certified employees or employees with equivalent training new to a site shallreceive appropriate, site specific training before site entry and haveappropriate supervised field experience at the new site. Equivalent trainingincludes any academic training or the training that existing employees mighthave already received from actual hazardous waste site work experience.(f) "Medical surveillance" - (1) "General." Employers engaged in operationsspecified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section and notcovered by (a)(2)(iii) exceptions and employers of employees specified inparagraph (q)(9) shall institute a medical surveillance program in accordancewith this paragraph.(2) "Employees covered." The medical surveillance program shall beinstituted by the employer for the following employees:(i) All employees who are or may be exposed to hazardous substances orhealth hazards at or above the permissible exposure limits or, if there is nopermissible exposure limit, above the published exposure levels for thesesubstances, without regard to the use of respirators, for 30 days or more ayear;(ii) All employees who wear a respirator for 30 days or more a year or asrequired by 1926.103;(iii) All employees who are injured, become ill or develop signs or symptomsdue to possible overexposure involving hazardous substances or health hazardsfrom an emergency response or hazardous waste operation; and (iv) Members ofHAZMAT teams. (3) "Frequency of medical examinations and consultations."Medical examinations and consultations shall be made available by theemployer to each employee covered under paragraph (f)(2) of this section onthe following schedules:(i) For employees covered under paragraphs (f)(2)(i), (f)(2)(ii), and(f)(2)(iv):(A) Prior to assignment;(B) At least once every twelve months for each employee covered unless theattending physician believes a longer interval (not greater than biennially)is appropriate;(C) At termination of employment or reassignment to an area where theemployee would not be covered if the employee has not had an examinationwithin the last six months;(D) As soon as possible upon notification by an employee that the employeehas developed signs or symptoms indicating possible overexposure to hazardoussubstances or health hazards, or that the employee has been injured orexposed above the permissible exposure limits or published exposure levels inan emergency situation;(E) At more frequent times, if the examining physician determines that anincreased frequency of examination is medically necessary.(ii) For employees covered under paragraph (f)(2)(iii) and for all employeesincluding those of employers covered by paragraph (a)(1)(v) who may have beeninjured, received a health impairment, developed signs or symptoms which mayhave resulted from exposure to hazardous substances resulting from anemergency incident, or exposed during an emergency incident to hazardoussubstances at concentrations above the permissible exposure limits or thepublished exposure levels without the necessary personal protective equipmentbeing used:(A) As soon as possible following the emergency incident or development ofsigns or symptoms;(B) At additional times, if the examining physician determines thatfollow-up examinations or consultations are medically necessary.(4) "Content of medical examinations and consultations." (i) Medicalexaminations required by paragraph (f)(3) of this section shall include amedical and work history (or updated history if one is in the employee'sfile) with special emphasis on symptoms related to the handling of hazardoussubstances and health hazards, and to fitness for duty including the abilityto wear any required PPE under conditions (i.e., temperature extremes) thatmay be expected at the work site.(ii) The content of medical examinations or consultations made available toemployees pursuant to paragraph (f) shall be determined by the attendingphysician. The guidelines in the "Occupational Safety and Health GuidanceManual for Hazardous Waste Site Activities" (See appendix D, Reference number10) should be consulted.(5) "Examination by a physician and costs." All medical examinations andprocedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensedphysician, preferably one knowledgeable in occupational medicine, and shallbe provided without cost to the employee, without loss of pay, and at areasonable time and place.(6) "Information provided to the physician." The employer shall provide onecopy of this standard and its appendices to the attending physician, and inaddition the following for each employee:(i) A description of the employee's duties as they relate to the employee'sexposures.(ii) The employee's exposure levels or anticipated exposure levels.(iii) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to beused.(iv) Information from previous medical examinations of the employee which isnot readily available to the examining physician.(v) Information required by 1926.103.(7) "Physician's writtenopinion."(i) The employer shall obtain and furnish the employee with a copyof a written opinion from the attending physician containing thefollowing:(A) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detectedmedical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk ofmaterial impairment of the employee's health from work in hazardous wasteoperations or emergency response, or from respirator use.(B) The physician's recommended limitations upon the employee's assignedwork.(C) The results of the medical examination and tests if requested by theemployee.(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of theresults of the medical examination and any medical conditions which requirefurther examination or treatment.(ii) The written opinion obtained by the employer shall not reveal specificfindings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposures.(8) "Recordkeeping." (i) An accurate record of the medical surveillancerequired by paragraph (f) of this section shall be retained. This recordshall be retained for the period specified and meet the criteria of 29 CFR1926.33.(ii) The record required in paragraph (f)(8)(i) of this section shallinclude at least the following information:(A) The name and social security number of the employee;(B) Physician's written opinions, recommended limitations, and results ofexaminations and tests;(C) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to hazardoussubstances;(D) A copy of the information provided to the examining physician by theemployer, with the exception of the standard and its appendices.(g) "Engineering controls, work practices, and personal protective equipmentfor employee protection." Engineering controls, work practices, personalprotective equipment, or a combination of these shall be implemented inaccordance with this paragraph to protect employees from exposure tohazardous substances and safety and health hazards.(1) "Engineering controls, work practices and PPE for substances regulatedeither in 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in other pertinent sections ofthis part." (i) Engineering controls and work practices shall be institutedto reduce and maintain employee exposure to or below the permissible exposurelimits for substances regulated either in 1926.55 or other pertinent sectionsof this part, except to the extent that such controls and practices are notfeasible.Note to (g)(1)(i): Engineering controls which may be feasible include theuse of pressurized cabs or control booths on equipment, and/or the use ofremotely operated material handling equipment. Work practices which may befeasible are removing all non-essential employees from potential exposureduring opening of drums, wetting down dusty operations and locating employeesupwind of possible hazards.(ii) Whenever engineering controls and work practices are not feasible ornot required, any reasonable combination of engineering controls, workpractices and PPE shall be used to reduce and maintain employee exposures toor below the permissible exposure limits or dose limits for substancesregulated either in 1926.55 or other pertinent sections of this part.(iii) The employer shall not implement a schedule of employee rotation as ameans of compliance with permissible exposure limits or dose limits exceptwhen there is no other feasible way of complying with the airborne or dermaldose limits for ionizing radiation.(iv) The provisions of subpart D shall be followed.(2) "Engineeringcontrols, work practices, and PPE for substances not regulated either in1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or in other pertinent sections of thispart. An appropriate combination of engineering controls, work practices andpersonal protective equipment shall be used to reduce and maintain employeeexposure to or below published exposure levels for hazardous substances andhealth hazards not regulated either in 1926.55, elsewhere in subpart D, or inother pertinent sections of this part. The employer may use the publishedliterature and MSDS as a guide in making the employer's determination as towhat level of protection the employer believes is appropriate for hazardoussubstances and health hazards for which there is no permissible exposurelimit or published exposure limit.(3) "Personal protective equipment selection." (i) Personal protectiveequipment (PPE) shall be selected and used which will protect employees fromthe hazards and potential hazards they are likely to encounter as identifiedduring the site characterization and analysis.(ii) Personal protective equipment selection shall be based on an evaluationof the performance characteristics of the PPE relative to the requirementsand limitations of the site, the task-specific conditions and duration, andthe hazards and potential hazards identified at the site.(iii) Positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or positivepressure air-line respirators equipped with an escape air supply, shall beused when chemical exposure levels present will create a substantialpossibility of immediate death, immediate serious illness or injury, orimpair the ability to escape.(iv) Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suits (protection equivalentto Level A protection as recommended in appendix B) shall be used inconditions where skin absorption of a hazardous substance may result in asubstantial possibility of immediate death, immediate serious illness orinjury, or impair the ability to escape.(v) The level of protection provided by PPE selection shall be increasedwhen additional information on site conditions indicates that increasedprotection is necessary to reduce employee exposures below permissibleexposure limits and published exposure levels for hazardous substances andhealth hazards. (See appendix B for guidance on selecting PPE ensembles.)Note to (g)(3): The level of employee protection provided may be decreasedwhen additional information or site conditions show that decreased protectionwill not result in hazardous exposures to employees.(vi) Personal protective equipment shall be selected and used to meet therequirements of subpart E of this part and additional requirements specifiedin this section.(4) "Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suits." (i)Totally-encapsulating suits shall protect employees from the particularhazards which are identified during site characterization and analysis.(ii) Totally-encapsulating suits shall be capable of maintaining positiveair pressure. (See appendix A for a test method which may be used to evaluatethis requirement.)(iii) Totally-encapsulating suits shall be capable ofpreventing inward test gas leakage of more than 0.5 percent. (See appendix Afor a test method which may be used to evaluate this requirement.)(5)"Personal protective equipment (PPE) program." A written personal protectiveequipment program, which is part of the employer's safety and health programrequired in paragraph (b) of this section or required in paragraph (p)(1) ofthis section and which is also a part of the site-specific safety and healthplan shall be established. The PPE program shall address the elements listedbelow. When elements, such as donning and doffing procedures, are provided bythe manufacturer of a piece of equipment and are attached to the plan, theyneed not be rewritten into the plan as long as they adequately address theprocedure or element.(i) PPE selection based upon site hazards,(ii) PPE use andlimitations of the equipment,(iii) Work mission duration,(iv) PPEmaintenance and storage,(v) PPE decontamination and disposal,(vi) PPEtraining and proper fitting,(vii) PPE donning and doffing procedures,(viii)PPE inspection procedures prior to, during, and after use,(ix) Evaluation ofthe effectiveness of the PPE program, and(x) Limitations during temperatureextremes, heat stress, and other appropriate medicalconsiderations.(h) "Monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) Monitoring shall be performed inaccordance with this paragraph where there may be a question of employeeexposure to hazardous concentrations of hazardous substances in order toassure proper selection of engineering controls, work practices and personalprotective equipment so that employees are not exposed to levels which exceedpermissible exposure limits, or published exposure levels if there are nopermissible exposure limits, for hazardous substances.(ii) Air monitoring shall be used to identify and quantify airborne levelsof hazardous substances and safety and health hazards in order to determinethe appropriate level of employee protection needed on site.(2) "Initial entry." Upon initial entry, representative air monitoring shallbe conducted to identify any IDLH condition, exposure over permissibleexposure limits or published exposure levels, exposure over a radioactivematerial's dose limits or other dangerous condition such as the presence offlammable atmospheres or oxygen-deficient environments.(3) "Periodic monitoring." Periodic monitoring shall be conducted when thepossibility of an IDLH condition or flammable atmosphere has developed orwhen there is indication that exposures may have risen over permissibleexposure limits or published exposure levels since prior monitoring.Situations where it shall be considered whether the possibility thatexposures have risen are as follows:{i} When work begins on a different portion of the site.{ii} Whencontaminants other than those previously identified are beinghandled.{iii} When a different type of operation is initiated (e.g., drum opening asopposed to exploratory well drilling).{iv} When employees are handling leaking drums or containers or working inareas with obvious liquid contamination (e.g., a spill or lagoon).(4) "Monitoring of high-risk employees." After the actual clean-up phase ofany hazardous waste operation commences; for example, when soil, surfacewater or containers are moved or disturbed; the employer shall monitor thoseemployees likely to have the highest exposures to hazardous substances andhealth hazards likely to be present above permissible exposure limits orpublished exposure levels by using personal sampling frequently enough tocharacterize employee exposures. If the employees likely to have the highestexposure are over permissible exposure limits or published exposure limits,then monitoring shall continue to determine all employees likely to be abovethose limits. The employer may utilize a representative sampling approach bydocumenting that the employees and chemicals chosen for monitoring are basedon the criteria stated above.Note to (h): It is not required to monitor employees engaged in sitecharacterization operations covered by paragraph (c) of this section.(i) "Informational programs." Employers shall develop and implement aprogram, which is part of the employer's safety and health program requiredin paragraph (b) of this section, to inform employees, contractors, andsubcontractors (or their representative) actually engaged in hazardous wasteoperations of the nature, level and degree of exposure likely as a result ofparticipation in such hazardous waste operations. Employees, contractors andsubcontractors working outside of the operations part of a site are notcovered by this standard.(j) "Handling drums and containers" - (1) "General." (i) Hazardoussubstances and contaminated soils, liquids, and other residues shall behandled, transported, labeled, and disposed of in accordance with thisparagraph.(ii) Drums and containers used during the clean-up shall meet theappropriate DOT, OSHA, and EPA regulations for the wastes that they contain.(iii) When practical, drums and containers shall be inspected and theirintegrity shall be assured prior to being moved. Drums or containers thatcannot be inspected before being moved because of storage conditions (i.e.,buried beneath the earth, stacked behind other drums, stacked several tiershigh in a pile, etc.) shall be moved to an accessible location and inspectedprior to further handling.(iv) Unlabelled drums and containers shall be considered to containhazardous substances and handled accordingly until the contents arepositively identified and labeled.(v) Site operations shall be organized to minimize the amount of drum orcontainer movement.(vi) Prior to movement of drums or containers, all employees exposed to thetransfer operation shall be warned of the potential hazards associated withthe contents of the drums or containers.(vii) U.S. Department of Transportation specified salvage drums orcontainers and suitable quantities of proper absorbent shall be keptavailable and used in areas where spills, leaks, or ruptures may occur.(viii) Where major spills may occur, a spill containment program, which ispart of the employer's safety and health program required in paragraph (b) ofthis section, shall be implemented to contain and isolate the entire volumeof the hazardous substance being transferred.(ix) Drums and containers that cannot be moved without rupture, leakage, orspillage shall be emptied into a sound container using a device classifiedfor the material being transferred.(x) A ground-penetrating system or other type of detection system or deviceshall be used to estimate the location and depth of buried drums orcontainers.(xi) Soil or covering material shall be removed with caution to prevent drumor container rupture.(xii) Fire extinguishing equipment meeting the requirements of subpart F ofthis part shall be on hand and ready for use to control incipient fires.(2) "Opening drums and containers." The following procedures shall befollowed in areas where drums or containers are being opened:(i) Where an airline respirator system is used, connections to the source ofair supply shall be protected from contamination and the entire system shallbe protected from physical damage.(ii) Employees not actually involved in opening drums or containers shall bekept a safe distance from the drums or containers being opened.(iii) If employees must work near or adjacent to drums or containers beingopened, a suitable shield that does not interfere with the work operationshall be placed between the employee and the drums or containers being openedto protect the employee in case of accidental explosion.(iv) Controls for drum or container opening equipment, monitoring equipment,and fire suppression equipment shall be located behind theexplosion-resistant barrier.(v) When there is a reasonable possibility of flammable atmospheres beingpresent, material handling equipment and hand tools shall be of the type toprevent sources of ignition.(vi) Drums and containers shall be opened in such a manner that excessinterior pressure will be safely relieved. If pressure can not be relievedfrom a remote location, appropriate shielding shall be placed between theemployee and the drums or containers to reduce the risk of employee injury.(vii) Employees shall not stand upon or work from drums orcontainers.(3) "Material handling equipment." Material handling equipmentused to transfer drums and containers shall be selected, positioned andoperated to minimize sources of ignition related to the equipment fromigniting vapors released from ruptured drums or containers.(4) "Radioactive wastes." Drums and containers containing radioactive wastesshall not be handled until such time as their hazard to employees is properlyassessed.(5) "Shock sensitive wastes." As a minimum, the following specialprecautions shall be taken when drums and containers containing or suspectedof containing shock-sensitive wastes are handled:(i) All non-essential employees shall be evacuated from the area of transfer.(ii) Material handling equipment shall be provided with explosivecontainment devices or protective shields to protect equipment operators fromexploding containers.(iii) An employee alarm system capable of being perceived above surroundinglight and noise conditions shall be used to signal the commencement andcompletion of explosive waste handling activities.(iv) Continuous communications (i.e., portable radios, hand signals,telephones, as appropriate) shall be maintained between theemployee-in-charge of the immediate handling area and both the site safetyand health supervisor and the command post until such time as the handlingoperation is completed. Communication equipment or methods that could causeshock sensitive materials to explode shall not be used.(v) Drums and containers under pressure, as evidenced by bulging orswelling, shall not be moved until such time as the cause for excess pressureis determined and appropriate containment procedures have been implemented toprotect employees from explosive relief of the drum.(vi) Drums and containers containing packaged laboratory wastes shall beconsidered to contain shock-sensitive or explosive materials until they havebeen characterized.Caution: Shipping of shock sensitive wastes may be prohibited under U.S.Department of Transportation regulations. Employers and their shippers shouldrefer to 49 CFR 173.21 and 173.50.(6) "Laboratory waste packs." In addition to the requirements of paragraph(j)(5) of this section, the following precautions shall be taken, as aminimum, in handling laboratory waste packs (lab packs):(i) Lab packs shall be opened only when necessary and then only by anindividual knowledgeable in the inspection, classification, and segregationof the containers within the pack according to the hazards of the wastes.(ii) If crystalline material is noted on any container, the contents shallbe handled as a shock-sensitive waste until the contents are identified.(7) "Sampling of drum and container contents." Sampling of containers anddrums shall be done in accordance with a sampling procedure which is part ofthe site safety and health plan developed for and available to employees andothers at the specific worksite.(8) "Shipping and transport." (i) Drums and containers shall be identifiedand classified prior to packaging for shipment.(ii) Drum or container staging areas shall be kept to the minimum numbernecessary to identify and classify materials safely and prepare them fortransport.(iii) Staging areas shall be provided with adequate access and egress routes.(iv) Bulking of hazardous wastes shall be permitted only after a thoroughcharacterization of the materials has been completed.(9) "Tank and vault procedures." (i) Tanks and vaults containing hazardoussubstances shall be handled in a manner similar to that for drums andcontainers, taking into consideration the size of the tank or vault.(ii) Appropriate tank or vault entry procedures as described in theemployer's safety and health plan shall be followed whenever employees mustenter a tank or vault.(k) "Decontamination" - (1) "General." Procedures for all phases ofdecontamination shall be developed and implemented in accordance with thisparagraph.(2) "Decontamination procedures." (i) A decontamination procedure shall bedeveloped, communicated to employees and implemented before any employees orequipment may enter areas on site where potential for exposure to hazardoussubstances exists.(ii) Standard operating procedures shall be developed to minimize employeecontact with hazardous substances or with equipment that has contactedhazardous substances.(iii) All employees leaving a contaminated area shall be appropriatelydecontaminated; all contaminated clothing and equipment leaving acontaminated area shall be appropriately disposed of or decontaminated.(iv) Decontamination procedures shall be monitored by the site safety andhealth supervisor to determine their effectiveness. When such procedures arefound to be ineffective, appropriate steps shall be taken to correct anydeficiencies.(3) "Location." Decontamination shall be performed in geographical areasthat will minimize the exposure of uncontaminated employees or equipment tocontaminated employees or equipment.(4) "Equipment and solvents." All equipment and solvents used fordecontamination shall be decontaminated or disposed of properly.(5) "Personal protective clothing and equipment." (i) Protective clothingand equipment shall be decontaminated, cleaned, laundered, maintained orreplaced as needed to maintain their effectiveness.(ii) Employees whose non-impermeable clothing becomes wetted with hazardoussubstances shall immediately remove that clothing and proceed to shower. Theclothing shall be disposed of or decontaminated before it is removed from thework zone.(6) "Unauthorized employees." Unauthorized employees shall not removeprotective clothing or equipment from change rooms.(7) "Commercial laundries or cleaning establishments." Commercial laundriesor cleaning establishments that decontaminate protective clothing orequipment shall be informed of the potentially harmful effects of exposuresto hazardous substances.(8) "Showers and change rooms." Where the decontamination procedureindicates a need for regular showers and change rooms outside of acontaminated area, they shall be provided and meet the requirements of 29 CFR1910.141. If temperature conditions prevent the effective use of water, thenother effective means for cleansing shall be provided and used.(l) "Emergency response by employees at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites"- (1) "Emergency response plan." (i) An emergency response plan shall bedeveloped and implemented by all employers within the scope of paragraphs(a)(1)(i) through (ii) of this section to handle anticipated emergenciesprior to the commencement of hazardous waste operations. The plan shall be inwriting and available for inspection and copying by employees, theirrepresentatives, OSHA personnel and other governmental agencies with relevantresponsibilities.(ii) Employers who will evacuate their employees from the danger area whenan emergency occurs, and who do not permit any of their employees to assistin handling the emergency, are exempt from the requirements of this paragraphif they provide an emergency action plan complying with 1926.35 of this part.(2) "Elements of an emergency response plan." The employer shall develop anemergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum,the following:(i) Pre-emergency planning.(ii) Personnel roles, lines ofauthority, and communication.(iii) Emergency recognition and prevention.(iv) Safe distances and places of refuge.(v) Site security and control.(vi)Evacuation routes and procedures.(vii) Decontamination procedures which arenot covered by the site safety and health plan.(viii) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.(ix) Emergencyalerting and response procedures.(x) Critique of response and follow-up.(xi) PPE and emergency equipment.(3) "Procedures for handling emergencyincidents."(i) In addition to the elements for the emergency response planrequired in paragraph (1)(2) of this section, the following elements shall beincluded for emergency response plans:(A) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions.(B)Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal governmentalagencies.(ii) The emergency response plan shall be a separate section of the SiteSafety and Health Plan.(iii) The emergency response plan shall be compatible and integrated withthe disaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of local, state, andfederal agencies.(iv) The emergency response plan shall be rehearsed regularly as part of theoverall training program for site operations.(v) The site emergency response plan shall be reviewed periodically and, asnecessary, be amended to keep it current with new or changing site conditionsor information.(vi) An employee alarm system shall be installed in accordance with 29 CFR1926.159 to notify employees of an emergency situation; to stop workactivities if necessary; to lower background noise in order to speedcommunication; and to begin emergency procedures.(vii) Based upon the information available at time of the emergency, theemployer shall evaluate the incident and the site response capabilities andproceed with the appropriate steps to implement the site emergency responseplan.(m) "Illumination." Areas accessible to employees shall be lighted to notless than the minimum illumination intensities listed in the following TableD-65.1 while any work is in progress:TABLE D-65.1 - MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES IN FOOT-CANDLES
Foot-candlesArea or operations
5General site areas.
3Excavation and waste areas, access ways, active storage areas, loading platforms, refueling, and field maintenance areas.
5Indoors: Warehouses, corridors, hallways, and exitways.
5Tunnels, shafts, and general underground work areas. (Exception: Minimum of 10 foot-candles is required at tunnel and shaft heading during drilling mucking, and scaling. Mine Safety and Health Administration approved cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the tunnel heading.)
10General shops (e.g., mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, active storerooms, barracks or living quarters, locker or dressing rooms, dining areas, and indoor toilets and workrooms.)
30First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices.
(n) "Sanitation at temporary workplaces" - (1) "Potable water."(i) An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided on the site.(ii) Portable containers used to dispense drinking water shall be capable ofbeing tightly closed, and equipped with a tap. Water shall not be dipped fromcontainers.(iii) Any container used to distribute drinking water shall be clearlymarked as to the nature of its contents and not used for any other purpose.(iv) Where single service cups (to be used but once) are supplied, both asanitary container for the unused cups and a receptacle for disposing of theused cups shall be provided.(2) "Nonpotable water." (i) Outlets for nonpotable water, such as water forfire fighting purposes, shall be identified to indicate clearly that thewater is unsafe and is not to be used for drinking, washing, or cookingpurposes.(ii) There shall be no cross-connection, open or potential, between a systemfurnishing potable water and a system furnishing nonpotable water.(3) "Toilet facilities." (i) Toilets shall be provided for employeesaccording to the following Table D-65.2.TABLE D-65.2 - TOILET FACILITIES
Number of employeesMinimum number of facilities
20 or fewerOne.
More than 20, fewer than 200One toilet seat and one urinal per 40 employees.
More than 200One toilet seat and one urinal per 50 employees.
(ii) Under temporary field conditions, provisions shall be made to assurethat at least one toilet facility is available.(iii) Hazardous waste sites not provided with a sanitary sewer shall beprovided with the following toilet facilities unless prohibited by localcodes:(A) Chemical toilets;(B) Recirculating toilets;(C) Combustion toilets; or (D) Flush toilets. (iv) The requirementsof this paragraph for sanitation facilities shall not apply to mobile crewshaving transportation readily available to nearby toiletfacilities.(v) Doors entering toilet facilities shall be provided with entrance lockscontrolled from inside the facility.(4) "Food handling." All food service facilities and operations foremployees shall meet the applicable laws, ordinances, and regulations of thejurisdictions in which they are located.(5) "Temporary sleeping quarters." When temporary sleeping quarters areprovided, they shall be heated, ventilated, and lighted.(6) "Washing facilities." The employer shall provide adequate washingfacilities for employees engaged in operations where hazardous substances maybe harmful to employees. Such facilities shall be in near proximity to theworksite; in areas where exposures are below permissible exposure limits andpublished exposure levels and which are under the controls of the employer;and shall be so equipped as to enable employees to remove hazardoussubstances from themselves.(7) "Showers and change rooms." When hazardous waste clean-up or removaloperations commence on a site and the duration of the work will require sixmonths or greater time to complete, the employer shall provide showers andchange rooms for all employees exposed to hazardous substances and healthhazards involved in hazardous waste clean-up or removal operations.(i) Showers shall be provided and shall meet the requirements of 29 CFR1926.51(f)(4).(ii) Change rooms shall be provided and shall meet the requirements of 29CFR 1926.51(i). Change rooms shall consist of two separate change areasseparated by the shower area required in paragraph (n)(7)(i) of this section.One change area, with an exit leading off the worksite, shall provideemployees with a clean area where they can remove, store, and put on streetclothing. The second area, with an exit to the worksite, shall provideemployees with an area where they can put on, remove and store work clothingand personal protective equipment.(iii) Showers and change rooms shall be located in areas where exposures arebelow the permissible exposure limits and published exposure levels. If thiscannot be accomplished, then a ventilation system shall be provided that willsupply air that is below the permissible exposure limits and publishedexposure levels.(iv) Employers shall assure that employees shower at the end of their workshift and when leaving the hazardous waste site.(o) "New technology programs." (1) The employer shall develop and implementprocedures for the introduction of effective new technologies and equipmentdeveloped for the improved protection of employees working with hazardouswaste clean-up operations, and the same shall be implemented as part of thesite safety and health program to assure that employee protection is beingmaintained.(2) New technologies, equipment or control measures available to theindustry, such as the use of foams, absorbents, adsorbents, neutralizers, orother means to suppress the level of air contaminates while excavating thesite or for spill control, shall be evaluated by employers or theirrepresentatives. Such an evaluation shall be done to determine theeffectiveness of the new methods, materials, or equipment before implementingtheir use on a large scale for enhancing employee protection. Information anddata from manufacturers or suppliers may be used as part of the employer'sevaluation effort. Such evaluations shall be made available to OSHA uponrequest.(p) "Certain operations conducted under the Resource Conservation andRecovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)." Employers conducting operations at treatment,storage and disposal (TSD) facilities specified in paragraph (a)(1)(iv) ofthis section shall provide and implement the programs specified in thisparagraph. See the "Notes and Exceptions" to paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of thissection for employers not covered.(1) "Safety and health program." The employer shall develop and implement awritten safety and health program for employees involved in hazardous wasteoperations that shall be available for inspection by employees, theirrepresentatives and OSHA personnel. The program shall be designed toidentify, evaluate and control safety and health hazards in their facilitiesfor the purpose of employee protection, to provide for emergency responsemeeting the requirements of paragraph (p)(8) of this section and to addressas appropriate site analysis, engineering controls, maximum exposure limits,hazardous waste handling procedures and uses of new technologies.(2) "Hazard communication program." The employer shall implement a hazardcommunication program meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1926.59 as part ofthe employer's safety and program.Note to 1926.65 - The exemption for hazardous waste provided in 1926.59 isapplicable to this section.(3) "Medical surveillance program." The employer shall develop and implementa medical surveillance program meeting the requirements of paragraph (f) ofthis section.(4) "Decontamination program." The employer shall develop and implement adecontamination procedure meeting the requirements of paragraph (k) of thissection.(5) "New technology program." The employer shall develop and implementprocedures meeting the requirements of paragraph (o) of this section forintroducing new and innovative equipment into the workplace.(6) "Material handling program." Where employees will be handling drums orcontainers, the employer shall develop and implement procedures meeting therequirements of paragraphs (j)(1) (ii) through (viii) and (xi) of thissection, as well as (j)(3) and (j)(8) of this section prior to starting suchwork.(7) "Training program" - (i) "New employees." The employer shall develop andimplement a training program, which is part of the employer's safety andhealth program, for employees exposed to health hazards or hazardoussubstances at TSD operations to enable the employees to perform theirassigned duties and functions in a safe and healthful manner so as notendanger themselves or other employees. The initial training shall be for 24hours and refresher training shall be for eight hours annually. Employees whohave received the initial training required by this paragraph shall be givena written certificate attesting that they have successfully completed thenecessary training.(ii) "Current employees." Employers who can show by an employee's previouswork experience and/or training that the employee has had training equivalentto the initial training required by this paragraph, shall be considered asmeeting the initial training requirements of this paragraph as to thatemployee. Equivalent training includes the training that existing employeesmight have already received from actual site work experience. Currentemployees shall receive eight hours of refresher training annually.(iii) "Trainers." Trainers who teach initial training shall havesatisfactorily completed a training course for teaching the subjects they areexpected to teach or they shall have the academic credentials and instructionexperience necessary to demonstrate a good command of the subject matter ofthe courses and competent instructional skills.(8) "Emergency response program" - (i) "Emergency response plan." Anemergency response plan shall be developed and implemented by all employers.Such plans need not duplicate any of the subjects fully addressed in theemployer's contingency planning required by permits, such as those issued bythe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, provided that the contingency planis made part of the emergency response plan. The emergency response planshall be a written portion of the employers safety and health programrequired in paragraph (p)(1) of this section. Employers who will evacuatetheir employees from the worksite location when an emergency occurs and whodo not permit any of their employees to assist in handling the emergency areexempt from the requirements of paragraph (p)(8) if they provide an emergencyaction plan complying with 1926.35 of this part.(ii) "Elements of an emergency response plan." The employer shall develop anemergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum,the following areas to the extent that they are not addressed in any specificprogram required in this paragraph:(A) Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties.(B) Personnel roles, lines of authority, and communication.(C) Emergencyrecognition and prevention.(D) Safe distances and places of refuge.(E) Sitesecurity and control.(F) Evacuation routes and procedures.(G)Decontamination procedures.(H) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.(I) Emergency alerting and response procedures.(J) Critique of response andfollow-up.(K) PPE and emergency equipment.(iii) "Training."(A) Trainingfor emergency response employees shall be completed before they are calledupon to perform in real emergencies. Such training shall include the elementsof the emergency response plan, standard operating procedures the employerhas established for the job, the personal protective equipment to be worn andprocedures for handling emergency incidents.Exception Number 1: An employer need not train all employees to the degreespecified if the employer divides the work force in a manner such that asufficient number of employees who have responsibility to control emergencieshave the training specified, and all other employees, who may first respondto an emergency incident, have sufficient awareness training to recognizethat an emergency response situation exists and that they are instructed inthat case to summon the fully trained employees and not attempt controlactivities for which they are not trained.Exception Number 2: An employer need not train all employees to the degreespecified if arrangements have been made in advance for an outsidefully-trained emergency response team to respond in a reasonable period andall employees, who may come to the incident first, have sufficient awarenesstraining to recognize that an emergency response situation exists and theyhave been instructed to call the designated outside fully-trained emergencyresponse team for assistance.(B) Employee members of TSD facility emergency response organizations shallbe trained to a level of competence in the recognition of health and safetyhazards to protect themselves and other employees. This would includetraining in the methods used to minimize the risk from safety and healthhazards; in the safe use of control equipment; in the selection and use ofappropriate personal protective equipment; in the safe operating proceduresto be used at the incident scene; in the techniques of coordination withother employees to minimize risks; in the appropriate response to overexposure from health hazards or injury to themselves and other employees; andin the recognition of subsequent symptoms which may result from overexposures.(C) The employer shall certify that each covered employee has attended andsuccessfully completed the training required in paragraph (p)(8)(iii) of thissection, or shall certify the employee's competency at least yearly. Themethod used to demonstrate competency for certification of training shall berecorded and maintained by the employer.(iv) "Procedures for handling emergency incidents." (A) In addition to theelements for the emergency response plan required in paragraph (p)(8)(ii) ofthis section, the following elements shall be included for emergency responseplans to the extent that they do not repeat any information already containedin the emergency response plan:(1) Site topography, layout, and prevailing weather conditions.(2)Procedures for reporting incidents to local, state, and federal governmentalagencies.(B) The emergency response plan shall be compatible and integrated with thedisaster, fire and/or emergency response plans of local, state, and federalagencies.(C) The emergency response plan shall be rehearsed regularly as part of theoverall training program for site operations.(D) The site emergency response plan shall be reviewed periodically and, asnecessary, be amended to keep it current with new or changing site conditionsor information.(E) An employee alarm system shall be installed in accordance with 29 CFR1926.159 to notify employees of an emergency situation; to stop workactivities if necessary; to lower background noise in order to speedcommunication; and to begin emergency procedures.(F) Based upon the information available at time of the emergency, theemployer shall evaluate the incident and the site response capabilities andproceed with the appropriate steps to implement the site emergency responseplan.(q) "Emergency response to hazardous substance releases." This paragraphcovers employers whose employees are engaged in emergency response no matterwhere it occurs except that it does not cover employees engaged in operationsspecified in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) through (a)(1)(iv) of this section. Thoseemergency response organizations who have developed and implemented programsequivalent to this paragraph for handling releases of hazardous substancespursuant to section 303 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Actof 1986 (Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986, 42U.S.C. 11003) shall be deemed to have met the requirements of this paragraph.(1) "Emergency response plan." An emergency response plan shall be developedand implemented to handle anticipated emergencies prior to the commencementof emergency response operations. The plan shall be in writing and availablefor inspection and copying by employees, their representatives and OSHApersonnel. Employers who will evacuate their employees from the danger areawhen an emergency occurs, and who do not permit any of their employees toassist in handling the emergency, are exempt from the requirements of thisparagraph if they provide an emergency action plan in accordance with 1926.35of this part.(2) "Elements of an emergency response plan." The employer shall develop anemergency response plan for emergencies which shall address, as a minimum,the following to the extent that they are not addressed elsewhere:(i) Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside parties.(ii) Personnel roles, lines of authority, training, and communication.(iii)Emergency recognition and prevention.(iv) Safe distances and places ofrefuge.(v) Site security and control.(vi) Evacuation routes and procedures.(vii) Decontamination.(viii) Emergency medical treatment and first aid.(ix)Emergency alerting and response procedures.(x) Critique of response andfollow-up.(xi) PPE and emergency equipment.(xii) Emergency responseorganizations may use the local emergency response plan or the stateemergency response plan or both, as part of their emergency response plan toavoid duplication. Those items of the emergency response plan that are beingproperly addressed by the SARA Title III plans may be substituted into theiremergency plan or otherwise kept together for the employer and employee'suse.(3) "Procedures for handling emergency response." (i) The senior emergencyresponse official responding to an emergency shall become the individual incharge of a site-specific Incident Command System (ICS). All emergencyresponders and their communications shall be coordinated and controlledthrough the individual in charge of the ICS assisted by the senior officialpresent for each employer.Note to (q)(3)(i). - The "senior official" at an emergency response is themost senior official on the site who has the responsibility for controllingthe operations at the site. Initially it is the senior officer on thefirst-due piece of responding emergency apparatus to arrive on the incidentscene. As more senior officers arrive (i.e., battalion chief, fire chief,state law enforcement official, site coordinator, etc.) the position ispassed up the line of authority which has been previously established.(ii) The individual in charge of the ICS shall identify, to the extentpossible, all hazardous substances or conditions present and shall address asappropriate site analysis, use of engineering controls, maximum exposurelimits, hazardous substance handling procedures, and use of any newtechnologies.(iii) Based on the hazardous substances and/or conditions present, theindividual in charge of the ICS shall implement appropriate emergencyoperations, and assure that the personal protective equipment worn isappropriate for the hazards to be encountered. However, personal protectiveequipment shall meet, at a minimum, the criteria contained in 29 CFR 1926.97when worn while performing fire fighting operations beyond the incipientstage for any incident.(iv) Employees engaged in emergency response and exposed to hazardoussubstances presenting an inhalation hazard or potential inhalation hazardshall wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus while engagedin emergency response, until such time that the individual in charge of theICS determines through the use of air monitoring that a decreased level ofrespiratory protection will not result in hazardous exposures to employees.(v) The individual in charge of the ICS shall limit the number of emergencyresponse personnel at the emergency site, in those areas of potential oractual exposure to incident or site hazards, to those who are activelyperforming emergency operations. However, operations in hazardous areas shallbe performed using the buddy system in groups of two or more.(vi) Back-up personnel shall stand by with equipment ready to provideassistance or rescue. Advance first aid support personnel, as a minimum,shall also stand by with medical equipment and transportation capability.(vii) The individual in charge of the ICS shall designate a safety official,who is knowledgeable in the operations being implemented at the emergencyresponse site, with specific responsibility to identify and evaluate hazardsand to provide direction with respect to the safety of operations for theemergency at hand.(viii) When activities are judged by the safety official to be an IDLHcondition and/or to involve an imminent danger condition, the safety officialshall have the authority to alter, suspend, or terminate those activities.The safety official shall immediately inform the individual in charge of theICS of any actions needed to be taken to correct these hazards at theemergency scene.(ix) After emergency operations have terminated, the individual in charge ofthe ICS shall implement appropriate decontamination procedures.(x) When deemed necessary for meeting the tasks at hand, approvedself-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be used with approvedcylinders from other approved self-contained compressed air breathingapparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same capacity and pressurerating. All compressed air cylinders used with self-contained breathingapparatus shall meet U.S. Department of Transportation and National Institutefor Occupational Safety and Health criteria.(4) "Skilled support personnel." Personnel, not necessarily an employer'sown employees, who are skilled in the operation of certain equipment, such asmechanized earth moving or digging equipment or crane and hoisting equipment,and who are needed temporarily to perform immediate emergency support workthat cannot reasonably be performed in a timely fashion by an employer's ownemployees, and who will be or may be exposed to the hazards at an emergencyresponse scene, are not required to meet the training required in thisparagraph for the employer's regular employees. However, these personnelshall be given an initial briefing at the site prior to their participationin any emergency response. The initial briefing shall include instruction inthe wearing of appropriate personal protective equipment, what chemicalhazards are involved, and what duties are to be performed. All otherappropriate safety and health precautions provided to the employer's ownemployees shall be used to assure the safety and health of these personnel.(5) "Specialist employees." Employees who, in the course of their regularjob duties, work with and are trained in the hazards of specific hazardoussubstances, and who will be called upon to provide technical advice orassistance at a hazardous substance release incident to the individual incharge, shall receive training or demonstrate competency in the area of theirspecialization annually.(6) "Training." Training shall be based on the duties and function to beperformed by each responder of an emergency response organization. The skilland knowledge levels required for all new responders, those hired after theeffective date of this standard, shall be conveyed to them through trainingbefore they are permitted to take part in actual emergency operations on anincident. Employees who participate, or are expected to participate, inemergency response, shall be given training in accordance with the followingparagraphs:(i) "First responder awareness level." First responders at the awarenesslevel are individuals who are likely to witness or discover a hazardoussubstance release and who have been trained to initiate an emergency responsesequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release. They would takeno further action beyond notifying the authorities of the release. Firstresponders at the awareness level shall have sufficient training or have hadsufficient experience to objectively demonstrate competency in the followingareas:(A) An understanding of what hazardous substances are, and the risksassociated with them in an incident.(B) An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an emergencycreated when hazardous substances are present.(C) The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous substances in anemergency.(D) The ability to identify the hazardous substances, if possible.(E) An understanding of the role of the first responder awareness individualin the employer's emergency response plan including site security and controland the U.S. Department of Transportation's Emergency ResponseGuidebook.(F) The ability to realize the need for additional resources, and to makeappropriate notifications to the communication center.(ii) "First responder operations level." First responders at the operationslevel are individuals who respond to releases or potential releases ofhazardous substances as part of the initial response to the site for thepurpose of protecting nearby persons, property, or the environment from theeffects of the release. They are trained to respond in a defensive fashionwithout actually trying to stop the release. Their function is to contain therelease from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures.First responders at the operational level shall have received at least eighthours of training or have had sufficient experience to objectivelydemonstrate competency in the following areas in addition to those listed forthe awareness level and the employer shall so certify:(A) Knowledge of the basic hazard and risk assessment techniques.(B) Know how to select and use proper personal protective equipment providedto the first responder operational level.(C) An understanding of basic hazardous materials terms.(D) Knowhow to perform basic control, containment and/or confinement operationswithin the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipmentavailable with their unit.(E) Know how to implement basic decontamination procedures.(F) Anunderstanding of the relevant standard operating procedures and terminationprocedures.(iii) "Hazardous materials technician." Hazardous materials technicians areindividuals who respond to releases or potential releases for the purpose ofstopping the release. They assume a more aggressive role than a firstresponder at the operations level in that they will approach the point ofrelease in order to plug, patch or otherwise stop the release of a hazardoussubstance. Hazardous materials technicians shall have received at least 24hours of training equal to the first responder operations level and inaddition have competency in the following areas and the employer shall socertify:(A) Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan.(B) Know the classification, identification and verification of known andunknown materials by using field survey instruments and equipment.(C) Be able to function within an assigned role in the Incident CommandSystem.(D) Know how to select and use proper specialized chemical personalprotective equipment provided to the hazardous materials technician.(E) Understand hazard and risk assessment techniques.(F) Be able toperform advance control, containment, and/or confinement operations withinthe capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipment availablewith the unit.(G) Understand and implement decontamination procedures.(H)Understand termination procedures.(I) Understand basic chemical andtoxicological terminology and behavior.(iv) "Hazardous materialsspecialist." Hazardous materials specialists are individuals who respond withand provide support to hazardous materials technicians. Their duties parallelthose of the hazardous materials technician, however, those duties require amore directed or specific knowledge of the various substances they may becalled upon to contain. The hazardous materials specialist would also act asthe site liaison with Federal, state, local and other government authoritiesin regards to site activities. Hazardous materials specialists shall havereceived at least 24 hours of training equal to the technician level and inaddition have competency in the following areas and the employer shall socertify:(A) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan.(B)Understand classification, identification and verification of known andunknown materials by using advanced survey instruments andequipment.(C) Know of the state emergency response plan.(D) Be able to selectand use proper specialized chemical personal protective equipment provided tothe hazardous materials specialist.(E) Understand in-depth hazard and risk techniques.(F) Be able toperform specialized control, containment, and/or confinement operationswithin the capabilities of the resources and personal protective equipmentavailable.(G) Be able to determine and implement decontamination procedures.(H) Have the ability to develop a site safety and control plan.(I)Understand chemical, radiological and toxicological terminology andbehavior.(v) "On scene incident commander." Incident commanders, who will assumecontrol of the incident scene beyond the first responder awareness level,shall receive at least 24 hours of training equal to the first responderoperations level and in addition have competency in the following areas andthe employer shall so certify:(A) Know and be able to implement the employer's incident commandsystem.(B) Know how to implement the employer's emergency response plan.(C)Know and understand the hazards and risks associated with employees workingin chemical protective clothing.(D) Know how to implement the local emergency response plan.(E)Know of the state emergency response plan and of the Federal RegionalResponse Team.(F) Know and understand the importance of decontaminationprocedures.(7) "Trainers." Trainers who teach any of the above trainingsubjects shall have satisfactorily completed a training course for teachingthe subjects they are expected to teach, such as the courses offered by theU.S. National Fire Academy, or they shall have the training and/or academiccredentials and instructional experience necessary to demonstrate competentinstructional skills and a good command of the subject matter of the coursesthey are to teach.(8) "Refresher training." (i) Those employees who are trained in accordancewith paragraph (q)(6) of this section shall receive annual refresher trainingof sufficient content and duration to maintain their competencies, or shalldemonstrate competency in those areas at least yearly.(ii) A statement shall be made of the training or competency, and if astatement of competency is made, the employer shall keep a record of themethodology used to demonstrate competency.(9) "Medical surveillance and consultation." (i) Members of an organized anddesignated HAZMAT team and hazardous materials specialists shall receive abaseline physical examination and be provided with medical surveillance asrequired in paragraph (f) of this section.(ii) Any emergency response employees who exhibits signs or symptoms whichmay have resulted from exposure to hazardous substances during the course ofan emergency incident, either immediately or subsequently, shall be providedwith medical consultation as required in paragraph (f)(3)(ii) of thissection.(10) "Chemical protective clothing." Chemical protective clothing andequipment to be used by organized and designated HAZMAT team members, or tobe used by hazardous materials specialists, shall meet the requirements ofparagraphs (g) (3) through (5) of this section.(11) "Post-emergency response operations." Upon completion of the emergencyresponse, if it is determined that it is necessary to remove hazardoussubstances, health hazards, and materials contaminated with them (such ascontaminated soil or other elements of the natural environment) from the siteof the incident, the employer conducting the clean-up shall comply with oneof the following:(i) Meet all of the requirements of paragraphs (b) through (o) of thissection; or(ii) Where the clean-up is done on plant property using plant orworkplace employees, such employees shall have completed the trainingrequirements of the following: 29 CFR 1926.35, 1926.59, and 1926.103, andother appropriate safety and health training made necessary by the tasks thatthey are expected to be performed such as personal protective equipment anddecontamination procedures. All equipment to be used in the performance ofthe clean-up work shall be in serviceable condition and shall have beeninspected prior to use.1926.65 Appendix A Personal Protective Equipment Test MethodsNote: The following appendices serve as non-mandatory guidelines to assistemployees and employers in complying with the appropriate requirements ofthis section. However 1926.65(g) makes mandatory in certain circumstances theuse of Level A and Level B PPE protection.This appendix sets forth the non-mandatory examples of tests which may beused to evaluate compliance with 1926.65(g)(4)(ii) and (iii). Other tests andother challenge agents may be used to evaluate compliance.A. "Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit pressure test"1.0 - Scope 1.1 This practice measures the ability of a gas tighttotally-encapsulating chemical protective suit material, seams, and closuresto maintain a fixed positive pressure. The results of this practice allow thegas tight integrity of a totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit to beevaluated. 1.2 Resistance of the suit materials to permeation, penetration, anddegradation by specific hazardous substances is not determined by this testmethod.2.0 - Definition of terms 2.1 "Totally-encapsulated chemicalprotective suit (TECP suit)" means a full body garment which is constructedof protective clothing materials; covers the wearer's torso, head, arms, legsand respirator; may cover the wearer's hands and feet with tightly attachedgloves and boots; completely encloses the wearer and respirator by itself orin combination with the wearer's gloves and boots.2.2 "Protective clothing material" means any material or combination ofmaterials used in an item of clothing for the purpose of isolating parts ofthe body from direct contact with a potentially hazardous liquid or gaseouschemicals.2.3 "Gas tight" means, for the purpose of this test method, the limited flowof a gas under pressure from the inside of a TECP suit to atmosphere at aprescribed pressure and time interval.3.0 - Summary of test method 3.1 The TECP suit is visually inspectedand modified for the test. The test apparatus is attached to the suit topermit inflation to the pre-test suit expansion pressure for removal of suitwrinkles and creases. The pressure is lowered to the test pressure andmonitored for three minutes. If the pressure drop is excessive, the TECP suitfails the test and is removed from service. The test is repeated after leaklocation and repair.4.0 - Required Supplies 4.1 Source of compressed air. 4.2 Testapparatus for suit testing, including a pressure measurement device with asensitivity of at least 1/4 inch water gauge.4.3 Vent valve closure plugs or sealing tape. 4.4 Soapy watersolution and soft brush. 4.5 Stop watch or appropriate timing device.5.0 -Safety Precautions 5.1 Care shall be taken to provide the correct pressuresafety devices required for the source of compressed air used.6.0 - Test Procedure 6.1 Prior to each test, the tester shallperform a visual inspection of the suit. Check the suit for seam integrity byvisually examining the seams and gently pulling on the seams. Ensure that allair supply lines, fittings, visor, zippers, and valves are secure and show nosigns of deterioration.6.1.1 Seal off the vent valves along with any other normal inlet or exhaustpoints (such as umbilical air line fittings or face piece opening) with tapeor other appropriate means (caps, plugs, fixture, etc.). Care should beexercised in the sealing process not to damage any of the suit components.6.1.2 Close all closure assemblies. 6.1.3 Prepare the suit forinflation by providing an improvised connection point on the suit forconnecting an airline. Attach the pressure test apparatus to the suit topermit suit inflation from a compressed air source equipped with a pressureindicating regulator. The leak tightness of the pressure test apparatusshould be tested before and after each test by closing off the end of thetubing attached to the suit and assuring a pressure of three inches watergauge for three minutes can be maintained. If a component is removed for thetest, that component shall be replaced and a second test conducted withanother component removed to permit a complete test of theensemble.6.1.4 The pre-test expansion pressure (A) and the suit test pressure (B)shall be supplied by the suit manufacturer, but in no case shall they be lessthan: (A)=three inches water gauge; and (B)=two inches water gauge. Theending suit pressure (C) shall be no less than 80 percent of the testpressure (B); i.e., the pressure drop shall not exceed 20 percent of the testpressure (B).6.1.5 Inflate the suit until the pressure inside is equal to pressure (A),the pre-test expansion suit pressure. Allow at least one minute to fill outthe wrinkles in the suit. Release sufficient air to reduce the suit pressureto pressure (B), the suit test pressure. Begin timing. At the end of threeminutes, record the suit pressure as pressure (C), the ending suit pressure.The difference between the suit test pressure and the ending suit testpressure (B-C) shall be defined as the suit pressure drop.6.1.6 If the suit pressure drop is more than 20 percent of the suit testpressure (B) during the three-minute test period, the suit fails the test andshall be removed from service.7.0 - Retest Procedure 7.1 If the suit fails the test check forleaks by inflating the suit to pressure (A) and brushing or wiping the entiresuit (including seams, closures, lens gaskets, glove-to-sleeve joints, etc.)with a mild soap and water solution. Observe the suit for the formation ofsoap bubbles, which is an indication of a leak. Repair all identifiedleaks. 7.2 Retest the TECP suit as outlined in Test procedure 6.0.8.0 -Report 8.1 Each TECP suit tested by this practice shall have the followinginformation recorded:8.1.1 Unique identification number, identifying brand name, date ofpurchase, material of construction, and unique fit features, e.g., specialbreathing apparatus.8.1.2 The actual values for test pressures (A), (B), and (C) shall berecorded along with the specific observation times. If the ending pressure(C) is less than 80 percent of the test pressure (B), the suit shall beidentified as failing the test. When possible, the specific leak locationshall be identified in the test records. Retest pressure data shall berecorded as an additional test.8.1.3 The source of the test apparatus used shall be identified and thesensitivity of the pressure gauge shall be recorded.8.1.4 Records shall be kept for each pressure test even if repairs are beingmade at the test location.CAUTIONVisually inspect all parts of the suit to be sure they are positionedcorrectly and secured tightly before putting the suit back into service.Special care should be taken to examine each exhaust valve to make sure it isnot blocked.Care should also be exercised to assure that the inside and outside of thesuit is completely dry before it is put into storage.B. "Totally-encapsulating chemical protective suit qualitative leak test"1.0 - Scope 1.1 This practice semi-qualitatively tests gas tighttotally-encapsulating chemical protective suit integrity by detecting inwardleakage of ammonia vapor. Since no modifications are made to the suit tocarry out this test, the results from this practice provide a realistic testfor the integrity of the entire suit. 1.2 Resistance of the suit materials to permeation, penetration, anddegradation is not determined by this test method. ASTM test methods areavailable to test suit materials for these characteristics and the tests areusually conducted by the manufacturers of the suits.2.0 - Definition of terms 2.1 "Totally-encapsulated chemicalprotective suit (TECP suit)" means a full body garment which is constructedof protective clothing materials; covers the wearer's torso, head, arms, legsand respirator; may cover the wearer's hands and feet with tightly attachedgloves and boots; completely encloses the wearer and respirator by itself orin combination with the wearer's gloves, and boots. 2.2 "Protective clothing material" means any material or combination ofmaterials used in an item of clothing for the purpose of isolating parts ofthe body from direct contact with a potentially hazardous liquid or gaseouschemicals.2.3 "Gas tight" means, for the purpose of this test method, the limited flowof a gas under pressure from the inside of a TECP suit to atmosphere at aprescribed pressure and time interval.2.4 "Intrusion Coefficient" means a number expressing the level ofprotection provided by a gas tight totally-encapsulating chemical protectivesuit. The intrusion coefficient is calculated by dividing the test roomchallenge agent concentration by the concentration of challenge agent foundinside the suit. The accuracy of the intrusion coefficient is dependent onthe challenge agent monitoring methods. The larger the intrusion coefficientthe greater the protection provided by the TECP suit.3.0 - Summary of recommended practice 3.1 The volume of concentratedaqueous ammonia solution (ammonia hydroxide NH(4)OH) required to generate thetest atmosphere is determined using the directions outlined in 6.1. The suitis donned by a person wearing the appropriate respiratory equipment (either apositive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus or a positive pressuresupplied air respirator) and worn inside the enclosed test room. Theconcentrated aqueous ammonia solution is taken by the suited individual intothe test room and poured into an open plastic pan. A two-minute evaporationperiod is observed before the test room concentration is measured, using ahigh range ammonia length of stain detector tube. When the ammonia vaporreaches a concentration of between 1000 and 1200 ppm, the suited individualstarts a standardized exercise protocol to stress and flex the suit. Afterthis protocol is completed, the test room concentration is measured again.The suited individual exits the test room and his stand-by person measuresthe ammonia concentration inside the suit using a low range ammonia length ofstain detector tube or other more sensitive ammonia detector. A stand-byperson is required to observe the test individual during the test procedure;aid the person in donning and doffing the TECP suit; and monitor the suitinterior. The intrusion coefficient of the suit can be calculated by dividingthe average test area concentration by the interior suit concentration. Acolorimetric ammonia indicator strip of bromophenol blue or equivalent isplaced on the inside of the suit face piece lens so that the suitedindividual is able to detect a color change and know if the suit has asignificant leak. If a color change is observed the individual shall leavethe test room immediately.4.0 - Required supplies 4.1 A supply of concentrated aqueousammonium hydroxide (58% by weight). 4.2 A supply of bromophenol/blueindicating paper or equivalent, sensitive to 5-10 ppm ammonia or greater overa two-minute period of exposure. [pH 3.0 (yellow) to pH 4.6 (blue)] 4.3 Asupply of high range (0.5-10 volume percent) and low range (5-700 ppm)detector tubes for ammonia and the corresponding sampling pump. Moresensitive ammonia detectors can be substituted for the low range detectortubes to improve the sensitivity of this practice.4.4 A shallow plastic pan (PVC) at least 12":14":1" and a half pint plasticcontainer (PVC) with tightly closing lid.4.5 A graduated cylinder or other volumetric measuring device of at least 50milliliters in volume with an accuracy of at least plus or minus milliliters.5.0 - Safety precautions 5.1 Concentrated aqueous ammoniumhydroxide, NH(4)OH, is a corrosive volatile liquid requiring eye, skin, andrespiratory protection. The person conducting the test shall review the MSDSfor aqueous ammonia.5.2 Since the established permissible exposure limit for ammonia is 35 ppmas a 15 minute STEL, only persons wearing a positive pressure self-containedbreathing apparatus or a positive pressure supplied air respirator shall bein the chamber. Normally only the person wearing the totally-encapsulatingsuit will be inside the chamber. A stand-by person shall have a positivepressure self-contained breathing apparatus, or a positive pressure suppliedair respirator available to enter the test area should the suited individualneed assistance.5.3 A method to monitor the suited individual must be used during thistest. Visual contact is the simplest but other methods using communicationdevices are acceptable.5.4 The test room shall be large enough to allow the exercise protocol tobe carried out and then to be ventilated to allow for easy exhaust of theammonia test atmosphere after the test(s) are completed.5.5 Individuals shall be medically screened for the use of respiratoryprotection and checked for allergies to ammonia before participating in thistest procedure.6.0 - Test procedure 6.1.1 Measure the test area to the nearestfoot and calculate its volume in cubic feet. Multiply the test area volume by0.2 milliliters of concentrated aqueous ammonia solution per cubic foot oftest area volume to determine the approximate volume of concentrated aqueousammonia required to generate 1000 ppm in the test area.6.1.2 Measure this volume from the supply of concentrated aqueous ammoniaand place it into a closed plastic container.6.1.3 Place the container, several high range ammonia detector tubes, andthe pump in the clean test pan and locate it near the test area entry door sothat the suited individual has easy access to these supplies.6.2.1 In a non-contaminated atmosphere, open a pre-sealed ammonia indicatorstrip and fasten one end of the strip to the inside of the suit face shieldlens where it can be seen by the wearer. Moisten the indicator strip withdistilled water. Care shall be taken not to contaminate the detector part ofthe indicator paper by touching it. A small piece of masking tape orequivalent should be used to attach the indicator strip to the interior ofthe suit face shield.6.2.2 If problems are encountered with this method of attachment, theindicator strip can be attached to the outside of the respirator face piecelens being used during the test.6.3 Don the respiratory protective device normally used with the suit, andthen don the TECP suit to be tested. Check to be sure all openings which areintended to be sealed (zippers, gloves, etc.) are completely sealed. DO NOT,however, plug off any venting valves.6.4 Step into the enclosed test room such as a closet, bathroom, or testbooth, equipped with an exhaust fan. No air should be exhausted from thechamber during the test because this will dilute the ammonia challengeconcentrations.6.5 Open the container with the pre-measured volume of concentrated aqueousammonia within the enclosed test room, and pour the liquid into the emptyplastic test pan. Wait two minutes to allow for adequate volatilization ofthe concentrated aqueous ammonia. A small mixing fan can be used near theevaporation pan to increase the evaporation rate of the ammonia solution.6.6 After two minutes a determination of the ammonia concentration withinthe chamber should be made using the high range colorimetric detector tube. Aconcentration of 1000 ppm ammonia or greater shall be generated before theexercises are started.6.7 To test the integrity of the suit the following four minute exerciseprotocol should be followed:6.7.1 Raising the arms above the head with at least 15 raising motionscompleted in one minute.6.7.2 Walking in place for one minute with at least 15 raising motions ofeach leg in a one-minute period.6.7.3 Touching the toes with a least 10 complete motions of the arms fromabove the head to touching of the toes in a one-minute period.6.7.4 Knee bends with at least 10 complete standing and squatting motionsin a one-minute period.6.8 If at any time during the test the colorimetric indicating paper shouldchange colors, the test should be stopped and section 6.10 and 6.12 initiated(See paragraph 4.2).6.9 After completion of the test exercise, the test area concentrationshould be measured again using the high range colorimetric detector tube.6.10 Exit the test area. 6.11 The opening created by the suitzipper or other appropriate suit penetration should be used to determine theammonia concentration in the suit with the low range length of stain detectortube or other ammonia monitor. The internal TECP suit air should be sampledfar enough from the enclosed test area to prevent a false ammoniareading.6.12 After completion of the measurement of the suit interior ammoniaconcentration the test is concluded and the suit is doffed and the respiratorremoved.6.13 The ventilating fan for the test room should be turned on and allowedto run for enough time to remove the ammonia gas. The fan shall be vented tothe outside of the building.6.14 Any detectable ammonia in the suit interior (five ppm ammonia (NH(3))or more for the length of stain detector tube) indicates that the suit hasfailed the test. When other ammonia detectors are used a lower level ofdetection is possible, and it should be specified as the pass/fail criteria.6.15 By following this test method, an intrusion coefficient ofapproximately 200 or more can be measured with the suit in a completelyoperational condition. If the intrusion coefficient is 200 or more, then thesuit is suitable for emergency response and field use.7.0 - Retest procedures 7.1 If the suit fails this test, check forleaks by following the pressure test in test A above. 7.2 Retest the TECP suit as outlined in the test procedure 6.0.8.0- Report 8.1 Each gas tight totally-encapsulating chemical protective suittested by this practice shall have the following informationrecorded.8.1.1 Unique identification number, identifying brand name, date ofpurchase, material of construction, and unique suit features; e.g., specialbreathing apparatus.8.1.2 General description of test room used for test. 8.1.3 Brandname and purchase date of ammonia detector strips and color changedata.8.1.4 Brand name, sampling range, and expiration date of the length ofstain ammonia detector tubes. The brand name and model of the sampling pumpshould also be recorded. If another type of ammonia detector is used, itshould be identified along with its minimum detection limit for ammonia.8.1.5 Actual test results shall list the two test area concentrations,their average, the interior suit concentration, and the calculated intrusioncoefficient. Retest data shall be recorded as an additional test.8.2 The evaluation of the data shall be specified as "suit passed" or "suitfailed," and the date of the test. Any detectable ammonia (five ppm orgreater for the length of stain detector tube) in the suit interior indicatesthe suit has failed this test. When other ammonia detectors are used, a lowerlevel of detection is possible and it should be specified as the pass failcriteria.CAUTIONVisually inspect all parts of the suit to be sure they are positionedcorrectly and secured tightly before putting the suit back into service.Special care should be taken to examine each exhaust valve to make sure it isnot blocked.Care should also be exercised to assure that the inside and outside of thesuit is completely dry before it is put into storage.1926.65 Appendix B General Description and Discussion of the Levels ofProtection and Protective GearThis appendix sets forth information about personal protective equipment(PPE) protection levels which may be used to assist employers in complyingwith the PPE requirements of this section.As required by the standard, PPE must be selected which will protectemployees from the specific hazards which they are likely to encounter duringtheir work on-site.Selection of the appropriate PPE is a complex process which should take intoconsideration a variety of factors. Key factors involved in this process areidentification of the hazards, or suspected hazards; their routes ofpotential hazard to employees (inhalation, skin absorption, ingestion, andeye or skin contact); and the performance of the PPE materials (and seams) inproviding a barrier to these hazards. The amount of protection provided byPPE is material-hazard specific. That is, protective equipment materials willprotect well against some hazardous substances and poorly, or not at all,against others. In many instances, protective equipment materials cannot befound which will provide continuous protection from the particular hazardoussubstance. In these cases the breakthrough time of the protective materialshould exceed the work durations.Other factors in this selection process to be considered are matching thePPE to the employee's work requirements and task-specific conditions. Thedurability of PPE materials, such as tear strength and seam strength, shouldbe considered in relation to the employee's tasks. The effects of PPE inrelation to heat stress and task duration are a factor in selecting and usingPPE. In some cases layers of PPE may be necessary to provide sufficientprotection, or to protect expensive PPE inner garments, suits or equipment.The more that is known about the hazards at the site, the easier the job ofPPE selection becomes. As more information about the hazards and conditionsat the site becomes available, the site supervisor can make decisions toup-grade or down-grade the level of PPE protection to match the tasks athand.The following are guidelines which an employer can use to begin theselection of the appropriate PPE. As noted above, the site information maysuggest the use of combinations of PPE selected from the different protectionlevels (i.e., A, B, C, or D) as being more suitable to the hazards of thework. It should be cautioned that the listing below does not fully addressthe performance of the specific PPE material in relation to the specifichazards at the job site, and that PPE selection, evaluation and re-selectionis an ongoing process until sufficient information about the hazards and PPEperformance is obtained.Part A. Personal protective equipment is divided into four categories basedon the degree of protection afforded. (See Part B of this appendix forfurther explanation of Levels A, B, C, and D hazards.)I. Level A - To be selected when the greatest level of skin, respiratory,and eye protection is required.The following constitute Level A equipment; it may be used as appropriate;1. Positive pressure, full face-piece self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA,approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH).2. Totally-encapsulating chemical-protective suit.3. Coveralls.(1)4. Long underwear.(1)5. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.6. Gloves, inner,chemical-resistant.7. Boots, chemical-resistant, steel toe and shank.8.Hard hat (under suit).(1)9. Disposable protective suit, gloves and boots(depending on suit construction, may be worn over totally-encapsulatingsuit).II. Level B - The highest level of respiratory protection is necessary but alesser level of skin protection is needed.The following constitute Level B equipment; it may be used as appropriate.1. Positive pressure, full-facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA), or positive pressure supplied air respirator with escape SCBA (NIOSHapproved).2. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls and long-sleeved jacket;coveralls; one or two-piece chemical-splash suit; disposablechemical-resistant overalls).3. Coveralls.(1)4. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.5. Gloves,inner, chemical-resistant.6. Boots, outer, chemical-resistant steel toe andshank.7. Boot-covers, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).(1)8. Hardhat.(1)9. [Reserved]10. Face shield.(1)III. Level C - The concentration(s)and type(s) of airborne substance(s) is known and the criteria for using airpurifying respirators are met.The following constitute Level C equipment; it may be used as appropriate.1. Full-face or half-mask, air purifying respirators (NIOSHapproved).2. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls; two-piecechemical-splash suit; disposable chemical-resistant overalls).3. Coveralls.(1)4. Gloves, outer, chemical-resistant.5. Gloves,inner, chemical-resistant.6. Boots (outer), chemical-resistant steel toe andshank.(1)7. Boot-covers, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).(1)8. Hardhat.(1)9. Escape mask.(1)10. Face shield.(1)IV. Level D - A work uniformaffording minimal protection, used for nuisance contamination only.The following constitute Level D equipment; it may be used as appropriate:1. Coveralls.2. Gloves.(1)3. Boots/shoes, chemical-resistant steeltoe and shank.4. Boots, outer, chemical-resistant (disposable).(1)5. Safetyglasses or chemical splash goggles*.6. Hard hat.(1)7. Escape mask.(1)8.Face shield.(1)___________Footnote (1) Optional, as applicable.Part B. The types of hazards for which levels A, B, C, and D protection areappropriate are described below:I. Level A - Level A protection should be used when:1. The hazardous substance has been identified and requires the highestlevel of protection for skin, eyes, and the respiratory system based oneither the measured (or potential for) high concentration of atmosphericvapors, gases, or particulates; or the site operations and work functionsinvolve a high potential for splash, immersion, or exposure to unexpectedvapors, gases, or particulates of materials that are harmful to skin orcapable of being absorbed through the skin;2. Substances with a high degree of hazard to the skin are known orsuspected to be present, and skin contact is possible; or 3. Operations arebeing conducted in confined, poorly ventilated areas, and the absence ofconditions requiring Level A have not yet been determined.II. Level B - Level B protection should be used when:1. The type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been identifiedand require a high level of respiratory protection, but less skin protection;2. The atmosphere contains less than 19.5 percent oxygen; or 3. Thepresence of incompletely identified vapors or gases is indicated by adirect-reading organic vapor detection instrument, but vapors and gases arenot suspected of containing high levels of chemicals harmful to skin orcapable of being absorbed through the skin.Note: This involves atmospheres with IDLH concentrations of specificsubstances that present severe inhalation hazards and that do not represent asevere skin hazard; or that do not meet the criteria for use of air-purifyingrespirators.III. Level C - Level C protection should be used when:1. The atmospheric contaminants, liquid splashes, or other direct contactwill not adversely affect or be absorbed through any exposed skin;2. The types of air contaminants have been identified, concentrationsmeasured, and an air-purifying respirator is available that can remove thecontaminants; and3. All criteria for the use of air-purifying respirators are met.IV. Level D - Level D protection should be used when:1. The atmospherecontains no known hazard; and2. Work functions preclude splashes, immersion,or the potential for unexpected inhalation of or contact with hazardouslevels of any chemicals.Note: As stated before, combinations of personal protective equipment otherthan those described for Levels A, B, C, and D protection may be moreappropriate and may be used to provide the proper level of protection.As an aid in selecting suitable chemical protective clothing, it should benoted that the National Fire Protection Association is developing standardson chemical protective clothing. These standards are currently undergoingpublic review prior to adoption, including:NFPA 1991 - Standard on Vapor-Protective Suits for Hazardous ChemicalEmergencies (EPA Level A Protective Clothing) NFPA 1992 - Standard on LiquidSplash-Protective Suits for Hazardous Chemical Emergencies (EPA Level BProtective Clothing) NFPA 1993 - Standard on Liquid Splash-Protective Suitsfor Non-emergency, Non-flammable Hazardous Chemical Situations (EPA Level BProtective Clothing)These standards would apply documentation and performance requirements tothe manufacture of chemical protective suits. Chemical protective suitsmeeting these requirements would be labeled as compliant with the appropriatestandard. When these standards are adopted by the National Fire ProtectionAssociation, it is recommended that chemical protective suits which meetthese standards be used.1926.65 App C Compliance Guidelines1. "Occupational Safety and Health Program." Each hazardous waste siteclean-up effort will require an occupational safety and health program headedby the site coordinator or the employer's representative. The purpose of theprogram will be the protection of employees at the site and will be anextension of the employer's overall safety and health program. The programwill need to be developed before work begins on the site and implemented aswork proceeds as stated in paragraph (b). The program is to facilitatecoordination and communication of safety and health issues among personnelresponsible for the various activities which will take place at the site. Itwill provide the overall means for planning and implementing the neededsafety and health training and job orientation of employees who will beworking at the site. The program will provide the means for identifying andcontrolling worksite hazards and the means for monitoring programeffectiveness. The program will need to cover the responsibilities andauthority of the site coordinator or the employer's manager on the site forthe safety and health of employees at the site, and the relationships withcontractors or support services as to what each employer's safety and healthresponsibilities are for their employees on the site. Each contractor on thesite needs to have its own safety and health program so structured that itwill smoothly interface with the program of the site coordinator or principalcontractor.Also those employers involved with treating, storing or disposal ofhazardous waste as covered in paragraph (p) must have implemented a safetyand health program for their employees. This program is to include the hazardcommunication program required in paragraph (p)(1) and the training requiredin paragraphs (p)(7) and (p)(8) as parts of the employers comprehensiveoverall safety and health program. This program is to be in writing.Each site or workplace safety and health program will need to include thefollowing: (1) Policy statements of the line of authority and accountabilityfor implementing the program, the objectives of the program and the role ofthe site safety and health supervisor or manager and staff; (2) means ormethods for the development of procedures for identifying and controllingworkplace hazards at the site; (3) means or methods for the development andcommunication to employees of the various plans, work rules, standardoperating procedures and practices that pertain to individual employees andsupervisors; (4) means for the training of supervisors and employees todevelop the needed skills and knowledge to perform their work in a safe andhealthful manner; (5) means to anticipate and prepare for emergencysituations; and (6) means for obtaining information feedback to aid inevaluating the program and for improving the effectiveness of the program.The management and employees should be trying continually to improve theeffectiveness of the program thereby enhancing the protection being affordedthose working on the site.Accidents on the site or workplace should be investigated to provideinformation on how such occurrences can be avoided in the future. Wheninjuries or illnesses occur on the site or workplace, they will need to beinvestigated to determine what needs to be done to prevent this incident fromoccurring again. Such information will need to be used as feedback on theeffectiveness of the program and the information turned into positive stepsto prevent any reoccurrence. Receipt of employee suggestions or complaintsrelating to safety and health issues involved with site or workplaceactivities is also a feedback mechanism that can be used effectively toimprove the program and may serve in part as an evaluative tool(s).For the development and implementation of the program to be the mosteffective, professional safety and health personnel should be used. CertifiedSafety Professionals, Board Certified Industrial Hygienists or RegisteredProfessional Safety Engineers are good examples of professional stature forsafety and health managers who will administer the employer's program.2. "Training." The training programs for employees subject to therequirements of paragraph (e) of this standard should address: the safety andhealth hazards employees should expect to find on hazardous waste clean-upsites; what control measures or techniques are effective for those hazards;what monitoring procedures are effective in characterizing exposure levels;what makes an effective employer's safety and health program; what a sitesafety and health plan should include; hands on training with personalprotective equipment and clothing they may be expected to use; the contentsof the OSHA standard relevant to the employee's duties and function; and,employee's responsibilities under OSHA and other regulations. Supervisorswill need training in their responsibilities under the safety and healthprogram and its subject areas such as the spill containment program, thepersonal protective equipment program, the medical surveillance program, theemergency response plan and other areas.The training programs for employees subject to the requirements of paragraph(p) of this standard should address: the employers safety and health programelements impacting employees; the hazard communication program; the medicalsurveillance program; the hazards and the controls for such hazards thatemployees need to know for their job duties and functions. All require annualrefresher training.The training programs for employees covered by the requirements of paragraph(q) of this standard should address those competencies required for thevarious levels of response such as: the hazards associated with hazardoussubstances; hazard identification and awareness; notification of appropriatepersons; the need for and use of personal protective equipment includingrespirators; the decontamination procedures to be used; preplanningactivities for hazardous substance incidents including the emergency responseplan; company standard operating procedures for hazardous substance emergencyresponses; the use of the incident command system and other subjects.Hands-on training should be stressed whenever possible. Critiques done afteran incident which include an evaluation of what worked and what did not andhow could the incident be better handled the next time may be counted astraining time.For hazardous materials specialists (usually members of hazardous materialsteams), the training should address the care, use and/or testing of chemicalprotective clothing including totally encapsulating suits, the medicalsurveillance program, the standard operating procedures for the hazardousmaterials team including the use of plugging and patching equipment and othersubject areas.Officers and leaders who may be expected to be in charge at an incidentshould be fully knowledgeable of their company's incident command system.They should know where and how to obtain additional assistance and befamiliar with the local district's emergency response plan and the stateemergency response plan.Specialist employees such as technical experts, medical experts orenvironmental experts that work with hazardous materials in their regularjobs, who may be sent to the incident scene by the shipper, manufacturer orgovernmental agency to advise and assist the person in charge of the incidentshould have training on an annual basis. Their training should include thecare and use of personal protective equipment including respirators;knowledge of the incident command system and how they are to relate to it;and those areas needed to keep them current in their respective field as itrelates to safety and health involving specific hazardous substances.Those skilled support personnel, such as employees who work for public worksdepartments or equipment operators who operate bulldozers, sand trucks,backhoes, etc., who may be called to the incident scene to provide emergencysupport assistance, should have at least a safety and health briefing beforeentering the area of potential or actual exposure. These skilled supportpersonnel, who have not been a part of the emergency response plan and do notmeet the training requirements, should be made aware of the hazards they faceand should be provided all necessary protective clothing and equipmentrequired for their tasks.There are two National Fire Protection Association standards, NFPA 472 -"Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous MaterialIncidents" and NFPA 471 - "Recommended Practice for Responding to HazardousMaterial Incidents", which are excellent resource documents to aid firedepartments and other emergency response organizations in developing theirtraining program materials. NFPA 472 provides guidance on the skills andknowledge needed for first responder awareness level, first responderoperations level, hazmat technicians, and hazmat specialist. It also offersguidance for the officer corp who will be in charge of hazardous substanceincidents.3. "Decontamination." Decontamination procedures should be tailored to thespecific hazards of the site, and may vary in complexity and number of steps,depending on the level of hazard and the employee's exposure to the hazard.Decontamination procedures and PPE decontamination methods will varydepending upon the specific substance, since one procedure or method may notwork for all substances. Evaluation of decontamination methods and proceduresshould be performed, as necessary, to assure that employees are not exposedto hazards by re-using PPE. References in appendix D may be used for guidancein establishing an effective decontamination program. In addition, the U.S.Coast Guard's Manual, "Policy Guidance for Response to Hazardous ChemicalReleases," U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC (COMDTINSTM16465.30) is a good reference for establishing an effective decontaminationprogram.4. "Emergency response plans." States, along with designated districtswithin the states, will be developing or have developed local emergencyresponse plans. These state and district plans should be utilized in theemergency response plans called for in the standard. Each employer shouldassure that its emergency response plan is compatible with the local plan.The major reference being used to aid in developing the state and localdistrict plans is the "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide", NRT-1.The current Emergency Response Guidebook from the U.S. Department ofTransportation, CMA's CHEMTREC and the Fire Service Emergency ManagementHandbook may also be used as resources.Employers involved with treatment, storage, and disposal facilities forhazardous waste, which have the required contingency plan called for by theirpermit, would not need to duplicate the same planning elements. Those itemsof the emergency response plan that are properly addressed in the contingencyplan may be substituted into the emergency response plan required in 1926.65or otherwise kept together for employer and employee use.5. "Personal protective equipment programs." The purpose of personalprotective clothing and equipment (PPE) is to shield or isolate individualsfrom the chemical, physical, and biologic hazards that may be encountered ata hazardous substance site.As discussed in appendix B, no single combination of protective equipmentand clothing is capable of protecting against all hazards. Thus PPE should beused in conjunction with other protective methods and its effectivenessevaluated periodically.The use of PPE can itself create significant worker hazards, such as heatstress, physical and psychological stress, and impaired vision, mobility, andcommunication. For any given situation, equipment and clothing should beselected that provide an adequate level of protection. However,over-protection, as well as under-protection, can be hazardous and should beavoided where possible.Two basic objectives of any PPE program should be to protect the wearer fromsafety and health hazards, and to prevent injury to the wearer from incorrectuse and/or malfunction of the PPE. To accomplish these goals, a comprehensivePPE program should include hazard identification, medical monitoring,environmental surveillance, selection, use, maintenance, and decontaminationof PPE and its associated training.The written PPE program should include policy statements, procedures, andguidelines. Copies should be made available to all employees, and a referencecopy should be made available at the worksite. Technical data on equipment,maintenance manuals, relevant regulations, and other essential informationshould also be collected and maintained.6. "Incident command system (ICS)." Paragraph 1926.65(q)(3)(ii) requires theimplementation of an ICS. The ICS is an organized approach to effectivelycontrol and manage operations at an emergency incident. The individual incharge of the ICS is the senior official responding to the incident. The ICSis not much different than the "command post" approach used for many years bythe fire service. During large complex fires involving several companies andmany pieces of apparatus, a command post would be established. This enabledone individual to be in charge of managing the incident, rather than havingseveral officers from different companies making separate, and sometimesconflicting, decisions. The individual in charge of the command post woulddelegate responsibility for performing various tasks to subordinate officers.Additionally, all communications were routed through the command post toreduce the number of radio transmissions and eliminate confusion. However,strategy, tactics, and all decisions were made by one individual.The ICS is a very similar system, except it is implemented for emergencyresponse to all incidents, both large and small, that involve hazardoussubstances.For a small incident, the individual in charge of the ICS may perform manytasks of the ICS. There may not be any, or little, delegation of tasks tosubordinates. For example, in response to a small incident, the individual incharge of the ICS, in addition to normal command activities, may become thesafety officer and may designate only one employee (with proper equipment) asa back-up to provide assistance if needed. OSHA does recommend, however, thatat least two employees be designated as back-up personnel since theassistance needed may include rescue.To illustrate the operation of the ICS, the following scenario might developduring a small incident, such as an overturned tank truck with a small leakof flammable liquid.The first responding senior officer would implement and take command of theICS. That person would size-up the incident and determine if additionalpersonnel and apparatus were necessary; would determine what actions to taketo control the leak; and, determine the proper level of personal protectiveequipment. If additional assistance is not needed, the individual in chargeof the ICS would implement actions to stop and control the leak using thefewest number of personnel that can effectively accomplish the tasks. Theindividual in charge of the ICS then would designate himself as the safetyofficer and two other employees as a back-up in case rescue may becomenecessary. In this scenario, decontamination procedures would not benecessary.A large complex incident may require many employees and difficult,time-consuming efforts to control. In these situations, the individual incharge of the ICS will want to delegate different tasks to subordinates inorder to maintain a span of control that will keep the number ofsubordinates, that are reporting, to a manageable level.Delegation of task at large incidents may be by location, where the incidentscene is divided into sectors, and subordinate officers coordinate activitieswithin the sector that they have been assigned.Delegation of tasks can also be by function. Some of the functions that theindividual in charge of the ICS may want to delegate at a large incident are:medical services; evacuation; water supply; resources (equipment, apparatus);media relations; safety; and, site control (integrate activities with policefor crowd and traffic control). Also for a large incident, the individual incharge of the ICS will designate several employees as back-up personnel; anda number of safety officers to monitor conditions and recommend safetyprecautions.Therefore, no matter what size or complexity an incident may be, byimplementing an ICS there will be one individual in charge who makes thedecisions and gives directions; and, all actions, and communications arecoordinated through one central point of command. Such a system should reduceconfusion, improve safety, organize and coordinate actions, and shouldfacilitate effective management of the incident.7. "Site Safety and Control Plans." The safety and security of responsepersonnel and others in the area of an emergency response incident siteshould be of primary concern to the incident commander. The use of a sitesafety and control plan could greatly assist those in charge of assuring thesafety and health of employees on the site.A comprehensive site safety and control plan should include the following:summary analysis of hazards on the site and a risk analysis of those hazards;site map or sketch; site work zones (clean zone, transition ordecontamination zone, work or hot zone); use of the buddy system; sitecommunications; command post or command center; standard operating proceduresand safe work practices; medical assistance and triage area; hazardmonitoring plan (air contaminate monitoring, etc.); decontaminationprocedures and area; and other relevant areas. This plan should be a part ofthe employer's emergency response plan or an extension of it to the specificsite.8. "Medical surveillance programs." Workers handling hazardous substancesmay be exposed to toxic chemicals, safety hazards, biologic hazards, andradiation. Therefore, a medical surveillance program is essential to assessand monitor workers' health and fitness for employment in hazardous wasteoperations and during the course of work; to provide emergency and othertreatment as needed; and to keep accurate records for future reference.The "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste SiteActivities" developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety andHealth (NIOSH), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), theU.S. Coast Guard (USCG), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);October 1985 provides an excellent example of the types of medical testingthat should be done as part of a medical surveillance program.9. "New Technology and Spill Containment Programs." Where hazardoussubstances may be released by spilling from a container that will exposeemployees to the hazards of the materials, the employer will need toimplement a program to contain and control the spilled material. Diking andditching, as well as use of absorbents like diatomaceous earth, aretraditional techniques which have proven to be effective over the years.However, in recent years new products have come into the marketplace, the useof which complement and increase the effectiveness of these traditionalmethods. These new products also provide emergency responders and others withadditional tools or agents to use to reduce the hazards of spilled materials.These agents can be rapidly applied over a large area and can be uniformlyapplied or otherwise can be used to build a small dam, thus improving theworkers' ability to control spilled material. These application techniquesenhance the intimate contact between the agent and the spilled materialallowing for the quickest effect by the agent or quickest control of thespilled material. Agents are available to solidify liquid spilled materials,to suppress vapor generation from spilled materials, and to do both. Somespecial agents, which when applied as recommended by the manufacturer, willreact in a controlled manner with the spilled material to neutralize acids orcaustics, or greatly reduce the level of hazard of the spilled material.There are several modern methods and devices for use by emergency responsepersonnel or others involved with spill control efforts to safely apply spillcontrol agents to control spilled material hazards. These include portablepressurized applicators similar to hand-held portable fire extinguishingdevices, and nozzle and hose systems similar to portable fire fighting foamsystems which allow the operator to apply the agent without having to comeinto contact with the spilled material. The operator is able to apply theagent to the spilled material from a remote position.The solidification of liquids provides for rapid containment and isolationof hazardous substance spills. By directing the agent at run-off points or atthe edges of the spill, the reactant solid will automatically create abarrier to slow or stop the spread of the material. Clean-up of hazardoussubstances is greatly improved when solidifying agents, acid or causticneutralizers, or activated carbon adsorbents are used. Properly applied,these agents can totally solidify liquid hazardous substances or neutralizeor absorb them, which results in materials which are less hazardous andeasier to handle, transport, and dispose of. The concept of spill treatment,to create less hazardous substances, will improve the safety and level ofprotection of employees working at spill clean-up operations or emergencyresponse operations to spills of hazardous substances.The use of vapor suppression agents for volatile hazardous substances, suchas flammable liquids and those substances which present an inhalation hazard,is important for protecting workers. The rapid and uniform distribution ofthe agent over the surface of the spilled material can provide quick vaporknockdown. There are temporary and long-term foam-type agents which areeffective on vapors and dusts, and activated carbon adsorption agents whichare effective for vapor control and soaking-up of the liquid. The proper useof hose lines or hand-held portable pressurized applicators provides goodmobility and permits the worker to deliver the agent from a safe distancewithout having to step into the untreated spilled material. Some of thesesystems can be recharged in the field to provide coverage of larger spillareas than the design limits of a single charged applicator unit. Some of themore effective agents can solidify the liquid flammable hazardous substancesand at the same time elevate the flashpoint above 140 deg. F so the resultingsubstance may be handled as a nonhazardous waste material if it meets theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 40 CFR part 261 requirements (Seeparticularly 261.21).All workers performing hazardous substance spill control work are expectedto wear the proper protective clothing and equipment for the materialspresent and to follow the employer's established standard operatingprocedures for spill control. All involved workers need to be trained in theestablished operating procedures; in the use and care of spill controlequipment; and in the associated hazards and control of such hazards of spillcontainment work.These new tools and agents are the things that employers will want toevaluate as part of their new technology program. The treatment of spills ofhazardous substances or wastes at an emergency incident as part of theimmediate spill containment and control efforts is sometimes acceptable toEPA and a permit exception is described in 40 CFR 264.1(g)(8) and265.1(c)(11).1926.65 App D ReferencesThe following references may be consulted for further information on thesubject of this standard:1. OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2.70 - January 29, 1986, "Special EmphasisProgram: Hazardous Waste Sites."2. OSHA Instruction DFO CPL 2-2.37A - January 29, 1986, "TechnicalAssistance and Guidelines for Superfund and Other Hazardous Waste SiteActivities."3. OSHA Instruction DTS CPL 2.74 - January 29, 1986, "Hazardous WasteActivity Form, OSHA 175."4. "Hazardous Waste Inspections Reference Manual," U.S. Department of Labor,Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 1986.5. Memorandum of Understanding Among the National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, theUnited States Coast Guard, and the United States Environmental ProtectionAgency, "Guidance for Worker Protection During Hazardous Waste SiteInvestigations and Clean-up and Hazardous Substance Emergencies." December18, 1980.6. "National Priorities List," 1st Edition, October 1984; U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Revised periodically.7. "The Decontamination of Response Personnel," Field Standard OperatingProcedures (F.S.O.P.) 7; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office ofEmergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response Support Division,December 1984.8. "Preparation of a Site Safety Plan," Field Standard Operating Procedures(F.S.O.P.) 9; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency andRemedial Response, Hazardous Response Support Division, April 1985.9. "Standard Operating Safety Guidelines;" U.S. Environmental ProtectionAgency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Hazardous Response SupportDivision, Environmental Response Team; November 1984.10. "Occupational Safety and Health Guidance Manual for Hazardous Waste SiteActivities," National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH),Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), U.S. Coast Guard(USCG), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); October 1985.11. "Protecting Health and Safety at Hazardous Waste Sites: An Overview,"U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA/625/9-85/006; September 1985.12. "Hazardous Waste Sites and Hazardous Substance Emergencies," NIOSHWorker Bulletin, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public HealthService, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health; December 1982.13. "Personal Protective Equipment for Hazardous Materials Incidents:A Selection Guide;" U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, PublicHealth Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health; October 1984.14. "Fire Service Emergency Management Handbook," International Associationof Fire Chiefs Foundation, 101 East Holly Avenue, Unit 10B, Sterling, VA22170, January 1985.15. "Emergency Response Guidebook," U.S Department of Transportation,Washington, DC, 1987.16. "Report to the Congress on Hazardous Materials Training, Planning andPreparedness," Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC, July1986.17. "Workbook for Fire Command," Alan V. Brunacini and J. David Beageron,National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269,1985.18. "Fire Command," Alan V. Brunacini, National Fire Protection Association,Batterymarch Park,, Quincy, MA 02269, 1985.19. "Incident Command System," Fire Protection Publications, Oklahoma StateUniversity, Stillwater, OK 74078, 1983.20. "Site Emergency Response Planning," Chemical Manufacturers Association,Washington, DC 20037, 1986.21. "Hazardous Materials Emergency Planning Guide," NRT-1, EnvironmentalProtection Agency, Washington, DC, March 1987.22. "Community Teamwork: Working Together to Promote Hazardous MaterialsTransportation Safety." U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC,May 1983.23. "Disaster Planning Guide for Business and Industry," Federal EmergencyManagement Agency, Publication No. FEMA 141, August 1987.(The Office of Management and Budget has approved the information collectionrequirements in this section under control number 1218-0139)13. In subpart D, a new 1926.66 is added to read as follows:1926.66 Criteria for design and construction of spray booths.(a) "Definitions applicable to this section" - (1) "Aerated solid powders."Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating materialwhich shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly frombelow. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidizedpowder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a mannersimilar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sourcesfor powder spray operations.(2) "Spraying area." Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammablevapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present dueto the operation of spraying processes.(3) "Spray booth." A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose oraccommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray,vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaustsystem.(4) "Waterwash spray booth." A spray booth equipped with a water washingsystem designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and topermit the recovery of overspray finishing material.(5) "Dry spray booth." A spray booth not equipped with a water washingsystem as described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section. A dry spray boothmay be equipped with (i) Distribution or baffle plates to promote an evenflow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before itenters the exhaust duct; or (ii) Overspray dry filters to minimize dusts; or(iii) Overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaustducts; or (iv) Overspray dry filter rolls designed to minimize dusts orresidues entering exhaust ducts; or (v) Where dry powders are being sprayed,with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to captureoversprayed material.(6) "Fluidized bed." A container holding powder coating material which isaerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of suchmaterial through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed andtransported.(7) "Electrostatic fluidized bed." A container holding powder coatingmaterial which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expandedcloud of such material which is electrically charged with a charge oppositeto the charge of the object to be coated; such object is transported, throughthe container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order tobe coated.(8) "Approved." Shall mean approved and listed by a nationally recognizedtesting laboratory.(9) "Listed." See "approved" in paragraph (a)(8) of this section.(b) "Spray booths" - (1) "Construction." Spray booths shall be substantiallyconstructed of steel, securely and rigidly supported, or of concrete ormasonry except that aluminum or other substantial noncombustible material maybe used for intermittent or low volume spraying. Spray booths shall bedesigned to sweep air currents toward the exhaust outlet.(2) "Interiors." The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth andcontinuous without edges and otherwise designed to prevent pocketing ofresidues and facilitate cleaning and washing without injury.(3) "Floors." The floor surface of a spray booth and operator's workingarea, if combustible, shall be covered with noncombustible material of suchcharacter as to facilitate the safe cleaning and removal of residues.(4) "Distribution or baffle plates." Distribution or baffle plates, ifinstalled to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause thedeposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct, shall be ofnoncombustible material and readily removable or accessible on both sides forcleaning. Such plates shall not be located in exhaust ducts.(5) "Dry type overspray collectors" - "(exhaust air filters)." Inconventional dry type spray booths, overspray dry filters or filter rolls, ifinstalled, shall conform to the following:(i) The spraying operations except electrostatic spraying operations shallbe so designed, installed and maintained that the average air velocity overthe open face of the booth (or booth cross section during sprayingoperations) shall be not less than 100 linear feet per minute. Electrostaticspraying operations may be conducted with an air velocity over the open faceof the booth of not less than 60 linear feet per minute, or more, dependingon the volume of the finishing material being applied and its flammabilityand explosion characteristics. Visible gauges or audible alarm or pressureactivated devices shall be installed to indicate or insure that the requiredair velocity is maintained. Filter rolls shall be inspected to insure properreplacement of filter media.(ii) All discarded filter pads and filter rolls shall be immediately removedto a safe, well-detached location or placed in a water-filled metal containerand disposed of at the close of the day's operation unless maintainedcompletely in water.(iii) The location of filters in a spray booth shall be so as to not reducethe effective booth enclosure of the articles being sprayed.(iv) Space within the spray booth on the downstream and upstream sides offilters shall be protected with approved automatic sprinklers.(v) Filters or filter rolls shall not be used when applying a spray materialknown to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition.(vi) Clean filters or filter rolls shall be noncombustible or of a typehaving a combustibility not in excess of class 2 filters as listed byUnderwriters; Laboratories, Inc. Filters and filter rolls shall not bealternately used for different types of coating materials, where thecombination of materials may be conductive to spontaneous ignition.(6) "Frontal area." Each spray booth having a frontal area larger than 9square feet shall have a metal deflector or curtain not less than 2 1/2inches (5.35 cm) deep installed at the upper outer edge of the booth over theopening.(7) "Conveyors." Where conveyors are arranged to carry work into or out ofspray booths, the openings therefor shall be small as practical.(8) "Separation of operations." Each spray booth shall be separated fromother operations by not less than 3 feet (0.912 m), or by a greater distance,or by such partition or wall as to reduce the danger from juxtaposition ofhazardous operations. See also paragraph (c)(1) of this section.(9) "Cleaning." Spray booth shall be so installed that all portions arereadily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet(0.912 m) on all sides shall be kept free from storage or combustibleconstruction.(10) "Illumination." When spraying areas are illuminated through glasspanels or other transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall beused as a source of illumination. Panels shall effectively isolate thespraying area from the area in which the lighting unit is located, and shallbe of a noncombustible material of such a nature or so protected thatbreakage will be unlikely. Panels shall be so arranged that normalaccumulations of residue on the exposed surface of the panel will not beraised to a dangerous temperature by radiation or conduction from the sourceof illumination.(c) "Electrical and other sources of ignition" - (1) "Conformance."All electrical equipment, open flames and other sources of ignition shallconform to the requirements of this paragraph, except as follows:(i) Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs(e) and (f) of this section;(ii) Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the requirementsof paragraph (g) of this section.(iii) [Reserved](iv) Powder coating equipment shall conform to therequirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section.(2) "Minimum separation." There shall be no open flame or spark producingequipment in any spraying area nor within 20 feet (6.08 m) thereof, unlessseparated by a partition.(3) "Hot surfaces." Space-heating appliances, steampipes, or hot surfacesshall not be located in a spraying area where deposits of combustibleresidues may readily accumulate.(4) "Wiring conformance." Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform tothe provisions of this paragraph and shall otherwise be in accordance withsubpart S of this part.(5) "Combustible residues, areas." Unless specifically approved forlocations containing both deposits of readily ignitable residues andexplosive vapors, there shall be no electrical equipment in any spaying area,whereon deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate, exceptwiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing no taps, splices,or terminal connections.(6) "Wiring type approved." Electrical wiring and equipment not subject todeposits of combustible residues but located in a spraying area as hereindefined shall be of explosion-proof type approved for Class I, group Dlocations and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of thispart, for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. Electrical wiring,motors, and other equipment outside of but within 20 feet (6.08 m) of anyspraying area, and not separated therefrom by partitions, shall not producesparks under normal operating conditions and shall otherwise conform to theprovisions of subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 HazardousLocations.(7) "Lamps." Electric lamps outside of, but within 20 feet (6.08 m) of anyspraying area, and not separated therefrom by a partition, shall be totallyenclosed to prevent the falling of hot particles and shall be protected frommechanical injury by suitable guards or by location.(8) Portable lamps." Portable electric lamps shall not be used in anyspraying area during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps, if usedduring cleaning or repairing operations, shall be of the type approved forhazardous Class I locations.(9) "Grounding." (i) All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, andpiping systems conveying flammable or combustible liquids or aerated solidsshall be properly electrically grounded in an effective and permanent manner.(d) "Ventilation" - (1) "Conformance." Ventilating and exhaust systems shallbe in accordance with the Standard for Blower and Exhaust Systems for VaporRemoval, NFPA No. 91-1961, where applicable and shall also conform to theprovisions of this section.(2) "General." All spraying areas shall be provided with mechanicalventilation adequate to remove flammable vapors, mists or powders to a safelocation and to confine and control combustible residues so that life is notendangered. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all timeswhile spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient timethereafter to allow vapors from drying coated articles and drying finishingmaterial residue to be exhausted.(3) "Independent exhaust." Each spray booth shall have an independentexhaust duct system discharging to the exterior of the building, except thatmultiple cabinet spray booths in which identical spray finishing material isused with a combined frontal area of not more than 18 square feet may have acommon exhaust. If more than one fan serves one booth, all fans shall be sointerconnected that one fan cannot operate without all fans being operated.(4) "Fan-rotating element." The fan-rotating element shall be nonferrous ornonsparking or the casing shall consist of or be lined with such material.There shall be ample clearance between the fan-rotating element and the fancasing to avoid a fire by friction, necessary allowance being made forordinary expansion and loading to prevent contact between moving parts andthe duct or fan housing. Fan blades shall be mounted on a shaft sufficientlyheavy to maintain perfect alignment even when the blades of the fan areheavily loaded, the shaft preferably to have bearings outside the duct andbooth. All bearings shall be of the self-lubricating type, or lubricatedfrom the outside duct.(5) "Electric motors." Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not beplaced inside booths or ducts. See also paragraph (c) of this section.(6) "Belts." Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt andpulley within the duct or booth are thoroughly enclosed.(7) "Exhaust ducts." Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel and shallbe substantially supported. Exhaust ducts without dampers are preferred;however, if dampers are installed, they shall be maintained so that they willbe in a full open position at all times the ventilating system is inoperation.(i) Exhaust ducts shall be protected against mechanical damage and have aclearance from unprotected combustible construction or other combustiblematerial of not less than 18 inches (45.72 cm).(ii) If combustible construction is provided with the following protectionapplied to all surfaces within 18 inches (45.72 cm), clearances may bereduced to the distances indicated:
(a) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/4-inch asbestos mill board. 12 inches (30.48 cm).
(b) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/8-inch asbestos mill board spaced out 1 inch (2.54 cm) on noncombustible spacers.9 inches (22.86 cm).
(c) 22-gage sheet metal on 1-inch rockwool batts reinforced with wire mesh or the equivalent.3 inches (7.62 cm).
(d) Where ducts are protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system, properly maintained, the clearance required in paragraph
(d)(7)(i) of this section may be reduced to 6 inches (15.24 cm).
(8) "Discharge clearance." Unless the spray booth exhaust duct terminal isfrom a water-wash spray booth, the terminal discharge point shall be not lessthan 6 feet from any combustible exterior wall or roof nor discharge in thedirection of any combustible construction or unprotected opening in anynoncombustible exterior wall within 25 feet (7.6 m).(9) "Air exhaust." Air exhaust from spray operations shall not be directedso that it will contaminate makeup air being introduced into the sprayingarea or other ventilating intakes, nor directed so as to create a nuisance.Air exhausted from spray operations shall not be recirculated.(10) "Access doors." When necessary to facilitate cleaning, exhaust ductsshall be provided with an ample number of access doors.(11) "Room intakes." Air intake openings to rooms containing spray finishingoperations shall be adequate for the efficient operation of exhaust fans andshall be so located as to minimize the creation of dead air pockets.(12) "Drying spaces." Freshly sprayed articles shall be dried only in spacesprovided with adequate ventilation to prevent the formation of explosivevapors. In the event adequate and reliable ventilation is not provided suchdrying spaces shall be considered a spraying area.(e) "Fixed electrostatic apparatus" - (1) "Conformance." Where installationand use of electrostatic spraying equipment is used, such installation anduse shall conform to all other paragraphs of this section, and shall alsoconform to the requirements of this paragraph.(2) "Type approval." Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in connectionwith coating operations shall be of approved types.(3) "Location." Transformers, power packs, control apparatus, and all otherelectrical portions of the equipment, with the exception of high-voltagegrids, electrodes, and electrostatic atomizing heads and their connections,shall be located outside of the spraying area, or shall otherwise conform tothe requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.(4) "Support." Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall beadequately supported in permanent locations and shall be effectivelyinsulated from the ground. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing headswhich are permanently attached to their bases, supports, or reciprocators,shall be deemed to comply with this section. Insulators shall be nonporousand noncombustible.(5) "Insulators, grounding." High-voltage leads to electrodes shall beproperly insulated and protected from mechanical injury or exposure todestructive chemicals. Electrostatic atomizing heads shall be effectivelyand permanently supported on suitable insulators and shall be effectivelyguarded against accidental contact or grounding. An automatic means shall beprovided for grounding the electrode system when it is electricallydeenergized for any reason. All insulators shall be kept clean and dry.(6) "Safe distance." A safe distance shall be maintained between goods beingpainted and electrodes or electrostatic atomizing heads or conductors of atleast twice the sparking distance. A suitable sign indicating this safedistance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.(7) "Conveyors required." Goods being painted using this process are to besupported on conveyors. The conveyors shall be so arranged as to maintainsafe distances between the goods and the electrodes or electrostaticatomizing heads at all times. Any irregularly shaped or other goods subjectto possible swinging or movement shall be rigidly supported to prevent suchswinging or movement which would reduce the clearance to less than thatspecified in paragraph (e)(6) of this section.(8) "Prohibition." This process is not acceptable where goods being coatedare manipulated by hand. When finishing materials are applied byelectrostatic equipment which is manipulated by hand, see paragraph (f) ofthis section for applicable requirements.(9) "Fail-safe controls." Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped withautomatic controls which will operate without time delay to disconnect thepower supply to the high voltage transformer and to signal the operator underany of the following conditions:(i) Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment fromany cause.(ii) Stoppage of the conveyor carrying goods through the high voltage field.(iii) Occurrence of a ground or of an imminent ground at any point on thehigh voltage system.(iv) Reduction of clearance below that specified in paragraph (e)(6) of thissection.(10) "Guarding." Adequate booths, fencing, railings, or guards shall be soplaced about the equipment that they, either by their location or characteror both, assure that a safe isolation of the process is maintained from plantstorage or personnel. Such railings, fencing, and guards shall be ofconducting material, adequately grounded.(11) "Ventilation." Where electrostatic atomization is used the sprayingarea shall be so ventilated as to insure safe conditions from a fire andhealth standpoint.(12) "Fire protection." All areas used for spraying, including the interiorof the booth, shall be protected by automatic sprinklers where thisprotection is available. Where this protection is not available, otherapproved automatic extinguishing equipment shall be provided.(f) "Electrostatic hand spraying equipment" - (1) "Application."This paragraph shall apply to any equipment using electrostatically chargedelements for the atomization and/or, precipitation of materials for coatingson articles, or for other similar purposes in which the atomizing device ishand held and manipulated during the spraying operation.(2) "Conformance." Electrostatic hand spraying equipment shall conform withthe other provisions of this section.(3) "Equipment approval and specifications." Electrostatic hand sprayapparatus and devices used in connection with coating operations shall be ofapproved types. The high voltage circuits shall be designed so as to notproduce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite any vapor-air mixtures norresult in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact with a groundedobject under all normal operating conditions. The electrostatically chargedexposed elements of the handgun shall be capable of being energized only by aswitch which also controls the coating material supply.(4) "Electrical support equipment." Transformers, powerpacks, controlapparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with theexception of the handgun itself and its connections to the power supply shallbe located outside of the spraying area or shall otherwise conform to therequirements of paragraph (c) of this section.(5) "Spray gun ground." The handle of the spraying gun shall be electricallyconnected to ground by a metallic connection and to be so constructed thatthe operator in normal operating position is in intimate electrical contactwith the grounded handle.(6) "Grounding-general." All electrically conductive objects in the sprayingarea shall be adequately grounded. This requirement shall apply to paintcontainers, wash cans, and any other objects or devices in the area. Theequipment shall carry a prominent permanently installed warning regarding thenecessity for this grounding feature.(7) "Maintenance of grounds." Objects being painted or coated shall bemaintained in metallic contact with the conveyor or other grounded support.Hooks shall be regularly cleaned to insure this contact and areas of contactshall be sharp points or knife edges where possible. Points of support of theobject shall be concealed from random spay where feasible and where theobjects being sprayed are supported from a conveyor, the point of attachmentto the conveyor shall be so located as to not collect spray material duringnormal operation.(8) "Interlocks." The electrical equipment shall be so interlocked with theventilation of the spraying area that the equipment cannot be operated unlessthe ventilation fans are in operation.(9) "Ventilation." The spraying operation shall take place within a sprayarea which is adequately ventilated to remove solvent vapors released fromthe operation.(g) Drying, curing, or fusion apparatus" - (1) "Conformance." Drying,curing, or fusion apparatus in connection with spray application of flammableand combustible finishes shall conform to the Standard for Ovens andFurnaces, NFPA 86A-1969, where applicable and shall also conform with thefollowing requirements of this paragraph.(2) "Alternate use prohibited." Spray booths, rooms, or other enclosuresused for spraying operations shall not alternately be used for the purpose ofdrying by any arrangement which will cause a material increase in the surfacetemperature of the spray booth, room, or enclosure.(3) "Adjacent system interlocked." Except as specifically provided inparagraph (g)(4) of this section, drying, curing, or fusion units utilizing aheating system having open flames or which may produce sparks shall not beinstalled in a spraying area, but may be installed adjacent thereto whenequipped with an interlocked ventilating system arranged to:(i) Thoroughly ventilate the drying space before the heating system can bestarted;(ii) Maintain a safe atmosphere at any source of ignition;(iii) Automatically shut down the heating system in the event of failure ofthe ventilating system.(4) "Alternate use permitted." Automobile finishing spray booths orenclosures, otherwise installed and maintained in full conformity with thissection, may alternately be used for drying with portable electrical infrareddrying apparatus when conforming with the following:(i) Interior (especially floors) of spray enclosures shall be kept free ofoverspray deposits.(ii) During spray operations, the drying apparatus and electricalconnections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray enclosurenor in any other location where spray residues may be deposited thereon.(iii) The spraying apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilatingsystem of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with suitable interlocks soarranged that:(a) The spraying apparatus cannot be operated while the drying apparatus isinside the spray enclosure.(b) The spray enclosure will be purged of spray vapors for a period of notless than 3 minutes before the drying apparatus can be energized.(c) The ventilating system will maintain a safe atmosphere within theenclosure during the drying process and the drying apparatus willautomatically shut off in the event of failure of the ventilating system.(iv) All electrical wiring and equipment of the drying apparatus shallconform with the applicable sections of Subpart S of this part. Onlyequipment of a type approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locationsshall be located within 18 inches (45.72 cm) of floor level. All metallicparts of the drying apparatus shall be properly electrically bonded andgrounded.(v) The drying apparatus shall contain a prominently located, permanentlyattached warning sign indicating that ventilation should be maintained duringthe drying period and that spraying should not be conducted in the vicinitythat spray will deposit on apparatus.14. In Subpart E, new 1926.95 through 1926.97 are added to read as follows1926.95 Criteria for personal protective equipment.(a) "Application." Protective equipment, including personal protectiveequipment for eyes, face, head, and extremities, protective clothing,respiratory devices, and protective shields and barriers, shall be provided,used, and maintained in a sanitary and reliable condition wherever it isnecessary by reason of hazards of processes or environment, chemical hazards,radiological hazards, or mechanical irritants encountered in a manner capableof causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the bodythrough absorption, inhalation or physical contact.(b) "Employee-owned equipment." Where employees provide their own protectiveequipment, the employer shall be responsible to assure its adequacy,including proper maintenance, and sanitation of such equipment.(c) "Design." All personal protective equipment shall be of safe design andconstruction for the work to be performed.1926.96 Occupational foot protection.Safety-toe footwear for employees shall meet the requirements andspecifications in American National Standard for Men's Safety-Toe Footwear,Z41.1-1967.1926.97 Protective clothing for fire brigades.The following requirements apply to those employees who perform interiorstructural fire fighting. The requirements do not apply to employees who usefire extinguishers or standpipe systems to control or extinguish fires onlyin the incipient stage.(a) "General." (1) The employer shall provide at no cost to the employee andassure the use of protective clothing which complies with the requirements ofthis paragraph. The employer shall assure that protective clothing orderedor purchased after July 1, 1981, meets the requirements contained in thisparagraph. As the new equipment is provided, the employer shall assure thatall fire brigade members wear the equipment when performing interiorstructural fire fighting. After July 1, 1985, the employer shall assure thatall fire brigade members wear protective clothing meeting the requirements ofthis paragraph when performing interior structural fire fighting.(2) The employer shall assure that protective clothing protects the head,body, and extremities, and consists of at least the following components:foot and leg protection; hand protection; body protection; eye, face and headprotection.(b) "Foot and leg protection." (1) Foot and leg protection shall meet therequirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section, and may beachieved by either of the following methods:(i) Fully extended boots which provide protection for the legs;or(ii) Protective shoes or boots worn in combination with protective trousersthat meet the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.(2) Protective footwear shall meet the requirements of 1926.96 for Class 75footwear. In addition, protective footwear shall be water-resistant for atleast 5 inches (12.7 cm) above the bottom of the heel and shall be equippedwith slip-resistant outer soles.(3) Protective footwear shall be tested in accordance with paragraph (f) ofthis section, and shall provide protection against penetration of the midsoleby a size 8D common nail when at least 300 pounds (1330 N) of static force isapplied to the nail.(c) "Body protection." (1) Body protection shall be coordinated with footand leg protection to ensure full body protection for the wearer. This shallbe achieved by one of the following methods:(i) Wearing of a fire-resistive coat meeting the requirements of paragraph(c)(2) of this section in combination with fully extended boots meeting therequirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section; or (ii) Wearing ofa fire-resistive coat in combination with protective trousers both of whichmeet the requirements of paragraph (c)(2) of this section.(2) The performance, construction, and testing of fire-resistive coats andprotective trousers shall be at least equivalent to the requirements of theNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard NFPA No. 1971-1975,"Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting," with the followingpermissible variations from those requirements:(i) Tearing strength of the outer shell shall be a minimum of 8 pounds (35.6N) in any direction when tested in accordance with paragraph (g) of thissection; and(ii) The outer shell may discolor but shall not separate or melt when placedin a forced air laboratory oven at a temperature of 500 deg. F (260 deg. C)for a period of five minutes. After cooling to ambient temperature and usingthe test method specified in paragraph (h) of this section, char length shallnot exceed 4.0 inches (10.2 cm) and after-flame shall not exceed 2.0 seconds.(d) "Hand protection." (1) Hand protection shall consist of protectivegloves or glove system which will provide protection against cut, puncture,and heat penetration. Gloves or glove system shall be tested in accordancewith the test methods contained in the National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health (NIOSH) 1976 publication, "The Development of Criteria forFire Fighter's Gloves; Vol. II, Part II: Test Methods," and shall meet thefollowing criteria for cut, puncture, and heat penetration:(i) Materials used for gloves shall resist surface cut by a blade with anedge having a 60 deg. included angle and a .001 inch (.0025 cm.) radius,under an applied force of 16 lbf (72N), and at a slicing velocity of greateror equal to 60 in/min (2.5 cm./sec);(ii) Materials used for the palm and palm side of the fingers shall resistpuncture by a penetrometer (simulating a 4d lath nail), under an appliedforce of 13.2 lbf (60N), and at a velocity greater or equal to 20 in/min(.85cm./sec); and(iii) The temperature inside the palm and gripping surface of the fingers ofgloves shall not exceed 135 deg. F. (57 deg. C.) when gloves or glove systemare exposed to 932 deg. F. (500 deg. C.) for five seconds at 4 psi (28 kPa)pressure.(2) Exterior materials of gloves shall be flame resistant and shall betested in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section. Maximum allowableafterflame shall be 2.0 seconds and the maximum char length shall be 4.0inches (10.2 cm).(3) When design of the fire-resistive coat does not otherwise provideprotection for the wrists, protective gloves shall have wristlets of at least4.0 inches (10.2 cm) in length to protect the wrist area when the arms areextended upward and outward from the body.(e) "Head, eye and face protection." (1) Head protection shall consist of aprotective head device with ear flaps and chin strap which meet theperformance, construction, and testing requirements of the National FireSafety and Research Office of the National Fire Prevention and ControlAdministration, U.S. Department of Commerce (now known as the U.S. FireAdministration), which are contained in "Model Performance Criteria forStructural Firefighters' Helmets" (August 1977).(2) Protective eye and face devices which comply with 1926.102 shall be usedby fire brigade members when performing operations where the hazards offlying or falling materials which may cause eye and face injuries arepresent. Protective eye and face devices provided as accessories toprotective head devices (face shields) are permitted when such devices meetthe requirements of 1926.102.(3) Full facepieces, helmets, or hoods of breathing apparatus which meet therequirements of 1926.98 and 1926.103 of this part, shall be acceptable asmeeting the eye and face protection requirements of this section.(f) "Puncture resistance test method for foot protection" - (1) "Apparatus."The puncture resistance test shall be performed on a testing machine having amovable platform adjusted to travel at 1/4-inch/min (0.1 cm/sec). Two blocksof hardwood, metal, or plastic shall be prepared as follows: the blocks shallbe prepared as follows: the blocks shall be of such size and thickness as toinsure a suitable rigid test ensemble and allow for at least one-inch of thepointed end of an 8D nail to be exposed for the penetration. One block shallhave a hole drilled to hold an 8D common nail firmly at an angle of 98 deg.The second block shall have a maximum 1/2-inch (1.3 cm) diameter hole drilledthrough it so that the hole will allow free passage of the nail after itpenetrates the insole during the test.(2) "Procedure." The test ensemble consisting of the sample unit, the twoprepared blocks, a piece of leather outsole 10 to 11 irons thick, and a new8D nail, shall be placed as follows: the 8D nail in the hole, the sample ofoutsole stock superimposed above the nail, the area of the sole plate to betested placed on the outsole, and the second block with hole so placed as toallow for free passage of the nail after it passes through the outside stockand sole plate in that order. The machine shall be started and the pressure,in pounds required for the nail to completely penetrate the outsole and soleplate, recorded to the nearest five pounds. Two determinations shall be madeon each sole plate and the results averaged. A new nail shall be used foreach determination.(3) "Source." These test requirements are contained in "MilitarySpecification For Fireman's Boots," MIL-B-2885D (1973 and amendment dated1975) and are reproduced for your convenience.g) "Test method for determining the strength of cloth by tearing:Trapezoid Method" - (1) "Test specimen." The specimen shall be a rectangleof cloth 3 inches by 6 inches (7.6 cm by 15.2 cm). The long dimension shallbe parallel to the warp for warp tests and parallel to the filling forfilling tests. No two specimens for warp tests shall contain the same warpyarns, nor shall any two specimens for filling tests contain the same fillingyarns. The specimen shall be taken no nearer the selvage than 1/10 the widthof the cloth. An isosceles trapezoid having an altitude of 3 inches (7.6 cm)and bases of 1 inch (2.5 cm) and 4 inches (10.2 cm) in length, respectively,shall be marked on each specimen, preferably with the aid of a template. Acut approximately 3/8-inch (1 cm) in length shall then be made in the centerof a perpendicular to the 1-inch (2.5 cm) edge.(2) "Apparatus." (i) Six-ounce (.17 kg) weight tension clamps shall be usedso designed that the six ounces (.17 kg) of weight are distributed evenlyacross the complete width of the sample.(ii) The machine shall consist of three main parts: Straining mechanism,clamps for holding specimen, and load and elongation recording mechanisms.(iii) A machine wherein the specimen is held between two clamps and strainedby a uniform movement of the pulling clamp shall be used.(iv) The machine shall be adjusted so that the pulling clamp shall have auniform speed of 12 plus or minus 10.5 inches per minute (0.5 plus or minus.02 cm/sec).(v) The machine shall have two clamps with two jaws on each clamp. Thedesign of the two clamps shall be such that one gripping surface or jaw maybe an integral part of the rigid frame of the clamp or be fastened to allow aslight vertical movement, while the other gripping surface or jaw shall becompletely movable. The dimension of the immovable jaw of each clampparallel to the application of the load shall measure one-inch and thedimension of the jaw perpendicular to this direction shall measure threeinches or more. The face of the movable jaw of each clamp shall measureone-inch by 3 inches (7.62 cm) Each jaw face shall have a flat smooth,gripping surface. All edges which might cause a cutting action shall berounded to a radius of not over 1/64-inch (.04 cm). In cases where a clothtends to slip when being tested, the jaws may be faced with rubber or othermaterial to prevent slippage. The distance between the jaws (gage length)shall be one-inch at the start of the test.(vi) Calibrated dial; scale or chart shall be used to indicate applied loadand elongation. The machine shall be adjusted or set, so that the maximumload required to break the specimen will remain indicated on the calibrateddial or scale after the test specimen has ruptured.(vii) The machine shall be of such capacity that the maximum load requiredto break the specimen shall be not greater than 85 percent or less than 15percent of the rated capacity.(viii) The error of the machine shall not exceed 2 percent up to andincluding a 50-pound load (22.6 kg) and 1 percent over a 50-pound load (22.6kg) at any reading within its loading range.(ix) All machine attachments for determining maximum loads shall bedisengaged during this test.(3) "Procedure." (i) The specimen shall be clamped in the machine along thenonparallel sides of the trapezoid so that these sides lie along the loweredge of the upper clamp and the upper edge of the lower clamp with the cuthalfway between the clamps. The short trapezoid base shall be held taut andthe long trapezoid base shall lie in the folds.(ii) The machine shall be started and the force necessary to tear the clothshall be observed by means of an autographic recording device. The speed ofthe pulling clamp shall be 12 inches plus or minus 0.5 inch per minute (0.5plus or minus .02 cm/sec).(iii) If a specimen slips between the jaws, breaks in or at the edges of thejaws, or if for any reason attributable to faulty technique, an individualmeasurement falls markedly below the average test results for the sampleunit, such result shall be discarded and another specimen shall be tested.(iv) The tearing strength of the specimen shall be the average of the fivehighest peak loads of resistance registered for 3 inches (7.6 cm) ofseparation of the tear.(4) "Report." (i) Five specimens in each of the warp and filling directionsshall be tested from each sample unit.(ii) The tearing strength of the sample unit shall be the average of theresults obtained from the specimens tested in each of the warp and fillingdirections and shall be reported separately to the nearest 0.1-pound (.05kg).(5) "Source." These test requirements are contained in "Federal Test MethodStandard 191, Method 5136" and are reproduced for your convenience.(h) "Test method for determining flame resistance of cloth; vertical" -(1) "Test specimen." The specimen shall be a rectangle of cloth 2 3/4 inches(7.0 cm) by 12 inches (30.5 cm) with the long dimension parallel to eitherthe warp or filling direction of the cloth. No two warp specimens shallcontain the same warp yarns, and no two filling specimens shall contain thesame filling yarn.(2) "Number of determinations." Five specimens from each of the warp andfilling directions shall be tested from each sample unit.(3) "Apparatus" - (i) "Cabinet." A cabinet and accessories shall befabricated in accordance with the requirements specified in Figures E-97.1,E-97.2, and E-97.3. Galvanized sheet metal or other suitable metal shall beused. The entire inside back wall of the cabinet shall be painted black tofacilitate the viewing of the test specimen and pilot flame.(ii) "Burner." The burner shall be equipped with a variable orifice toadjust the flame height, a barrel having a 3/8-inch (1 cm) inside diameterand a pilot light.(a) The burner may be constructed by combining a 3/8-inch (1 cm) insidediameter barrel 3 plus or minus 1/4 inches (7.6 plus or minus .6 cm) longfrom a fixed orifice burner with a base from a variable orifice burner.(b) The pilot light tube shall have a diameter of approximately 1/16-inch(.2 cm) and shall be spaced 1/8-inch (.3 cm) away from the burner edge with apilot flame 1/8-inch (.3 cm) long.(c) The necessary gas connections and the applicable plumbing shall be asspecified in Figure E-97.4 except that a solenoid valve may be used in lieuof the stopcock valve to which the burner is attached. The stopcock valve orsolenoid valve, whichever is used, shall be capable of being fully opened orfully closed in 0.1-second.(d) On the side of the barrel of the burner, opposite the pilot light thereshall be a metal rod of approximately 1/8-inch (.3 cm) diameter spaced1/2-inch (1.3 cm) from the barrel and extending above the burner. The rodshall have two 5/16-inch (.8 cm) prongs marking the distances of 3/4-inch(1.9 cm) and 1 1/2-inches (3.8 cm) above the top of the burner.(e) The burner shall be fixed in a position so that the center of the barrelof the burner is directly below the center of the specimen.(iii) There shall be a control valve system with a delivery rate designed tofurnish gas to the burner under a pressure of 2 1/2 plus or minus 1/4(psi)(17.5 plus or minus 1.8 kPa) per square inch at the burner inlet (see(g)(3)(vi)(A)). The manufacturer's recommended delivery rate for the valvesystem shall be included in the required pressure.(iv) A synthetic gas mixture shall be of the following composition withinthe following limits (analyzed at standard conditions): 55 plus or minus 3percent hydrogen, 24 plus or minus 1 percent methane, 3 plus or minus 1percent ethane, and 18 plus or minus 1 percent carbon monoxide which willgive a specific gravity of 0.365 plus or minus 0.018 (air = 1) and a B.T.U.content of 540 plus or minus 20 per cubic foot (20.1 plus or minus 3.7kJ/L)(dry basis) at 69.8 deg F (21 deg. C).(v) There shall be metal hooks and weights to produce a series of totalloads to determine length of char. The metal hooks shall consist of No. 19gage steel wire or equivalent and shall be made from 3-inch (7.6 cm) lengthsof wire and bent 1/2-inch (1.3 cm) from one end to a 45 degree hook. One endof the hook shall be fastened around the neck of the weight to be used.(vi) There shall be a stop watch or other device to measure the burning timeto 0.2-second.(vii) There shall be a scale, graduated in 0.1 inch (.3 cm) to measure thelength of char.(4) "Procedure." (i) The material undergoing test shall be evaluated for thecharacteristics of after-flame time and char length on each specimen.(ii) All specimens to be tested shall be at moisture equilibrium understandard atmospheric conditions in accordance with paragraph (h)(3) of thissection. Each specimen to be tested shall be exposed to the test flamewithin 20 seconds after removal from the standard atmosphere. In case ofdispute, all testing will be conducted under Standard Atmospheric Conditionsin accordance with paragraph (h)(3) of this section.(iii) The specimen in its holder shall be suspended vertically in thecabinet in such a manner that the entire length of the specimen is exposedand the lower end is 3/4-inch (1.9 cm) above the top of the gas burner. Theapparatus shall be set up in a draft free area.(iv) Prior to inserting the specimen, the pilot flame shall be adjusted toapproximately 1/8-inch (.3 cm) in height measured from its lowest point tothe tip.The burner flame shall be adjusted by means of the needle valve in the baseof the burner to give a flame height of 1 1/2 inches (3.8 cm) with thestopcock fully open and the air supply to the burner shut off and taped. The1 1/2-inch (3.8 cm) flame height is obtained by adjusting the valve so thatthe uppermost portion (tip) of the flame is level with the tip of the metalprong (see Figure E-97.2) specified for adjustment of flame height. It is animportant aspect of the evaluation that the flame height be adjusted with thetip of the flame level with the tip of the metal prong. After inserting thespecimen, the stopcock shall be fully opened, and the burner flame appliedvertically at the middle of the lower edge of the specimen for 12 seconds andthe burner turned off. The cabinet door shall remain shut during testing.(v) The after-flame shall be the time the specimen continues to flame afterthe burner flame is shut off.(vi) After each specimen is removed, the test cabinet shall be cleared offumes and smoke prior to testing the next specimen.(vii) After both flaming and glowing have ceased, the char length shall bemeasured. The char length shall be the distance from the end of thespecimen, which was exposed to the flame, to the end of a tear (madelengthwise) of the specimen through the center of the charred area asfollows: The specimen shall be folded lengthwise and creased by hand along aline through the highest peak of the charred area. The hook shall beinserted in the specimen (or a hole, 1/4-inch (.6 cm) diameter or less,punched out for the hook) at one side of the charred area 1/4-inch (.6 cm)from the adjacent outside edge and 1/4-inch (.6 cm) in from the lower end. Aweight of sufficient size such that the weight and hook together shall equalthe total tearing load required in Table E-97.1 of this section shall beattached to the hook.(viii) A tearing force shall be applied gently to the specimen by graspingthe corner of the cloth at the opposite edge of the char from the load andraising the specimen and weight clear of the supporting surface. The end ofthe tear shall be marked off on the edge and the char length measurement madealong the undamaged edge.Loads for determining char length applicable to the weight of the test clothshall be as shown in Table E-97.1. Table E-97.1(1)
Specified weight per square yard of cloth before
any fire retardant treatment or coating - ounces
Total tearing weight for determining the charred length - pound
2.0 to 6.00.25
Over 6.0 to 15.00.50
Over 15.0 to 23.00.75
Over 23.01.0
Footnote(1) To change into S.I. (System International) units, 1 ounce=28.35grams, 1 pound=453 grams, 1 yard=.91 meter(ix) The after-flame time of the specimen shall be recorded to the nearest0.2-second and the char length to the nearest 0.1-inch (.3 cm).(5) "Report." (i) The after-flame time and char length of the sample unitshall be the average of the results obtained from the individual specimenstested. All values obtained from the individual specimens shall be recorded.(ii) The after-flame time shall be reported to the nearest 0.2-second andthe char length to the nearest 0.1-inch (.3 cm).(6) "Source." These test requirements are contained in "Federal Test MethodStandard 191, Method 5903 (1971)" and are reproduced for your convenience. Figure E-97.1 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus. (For Figure E-97.1, see printed copy) Figure E-97.2 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus, door and top view w/baffle. (For Figure E-97.2, see printed copy) Figure E-97.3 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus, view and details. (For Figure E-97.3, see printed copy) Figure E-97.4 - Vertical flame resistance textile apparatus. (For Figure E-97.4, see printed copy)15. A new 1926.98 is added to read as follows1926.98 Respiratory protection for fire brigades.(a) "General requirements." (1) The employer shall provide at no cost to theemployee and assure the use of respirators which comply with the requirementsof this paragraph. The employer shall assure that respiratory protectivedevices worn by fire brigade members meet the requirements contained in1926.103 and the requirements contained in this paragraph, and are certifiedunder 30 CFR Part 11.(2) Approved self-contained breathing apparatus with full-facepiece, or withapproved helmet or hood configuration, shall be provided to and worn by firebrigade members while working inside buildings or confined spaces where toxicproducts of combustion or an oxygen deficiency may be present. Suchapparatus shall also be worn during emergency situations involving toxicsubstances.(3) Approved self-contained breathing apparatus may be equipped with eithera "buddy-breathing" device or a quick disconnect valve, even if these devicesare not certified by NIOSH. If these accessories are used, they shall notcause damage to the apparatus, or restrict the air flow of the apparatus, orobstruct the normal operation of the apparatus.(4) Approved self-contained compressed air breathing apparatus may be usedwith approved cylinders from other approved self-contained compressed airbreathing apparatus provided that such cylinders are of the same capacity andpressure rating. All compressed air cylinders used with self-containedbreathing apparatus shall meet DOT and NIOSH criteria.(5) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall have a minimum service liferating of 30 minutes in accordance with the methods and requirements of theMine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) and NIOSH, except for escapeself-contained breathing apparatus (ESCBA) used only for emergency escapepurposes.(6) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be provided with an indicatorwhich automatically sounds an audible alarm when the remaining service lifeof the apparatus is reduced to within a range of 20 to 25 percent of itsrated service time.(b) "Positive-pressure breathing apparatus." (1) The employer shall assurethat self-contained breathing apparatus ordered or purchased after July 1,1981, for use by fire brigade members performing interior structural firefighting operations, are of the pressure-demand or other positive-pressuretype. Effective July 1, 1983, only pressure-demand or otherpositive-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus shall be worn by firebrigade members performing interior structural fire fighting.(2) This paragraph does not prohibit the use of a self-contained breathingapparatus where the apparatus can be switched from a demand to apositive-pressure mode. However, such apparatus shall be in thepositive-pressure mode when fire brigade members are performing interiorstructural fire fighting operations.(3) Negative-pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with a ratedservice life of more than 2 hours and which have a minimum protection factorof 5,000, as determined by an acceptable quantitative fit test performed oneach individual, is acceptable for use only during those interior structuralfire fighting situations for which the employer demonstrates that longduration breathing apparatus is necessary. Quantitative fit test proceduresshall be available for inspection by the Assistant Secretary or authorizedrepresentative. Such negative-pressure breathing apparatus will continue tobe acceptable for 18 months after a positive-pressure breathing apparatuswith the same or longer-rated service life is certified by NIOSH. After this18-month period, all self-contained breathing apparatus used for these longduration situations shall be of the positive-pressure type.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0075)1926.99 [Reserved]16. In 1926.102, new paragraphs (a)(6) through (8) are added to read asfollows:1926.102 Eye and Face Protection(a) General. * * * * * * * (6) Protectors shall meet the followingminimum requirements: (i) They shall provide adequate protection against theparticular hazards for which they are designed.(ii) They shall be reasonably comfortable when worn under the designatedconditions.(iii) They shall fit snugly and shall not unduly interfere with themovements of the wearer.(iv) They shall be durable.(v) They shall be capable of beingdisinfected.(vi) They shall be easily cleanable.(7) Every protector shallbe distinctly marked to facilitate identification only of themanufacturer.(8) When limitations or precautions are indicated by the manufacturer, theyshall be transmitted to the user and care taken to see that such limitationsand precautions are strictly observed.17. New paragraphs (d) through (i) are added to 1926.103. The text of thestandards reads as follows:1926.103 Respiratory protection.(d) "Permissible practice. (1) In the control of those occupational diseasescaused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists,gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors, the primary objective shall be to preventatmospheric contamination. This shall be accomplished as far as feasible byaccepted engineering control measures (for example, enclosure or confinementof the operation, general and local ventilation, and substitution of lesstoxic materials). When effective engineering controls are not feasible, orwhile they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall be usedpursuant to the following requirements.(2) Respirators shall be provided by the employer when such equipment isnecessary to protect the health of the employee. The employer shall providethe respirators which are applicable and suitable for the purpose intended.The employer shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of arespiratory protective program which shall include the requirements outlinedin paragraph (e) of this section.(3) The employee shall use the provided respiratory protection in accordancewith instructions and training received.(e) "Requirements for a minimal acceptable program." (1) Written standardoperating procedures governing the selection and use of respirators shall beestablished.(2) Respirators shall be selected on the basis of hazards to which theworker is exposed.(3) The user shall be instructed and trained in the proper use ofrespirators and their limitations.(4) [Reserved](5) Respirators shall be regularly cleaned anddisinfected. Those used by more than one worker shall be thoroughly cleanedand disinfected after each use.(6) Respirators shall be stored in a convenient, clean, and sanitarylocation.(7) Respirators used routinely shall be inspected during cleaning. Worn ordeteriorated parts shall be replaced. Respirators for emergency use such asself-contained devices shall be thoroughly inspected at least once a monthand after each use.(8) Appropriate surveillance of work area conditions and degree of employeeexposure or stress shall be maintained.(9) There shall be regular inspection and evaluation to determine thecontinued effectiveness of the program.(10) Persons should not be assigned to tasks requiring use of respiratorsunless it has been determined that they are physically able to perform thework and use the equipment. The local physician shall determine what healthand physical conditions are pertinent. The respirator user's medical statusshould be reviewed periodically (for instance, annually).(11) Respirators shall be selected from among those jointly approved by theMine Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11.(f) "Air quality." (1) Compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, andliquid oxygen used for respiration shall be of high purity. Oxygen shallmeet the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia for medical orbreathing oxygen. Breathing air shall meet at least the requirements of thespecification for Grade D breathing air as described in Compressed GasAssociation Commodity Specification G-7.1-1966. Compressed oxygen shall notbe used in supplied-air respirators or in open circuit self-containedbreathing apparatus that have previously used compressed air. Oxygen mustnever be used with air line respirators.(2) Breathing air may be supplied to respirators from cylinders or aircompressors.(i) Cylinders shall be tested and maintained as prescribed in the ShippingContainer Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49CFR part 178).(ii) The compressor for supplying air shall be equipped with necessarysafety and standby devices. A breathing air-type compressor shall be used.Compressors shall be constructed and situated so as to avoid entry ofcontaminated air into the system and suitable in-line air purifying sorbentbeds and filters installed to further assure breathing air quality. Areceiver of sufficient capacity to enable the respirator wearer to escapefrom a contaminated atmosphere in event of compressor failure, and alarms toindicate compressor failure and overheating shall be installed in the system. If an oil-lubricated compressor is used, it shall have a high-temperature orcarbon monoxide alarm, or both. If only a high-temperature alarm is used,the air from the compressor shall be frequently tested for carbon monoxide toinsure that it meets the specifications in paragraph (f)(1) of this section.(3) Air line couplings shall be incompatible with outlets for other gassystems to prevent inadvertent servicing of air line respirators withnonrespirable gases or oxygen.(4) Breathing gas containers shall be marked in accordance with AmericanNational Standard Method of Marking Portable Compressed Gas Containers toIdentify the Material Contained, Z48.1-1954; Federal SpecificationBB-A-1034a, June 21, 1968, Air, Compressed for Breathing Purposes; or InterimFederal Specification GG-B-00675b, April 27, 1965, Breathing Apparatus,Self-Contained.(g) "Use of respirators." (1) Standard procedures shall be developed forrespirator use. These should include all information and guidance necessaryfor their proper selection, use, and care. Possible emergency and routineuses of respirators should be anticipated and planned for.(2) The correct respirator shall be specified for each job. The respiratortype is usually specified in the work procedures by a qualified individualsupervising the respiratory protective program. The individual issuing themshall be adequately instructed to insure that the correct respirator isissued.(3) Written procedures shall be prepared covering safe use of respirators indangerous atmospheres that might be encountered in normal operations or inemergencies. Personnel shall be familiar with these procedures and theavailable respirators.(i) In areas where the wearer, with failure of the respirator, could beovercome by a toxic or oxygen-deficient atmosphere, at least one additionalman shall be present. Communications (visual, voice, or signal line) shallbe maintained between both or all individuals present. Planning shall besuch that one individual will be unaffected by any likely incident and havethe proper rescue equipment to be able to assist the other(s) in case ofemergency.(ii) When self-contained breathing apparatus or hose masks with blowers areused in atmospheres immediately dangerous to life or health, standby men mustbe present with suitable rescue equipment.(iii) Persons using air line respirators in atmospheres immediatelyhazardous to life or health shall be equipped with safety harnesses andsafety lines for lifting or removing persons from hazardous atmospheres orother and equivalent provisions for the rescue of persons from hazardousatmospheres shall be used. A standby man or men with suitable self-containedbreathing apparatus shall be at the nearest fresh air base for emergencyrescue.(4) Respiratory protection is no better than the respirator in use, eventhough it is worn conscientiously. Frequent random inspections shall beconducted by a qualified individual to assure that respirators are properlyselected, used, cleaned, and maintained.(5) For safe use of any respirator, it is essential that the user beproperly instructed in its selection, use, and maintenance. Both supervisorsand workers shall be so instructed by competent persons. Training shallprovide the men an opportunity to handle the respirator, have it fittedproperly, test its face-piece-to-face seal, wear it in normal air for a longfamiliarity period, and, finally, to wear it in a test atmosphere.(i) Every respirator wearer shall receive fitting instructions includingdemonstrations and practice in how the respirator should be worn, how toadjust it, and how to determine if it fits properly. Respirators shall not beworn when conditions prevent a good face seal. Such conditions may be agrowth of beard, sideburns, a skull cap that projects under the facepiece, ortemple pieces on glasses. Also, the absence of one or both dentures canseriously affect the fit of a facepiece. The worker's diligence in observingthese factors shall be evaluated by periodic check. To assure properprotection, the facepiece fit shall be checked by the wearer each time heputs on the respirator. This may be done by following the manufacturer'sfacepiece fitting instructions.(ii) Providing respiratory protection for individuals wearing correctiveglasses is a serious problem. A proper seal cannot be established if thetemple bars of eye glasses extend through the sealing edge of the fullfacepiece. As a temporary measure, glasses with short temple bars or withouttemple bars may be taped to the wearer's head. Wearing of contact lenses incontaminated atmospheres with a respirator shall not be allowed. Systemshave been developed for mounting corrective lenses inside full facepieces.When a workman must wear corrective lenses as part of the facepiece, thefacepiece and lenses shall be fitted by qualified individuals to provide goodvision, comfort, and a gas-tight seal.(iii) If corrective spectacles or goggles are required, they shall be wornso as not to affect the fit of the facepiece. Proper selection of equipmentwill minimize or avoid this problem.(h) "Maintenance and care of respirators." (1) A program for maintenance andcare of respirators shall be adjusted to the type of plant, workingconditions, and hazards involved, and shall include the following basicservices:{i} Inspection for defects (including a leak check),{ii} Cleaningand disinfecting,{iii} Repair,{iv} StorageEquipment shall be properly maintained to retain its original effectiveness.(2) - (i) All respirators shall be inspected routinely before and after eachuse. A respirator that is not routinely used but is kept ready for emergencyuse shall be inspected after each use and at least monthly to assure that itis in satisfactory working condition.(ii) Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air andoxygen cylinders shall be fully charged according to the manufacturer'sinstructions. It shall be determined that the regulator and warning devicesfunction properly.(iii) Respirator inspection shall include a check of the tightness ofconnections and the condition of the facepiece, headbands, valves, connectingtube, and canisters. Rubber or elastomer parts shall be inspected forpliability and signs of deterioration. Stretching and manipulating rubber orelastomer parts with massaging action will keep them pliable and flexible andprevent them from taking a set during storage.(iv) A record shall be kept of inspection dates and findings for respiratorsmaintained for emergency use.(3) Routinely used respirators shall be collected, cleaned, and disinfectedas frequently as necessary to insure that proper protection is provided forthe wearer. Respirators maintained for emergency use shall be cleaned anddisinfected after each use.(4) Replacement or repairs shall be done only by experienced persons withparts designed for the respirator. No attempt shall be made to replacecomponents or to make adjustment or repairs beyond the manufacturer'srecommendations. Reducing or admission valves or regulators shall bereturned to the manufacturer or to a trained technician for adjustment orrepair.(5)(i) After inspection, cleaning, and necessary repair, respirators shallbe stored to protect against dust, sunlight, heat, extreme cold, excessivemoisture, or damaging chemicals. Respirators placed at stations and workareas for emergency use should be quickly accessible at all times and shouldbe stored in compartments built for the purpose. The compartments should beclearly marked. Routinely used respirators, such as dust respirators, may beplaced in plastic bags. Respirators should not be stored in such places aslockers or tool boxes unless they are in carrying cases or cartons.(ii) Respirators should be packed or stored so that the facepiece andexhalation valve will rest in a normal position and function will not beimpaired by the elastomer setting in an abnormal position.(iii) Instructions for proper storage of emergency respirators, such as gasmasks and self-contained breathing apparatus, are found in "use and care"instructions usually mounted inside the carrying case lid.(i) "Identification of gas mask canisters." (1) The primary means ofidentifying a gas mask canister shall be by means of properly worded labels.The secondary means of identifying a gas mask canister shall be by a colorcode.(2) All who issue or use gas masks falling within the scope of this sectionshall see that all gas mask canisters purchased or used by them are properlylabeled and colored in accordance with these requirements before they areplaced in service and that the labels and colors are properly maintained atall times thereafter until the canisters have completely served theirpurpose.(3) On each canister shall appear in bold letters the following: (i) -- Canister for ________________(Name for atmospheric contaminant)or Type N Gas Mask Canister(ii) In addition, essentially the following wording shall appear beneath theappropriate phrase on the canister label: "For respiratory protection inatmospheres containing not more than _____________percent by volume of ______________."(Name of atmospheric contaminant)(4) Canisters having a special high-efficiency filter for protection againstradionuclides and other highly toxic particulates shall be labeled with astatement of the type and degree of protection afforded by the filter. Thelabel shall be affixed to the neck end of, or to the gray stripe which isaround and near the top of, the canister. The degree of protection shall bemarked as the percent of penetration of the canister by a 0.3-micron-diameterdioctyl phthalate (DOP) smoke at a flow rate of 85 liters per minute.(5) Each canister shall have a label warning that gas masks should be usedonly in atmospheres containing sufficient oxygen to support life (at least 16percent by volume), since gas mask canisters are only designed to neutralizeor remove contaminants from the air.(6) Each gas mask canister shall be painted a distinctive color orcombination of colors indicated in Table E-5. All colors used shall be suchthat they are clearly identifiable by the user and clearly distinguishablefrom one another. The color coating used shall offer a high degree ofresistance to chipping, scaling, peeling, blistering, fading, and the effectsof the ordinary atmospheres to which they may be exposed under normalconditions of storage and use. Appropriately colored pressure sensitive tapemay be used for the stripes. TABLE E-5
Atmospheric contaminants to be protected againstColors assigned(1)
Acid gasesWhite.
Hydrocyanic acid gasWhite with 1/2-inch green stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Chlorine gasWhite with 1/2-inch yellow stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Organic vaporsBlack
Ammonia gasGreen.
Acid gases and ammonia gasGreen with 1/2-inch white stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Carbon monoxideBlue.
Acid gases and organic vaporsYellow.
Hydrocyanic acid gas and chloropicrin vaporYellow with 1/2-inch blue stripe completely around the canister near the bottom
Acid gases, organic vapors, and ammonia gasesBrown
Radioactive materials, excepting tritium and noble gasesPurple (Magenta)
Particulates (dusts, fumes, mists, fogs, or smokes) in combination with any of the above gases or vaporsCanister color for contaminant, as designated above, with 1/2-inch gray stripe completely around the canister near the top
All of the above atmospheric contaminantsRed with 1/2-inch gray stripe completely around the canister near the top
Footnote(1) Gray shall not be assigned as the main color for a canisterdesigned to remove acids or vapors.NOTE: Orange shall be used as a complete body, or stripe color to representgases not included in this table. The user will need to refer to thecanister label to determine the degree of protection the canister willafford.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0099)18. In 1926.150, new paragraphs (c)(1)(xi) through (xiv) are added to readas follows:1926.150 Fire protection.* * * * * *(c) Portable firefighting equipment- (1) Fire extinguishers and small hoselines.* * * * * *(xi) "Employment and training." Where the employer has provided portablefire extinguishers for employee use in the workplace, the employer shall alsoprovide an educational program to familiarize employees with the generalprinciples of fire extinguisher use and the hazards involved with incipientstage fire fighting.(xii) The employer shall provide the education required in paragraph(c)(1)(xi) of this section upon initial employment and at least annuallythereafter.(xiii) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers aremaintained in a fully charged and operable condition and kept in theirdesignated places at all times except during use.(xiv) The employer shall assure that portable fire extinguishers aresubjected to an annual maintenance check. Stored pressure extinguishers donot require an internal examination. The employer shall record the annualmaintenance date and retain this record for one year after the last entry orthe life of the shell, whichever is less. The record shall be available tothe Assistant Secretary upon request.19. In 1926.152, new paragraphs (b)(5) and (h) through (k) are added toread as follows:1926.152 Flammable and combustible liquids.* * * * * *(b) "Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids."* * * * * * (5) "Quantity." The quantity of flammable or combustible liquidskept in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required foroperations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for 1 day or one shift.Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable or combustible liquids shallbe in a separate, constructed building detached from other importantbuildings or cut off in a standard manner.* * * * * * *(h) "Scope." This section applies to the handling, storage, and use offlammable and combustible liquids with a flashpoint below 200 deg. F (93.33deg. C). This section does not apply to:(1) Bulk transportation of flammable and combustible liquids; and(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connectedwith oil burning equipment.(i) "Tank storage" - (1) "Design and construction of tanks" - (i)"Materials." (A) Tanks shall be built of steel except as provided inparagraphs (i)(1)(i)(B) through (E) of this section.(B) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installationunderground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tankslocated above ground or inside buildings shall be of noncombustibleconstruction.(C) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed tospecifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design forthe material used.(D) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable or combustibleliquids having a gravity of 40 deg. API or heavier. Concrete tanks withspecial lining may be used for other services provided the design is inaccordance with sound engineering practice.(E) [Reserved](F) Special engineering consideration shall berequired if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that ofwater or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable or combustibleliquids at a liquid temperature below 0 deg. F.(ii) "Fabrication." (A) [Reserved] (B) Metal tanks shall be welded,riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of acombination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing shall benonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000 deg. F. andbelow that of the metal joined.(iii) "Atmospheric tanks." (A) Atmospheric tanks shall be built inaccordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks maybe built in accordance with:{1} Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for SteelAboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58,Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids,Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside tanks forOil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.{2} American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12A, Specification for OilStorage Tanks with Riveted Shells, Seventh Edition, September 1951, or No.650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.{3} American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for BoltedProduction Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962;No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition,August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks,Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance with these standardsshall be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum inoil-producing areas.(B) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons(9,462.5 L) capacity may be used aboveground.(C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.(D) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable orcombustible liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.(iv) "Low pressure tanks." (A) The normal operating pressure of the tankshall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.(B) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptablestandards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with:{1} American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620. Recommended Rules forthe Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks,Third Edition, 1966.{2} The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII ofthe ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.(C) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.,requirements in paragraph (i)(1)(iii)(A) of this section and shall be limitedto 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions.This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g.(D) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks. (v)"Pressure vessels." (A) The normal operating pressure of the vessel shall notexceed the design pressure of the vessel.(B) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for UnfiredPressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code1968.(vi) "Provisions for internal corrosion." When tanks are not designed inaccordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society ofMechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, standards,or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the designformulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings orlinings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expectedduring the design life of the tank.(2) "Installation of outside aboveground tanks."(i) [Reserved](ii) "Spacing (shell-to-shell) between abovegroundtanks."(A) The distance between any two flammable or combustible liquidstorage tanks shall not be less than 3 feet (0.912 m).(B) Except as provided in paragraph (i)(2)(ii)(C) of this section, thedistance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-sixth thesum of their diameters. When the diameter of one tank is less than one-halfthe diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between the two tanks shallnot be less than one-half the diameter of the smaller tank.(C) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities arelocated in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 126,000gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall not be lessthan 3 feet (0.912 m).(D) Where unstable flammable or combustible liquids are stored, the distancebetween such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of theirdiameters.(E) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregularpattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so that insidetanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.(F) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas container and aflammable or combustible liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet (6.08 m),except in the case of flammable or combustible liquid tanks operating atpressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting whichwill permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in which case the provisions ofparagraphs (i)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section shall apply. Suitable meansshall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable or combustibleliquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers such as bydiversion curbs or grading. When flammable or combustible liquid storagetanks are within a diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shallbe outside the diked area and at least 10 feet (3.04 m) away from thecenterline of the wall of the diked area. The foregoing provisions shall notapply when liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons (473.125 L) orless capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons(2,081.75 L) or less capacity.(iii) [Reserved](iv) "Normal venting for aboveground tanks." (A)Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent thedevelopment of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a coneroof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospherictanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperaturechanges.(B) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: {1} The AmericanPetroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric andLow-Pressure Storage Tanks; or {2} other accepted standard; or {3} shall beat least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever islarger but in no case less than 1 1/4 inch (3.175 cm) normal inside diameter.(C) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented toprevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptyingand atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure ofthe tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to preventoverpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pumpdischarge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.(D) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawalconnection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent sizeshall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.(E) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 p.s.i. orless, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge insuch a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank inthe event vapors from such vents are ignited.(F) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IA liquids shall be equippedwith venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting topressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Class IBand IC liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normallyclosed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or withapproved flame arresters."Exemption:" Tanks of 3,000 bbls (84 m(3)) capacity or less containing crudepetroleum in crude-producing areas; and, outside aboveground atmospherictanks under 1,000 gallons (3,785 L) capacity containing other than Class IAflammable liquids may have open vents. (See paragraph (i)(2)(vi)(B) of thissection.) (G) Flame arresters or venting devices required in paragraph(i)(2)(iv)(F) of this section may be omitted for Class IB and IC liquidswhere conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, resultin tank damage.(v) "Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks."(A) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction ordevice that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposurefires.(B) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in paragraph(i)(2)(v)(A) of this section may take the form of a floating roof, lifterroof, a weak room-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relievingconstruction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to failpreferential to any other seam.(C) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressurerelieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergencyvents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tankif vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids arestored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization,decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account.The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be notless than that derived from Table F-10 except as provided in paragraph(i)(2)(v)(E) or (F) of this section. Such device may be a self-closingmanhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift underinternal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. Thewetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of thetotal exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposedarea of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet (9.12 m) above grade of theexposed shell are of a vertical tank. TABLE F-10 - WETTED AREA VERSUS CUBIC FEET (METERS) FREE AIR PER HOUR (For Table, see printed copy)(D) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., thetotal rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table F-10,except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800square feet (257.6 m(2)), the total rate of venting shall be calculated bythe following formula:CFH=1,107A(0.82)Where:CFH=Venting requirement, in cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour.A=Exposed wetted surface, in square feet (m(2)). NOTE: The foregoing formula is based on Q=21,000A(0.82).(E) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stableliquid may be determined by the following formula:V=1337+L square root M V= Cubic feet (meters) of free air per hour from Table F-10. L= Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per pound. M= Molecular weight of specific liquids.(F) The required airflow rate of paragraph (i)(2)(v)(C) or (E) of thissection may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the followingschedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may beused for any one tank.0.5 for drainage in accordance with paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this sectionfor tanks over 200 square feet (18.4 m(2)) of wetted area.0.3 for approved water spray. 0.3 for approved insulation. 0.15 forapproved water spray with approved insulation.(G) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergencyventing to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be arranged todischarge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part ofthe tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.(H) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the openingpressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, andthe flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet (meters)per hour of air at 60 deg. F. (15.55 deg C) and at a pressure of 14.7p.s.i.a.(I) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches (30.48 cm) andsmaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each typeand size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer ifcertified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by anoutside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12inches (30.48 cm) nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long boltsor equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure isactually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice areaare stated, the word "calculated" appears on the nameplate, and thecomputation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the ratedorifice area.(vi) "Vent piping for aboveground tanks." (A) Vent piping shall beconstructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.(B) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Class I liquids are adjacentto buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors arereleased at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet(3.648 m) above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid their dispersion,vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacentwalls. Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not betrapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least 5 feet (1.52 m)from building openings.(C) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as todischarge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they maybe required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fireexposure.(vii) "Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks" - (A) "Drainage anddiked areas." The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall beprovided with drainage as in paragraph (i)(2)(vii)(B) of this section, orshall be diked as provided in (i)(2)(vii)(C) of this section, to preventaccidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property orreaching waterways.(B) "Drainage." Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is bymeans of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply withthe following:(1) [Reserved] (2) The drainage system shall terminate in vacantland or other area or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smallerthan that of the largest tank served. This termination area and the route ofthe drainage system shall be so located that, if the flammable or combustibleliquids in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriouslyexpose tanks or adjoining property.(C) "Diked areas." Where protection of adjoining property or waterways isaccomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, thevolume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:{1} Except as provided in paragraph (1)(2)(vii)(C)(2) of this section, thevolumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatestamount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the dikedarea, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked area enclosing morethan one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks otherthan the largest tank below the height of the dike.{2} For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude petroleumwith boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the diked areashall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank served by theenclosure, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked enclosure shallbe calculated by deducting the volume below the height of the dike of alltanks within the enclosure.{3} Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solidmasonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full hydrostatic head.Earthen walls 3 feet (0.912 m) or more in height shall have a flat section atthe top not less than 2 feet (0.608 m) wide. The slope of an earthen wallshall be consistent with the angle of repose of the material of which thewall is constructed.{4} The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average height of6 feet (1.824 m) above interior grade.{5} [Reserved]{6} No loose combustible material, empty or full drumor barrel, shall be permitted within the diked area.(viii) "Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks."(A) - (B) - (C) [Reserved] (D) Openings for gaging shall be providedwith a vaportight cap or cover.(E) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, andasphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize thepossibility of generating static electricity. A fill pipe entering the topof a tank shall terminate within 6 inches (15.24 cm) of the bottom of thetank and shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration.(F) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall belocated outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignitionand not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening. Suchconnection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connectionshall be properly identified.(3) "Installation of underground tanks" - (i) "Location." Evacuation forunderground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining offoundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or tanks underbuildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundationsand supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted tothe tank. The distance from any part of tank storing Class I liquids to thenearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than 1 foot (0.304 m),and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than 3 feet (0.912m). The distance from any part of a tank storing Class II or Class IIIliquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall benot less than 1 foot (0.304 m).(ii) "Depth and cover." Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundationsand surrounded with at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of noncorrosive, inertmaterials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place. Thetank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tankinto the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape offthe protective coating of coated tanks. Tanks shall be covered with aminimum of 2 feet(0.608 m) of earth, or shall be covered with not less than 1foot (0.304 m) of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforcedconcrete not less than 4 inches (10.16 cm) thick. When underground tanksare, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected againstdamage from vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet (0.912 m) of earthcover, or 18 inches (45.72 cm) of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches (15.24 cm)of reinforced concrete or 8 inches (20.32 cm) of asphaltic concrete. Whenasphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, itshall extend at least 1 foot (0.304 m) horizontally beyond the outline of thetank in all directions.(iii) "Corrosion protection." Corrosion protection for the tank and itspiping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:(A) Use of protective coatings or wrappings; (B) Cathodic protection; or, (C) Corrosion resistant materials ofconstruction.(iv) "Vents." (A) Location and arrangement of vents for Class Iliquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Class I liquids shall be so locatedthat the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipeopening, and not less than 12 feet (3,648 m) above the adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors. Ventpipes 2 inches (5.08 cm) or less in nominal inside diameter shall not beobstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipeoutlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter buildingopenings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipeis less than 10 feet (3.04 m) in length, or greater than 2 inches (5.08 cm)in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum andpressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester locatedin the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from theoutlet.(B) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate insize to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while thetank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 1 1/4 inch (3.175cm) nominal inside diameter. TABLE F-11 - VENT LINE DIAMETERS
Maximum flow
GPM (L)
Pipe length(1)
50 feet (15.2 m)100 feet (30.4 m)200 feet (60.8 m)
Inches (cm) Inches (cm) Inches (cm)
100 (378.5) 1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/4 (3.175)
200 (757) 1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/4 (3.175)
300 (1,135.5)1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/2 (3.81)
400 (1,514) 1 1/4 (3.175)1 1/2 (3.81) 2 (5.08)
500 (1,892.5)1 1/2 (3.81) 1 1/2 (3.81) 2 (5.08)
600 (2,271) 1 1/2 (3.81) 2 (5.08) 2 (5.08)
700 (2,649.5)2 (5.08) 2 (5.08) 2 (5.08)
800 (3,028) 2 (5.08) 2 (5.08) 3 (7.62)
900 (3,406.5)2 (5.08) 2 (5.08) 3 (7.62)
1,000 (3,785) 2 (5.08) 2 (5.08) 3 (7.62)
Footnote(1) Vent lines of 50 feet (15.2 m), 100 feet (30.4 m), and 200 feet(60.8 m) of pipe plus 7 ells.(C) Location and arrangement of vents for Class II or Class III liquids.Vent pipes from tanks storing Class II or Class III flammable liquids shallterminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening.Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be fitted withreturn bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreignmaterial.(D) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (3)(iv)(C)of this section. Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain toward the tankwithout sags or traps in which liquid can collect. They shall be located sothat they will not be subjected to physical damage. The tank end of the ventpipe shall enter the tank through the top.(E) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as todischarge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they maybe required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.(v) "Tank openings other than vents." (A) Connections for all tank openingsshall be vapor or liquid tight.(B) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall beprovided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. If inside a building, each suchopening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor releaseby means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.(C) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. Filllines shall be sloped toward the tank.(D) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, andasphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize thepossibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches(15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank.(E) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall belocated outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignitionand not less than 5 feet (1.52 m) away from any building opening. Suchconnection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connectionshall be properly identified.(4) "Installation of tanks inside of buildings" - (i) "Location."Tanks shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided inparagraphs (e), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.(ii) "Vents." Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided inparagraphs (i)(2)(iv), (v), (vi)(B), and (3)(iv) of this section, except thatemergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not bepermitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.(iii) "Vent piping." Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance withparagraph (c) of this section.(iv) "Tank openings other than vents." (A) Connections for all tank openingsshall be vapor or liquidtight. Vents are covered in paragraph (i)(4)(ii) ofthis section.(B) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which liquid cannormally flow shall be provided with an internal or external valve located asclose as practical to the shell of the tank. Such valves, when external, andtheir connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemicalcharacteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel. Whenmaterials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for thepressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fireexposures.(C) Flammable or combustible liquid tanks located inside of buildings,except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable orcombustible liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closingheat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level,except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flowin the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank. This function may beincorporated in the valve required in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of thissection, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valverequired in paragraph (i)(4)(iv)(B) of this section.(D) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (seeparagraph (i)(4)(iv)(F) of this section), shall be provided with a vaportightcap or cover. Each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflowand possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or otherapproved device.(E) For Class IB and Class IC liquids other than crude oils, gasolines, andasphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize thepossibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches(15.24 cm) of the bottom of the tank.(F) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid excessivevibration of the pipe.(G) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings at alocation free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet (1.52 m)away from any building opening. The inlet of the fill pipe shall be closedand liquidtight when not in use. The fill connection shall be properlyidentified.(H) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other meansshall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.(5) "Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations" -(i) "General." Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tanksupports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single woodtimber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outsideaboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches (30.48 cm) high at their lowestpoint.(ii) "Fire resistance." Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protectedby materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, exceptthat steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 inches (30.48 cm)high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or its equivalent may beused in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.(iii) "Spheres." The design of the supporting structure for tanks such asspheres shall receive special engineering consideration.(iv) "Load distribution." Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent theexcessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.(v) "Foundations." Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made ofconcrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be designed tominimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimizecorrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.(vi) "Flood areas." Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjectedto flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this subdivision shall beobserved.(A) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable orcombustible liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level withinthe tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the tank isprovided with a guiding structure such as described in paragraphs(i)(5)(vi)(M), (N), and (O) of this section.(B) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at locations wherethere is no ample and dependable public water supply available for loadingpartially empty tanks with water.(C) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located thatmore than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable liquidstorage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage,shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised,or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximumflood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or more of its allowableliquid storage capacity: "Provided, however," That the submerged part of thetank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as analternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides,designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product,shall be provided.(D) Each horizontal tank so located that more than 70 percent of its storagecapacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall be anchored,attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and concrete, of sufficientweight to provide adequate load for the tank when filled with flammable orcombustible liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established floodstage, or adequately secured by other means.(E) [Reserved](F) At locations where there is no ample anddependable water supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquidsis impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, orfor other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when emptyand submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, weightingwith concrete or other approved solid loading material, or securing by othermeans. Each such tank shall be so constructed and installed that it willsafety resist external pressures due to high ground water or floodwaters.(G) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supplyavailable, underground tanks containing flammable or combustible liquids, soinstalled that more than 70 percent of their storage capacity will besubmerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so anchored, weighted, orsecured by other means, as to prevent movement by such tanks when filled withflammable or combustible liquids, and submerged by flood waters to theestablished flood stage.(H) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank shall beprovided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable to the tankshell. Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be of steel or othermaterial suitable for use with the liquid being stored. Cast iron shall notbe permitted.(I) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it shall beentirely independent of public power and water supply. Independent source ofwater shall be available when flood waters reach a level not less than 10feet (3.04 m) below the bottom of the lowest tank on a property.(J) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or sodesigned that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously throughoutthe rise in flood waters from a level 10 feet (3.04 m) below the lowest tankto the level of the potential flood stage.(K) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise ofwater in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential averagerate of rise of flood waters at any stage.(L) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to insurethat it is in satisfactory operating condition.(M) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their foundationsshall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the free rise of atank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible material.(N) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateralmovement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalentto not less than 25 pounds per square foot (1.05 kg m(2)) acting on theprojected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.(O) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline whereswift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall bedesigned to withstand a unit force of not less than 50 pounds per square foot(2.1 kg m(2)).(P) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be startedas soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage. The rate of fillingshall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the floodwaters (or theestablished average potential rate of rise).(Q) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at alltimes to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.(R) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in closedposition when water loading has been completed.(S) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of floatingtanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall bedisconnected and blanked off or blinded before the floodwaters reach thebottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to the tankare of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve and the tankshell.(T) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection withwater loading operations shall be closed and locked.(U) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be raisedto and secured at its highest position.(V) Inspections. The Assistant Secretary or his designated representativeshall make periodic inspections of all plants where the storage of flammableor combustible liquids is such as to require compliance with the foregoingrequirements, in order to assure the following:(1) That all flammable or combustible liquid storage tanks are in compliancewith these requirements and so maintained.(2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergenciesare properly posted.(3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry outsuch instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation ofsuch valves and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements.(vii) "Earthquake areas." In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supportsand connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of suchshocks.(6) "Sources of ignition." In locations where flammable vapors may bepresent, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating orcontrolling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames,lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat,sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemicaland physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.(7) "Testing" - (i) "General." All tanks, whether shop built or fielderected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service inaccordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they werebuilt. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp,American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of theUnderwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliancewith this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codesshall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance withgood engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections ontesting in the codes listed in paragraphs (i)(1)(iii)(A), (iv)(B), or (v)(B)of this section.(ii) "Strength." When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is suchthat when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of thetank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch (68.94 kPa), the tank and relatedpiping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static headthus imposed.(iii) "Tightness." In addition to the strength test called for in paragraphs(i)(7)(i) and (ii) of this section, all tanks and connections shall be testedfor tightness. Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall bemade at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing thetank in service. In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may beconsidered to be the test for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping,before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested fortightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds persquare inch (20.68 kPa) and not more than 5 pounds per square inch (34.47kPa).(iv) "Repairs." All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in anacceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical caulkingis not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks inthe roof.(v) "Derated operations." Tanks to be operated at pressures below theirdesign pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of paragraphs(i)(7)(i) or (ii) of this section, based upon the pressure developed underfull emergency venting of the tank.(j) "Piping, valves, and fittings" - (1) "General" - (i) "Design."The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test,and inspection of piping systems containing flammable or combustible liquidsshall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima facieevidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.(ii) "Exceptions." This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:(A) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connecteddirectly thereto.(B) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engines.(C) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressure vesselcode.(iii) "Definitions." As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist ofpipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressurecontaining parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers,and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing,distributing, metering, or controlling flow.(2) "Materials for piping, valves, and fittings" - (i) "Required materials." Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, nodular iron, ormalleable iron, except as provided in paragraphs (j)(2)(ii), (iii) and (iv)of this section.(ii) "Exceptions." Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleableiron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of theflammable or combustible liquid handled. Material other than steel, nodulariron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodyingprinciples recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.(iii) "Linings." Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible ornoncombustible linings.(iv) "Low-melting materials." When low-melting point materials such asaluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such asplastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, specialconsideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. If suchmaterials are used in above ground piping systems or inside buildings, theyshall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that anyspill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly exposepersons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled byremote valves.(3) "Pipe joints." Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or screwedjoints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints andconnections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or pipingcompound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics ofcombustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be usedinside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or belowground. If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured to preventdisengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed thatany spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons,important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remotevalves.(4) "Supports." Piping systems shall be substantially supported andprotected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising fromsettlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.(5) "Protection against corrosion." All piping for flammable or combustibleliquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to externalcorrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.(6) "Valves." Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves tooperate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems inconnection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to controlproperly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physicaldamage. Each connection to pipelines, by which equipments such as tankcarsor tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks,shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection againstbackflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system ispossible.(7) "Testing" All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in useshall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipatedpressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximumanticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per squareinch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintainedfor a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints andconnections, but for at least 10 minutes.(k) "Marine service stations" - (1) "Dispensing." (i) The dispensing areashall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safeingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in allcases be at least 20 feet (6.08 m) from any activity involving fixed sourcesof ignition.(ii) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or withoutintegral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docksor on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.(iii) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-openlatch.(2) "Tanks and pumps." (i) Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensingunit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except asprovided in paragraphs (k)(2)(ii)and (iii) of this section.(ii) Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines todispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicableportions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to spacing, diking, andpiping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100gallons (4,163.5 L) aggregate capacity.(iii) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located aboveground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanksimpractical.(iv) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on thedispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure controlvalve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in1926.152(c)(8) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow bygravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.(3) "Piping." (i) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall beas described in paragraph (k)(2)(iii) of this section, except that, wheredispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistantflexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on thefloating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline. TABLE F-19 - ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT HAZARDOUS AREAS - SERVICE STATIONS
LocationClass I Group D divisionExtent of classified area
Underground tank:
Fill opening1Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
2Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet (3.04 m) from a loose fill connection and within a horizontal radius of 5 feet (1.52 M) from a tight fill connection.
Vent - Discharging upward1Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
2Area between 3 feet (0.912 m) and 5 feet (1.52 m) of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Dispenser:
Pits1Any pit, box or space below grade level, any part of which is within the Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Dispenser enclosure1The area 4 feet (1.216 m) vertically above base within the enclosure and 18 inches (45.72 cm) horizontally in all directions.
Outdoor2Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 20 feet (6.08 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
Indoor:
With mechanical ventilation2Up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 20 feet (6.08 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
With gravity ventilationUp to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade or floor level within 25 feet (7.6 m) horizontally of any edge of enclosure.
Remote pump - Outdoor1Any pit, box or space below grade level if any part is within a horizontal distance of 10 feet (3.04 m) from any edge of pump.
2Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above grade level within 10 feet (3.04 m) horizontally from any edge of pump.
Remote pump - Indoor1Entire area within any pit.
2Within 5 feet (1.52 m) of any edge of pump, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet (3.04 m) above floor or grade level within 25 feet (6.08 m) horizontally from any edge of pump.
Lubrication or service room1Entire area within any pit.
2Area up to 18 inches (45.72 cm) above floor or grade level within entire lubrication room.
Dispenser for Class I liquids2Within 3 feet (0.912 m) of any fill or dispensing point, extending in all directions.
Special enclosure inside building per 1910.106(f)(1)(ii)
Sales, storage and rest rooms(1)If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of a Division 1 area, the entire room shall be classified as Division 1.
Footnote(1) Ordinary.(ii) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall beprovided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at theshore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose isattached.(iii) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.(iv) Piping handling Class I liquids shall be grounded to control straycurrents.(4) "Definition; as used in this section:" Marine service station shall meanthat portion of a property where flammable or combustible liquids used asfuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves,or floating docks into the fuel tanks or self-propelled craft, and shallinclude all facilities used in connection therewith.20. In 1926.153, new paragraphs (a)(3) and (m) through (o) are added toread as follows:1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).(a) Approval of equipment and systems.* * * * * * *(3) "Definition." As used in this section, "Containers" - All vessels, suchas tanks, cylinders, or drums, used for transportation or storing liquefiedpetroleum gases.* * * * * *(m) "Systems utilizing containers other than DOT containers" - (1)"Application." This paragraph applies specifically to systems utilizingstorage containers other than those constructed in accordance with DOTspecifications. Paragraph (b) of this section applies to this paragraphunless otherwise noted in paragraph (b) of this section.(2) "Design pressure and classification of storage containers." Storagecontainers shall be designed and classified in accordance with Table F-31. Table F-31
Container typeFor gases with vapor press. Not to exceed lb. per sq. in.gage at 100 deg. F.
(37.8 deg. C.)
Minimum design pressure of container,
lb. per sq. in. gage
1949 and earlier editions of ASME Code (Par. U-68, U-69)1949 edition of ASME Code
(Par. U-200, U-201);
1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of ASME Code; All editions of API-ASME Code(3)
80 (1)80 (1)80 (1)100 (1)
100100100125
125125125156
150150150187
175175175219
200 (2)215200250
Footnote(1) New storage containers of the 80 type have not been authorizedsince Dec. 31, 1947.Footnote(2) Container type may be increased by increments of 25. Theminimum design pressure of containers shall per 100 percent of the containertype designation when constructed under 1949 or earlier editions of the ASMECode (Par. U-68 and U-69). The minimum design pressure of containers shallbe 125 percent of the container type designation when constructed under: (1)the 1949 ASME Code (Par. U-200 and U-201), (2) 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962,1965, and 1968 (Division 1) editions of the ASME Code, and (3) all editionsof the API-ASME Code.Footnote(3) Construction of containers under the API-ASME Code is notauthorized after July 1, 1061.(3) Containers with foundations attached (portable or semiportable bcontainers with suitable steel "runners" or "skids" and popularly known inthe industry as "skid tanks") shall be designed, installed, and used inaccordance with these rules subject to the following provisions:(i) If they are to be used at a given general location for a temporaryperiod not to exceed 6 months they need not have fire-resisting foundationsor saddles but shall have adequate ferrous metal supports.(ii) They shall not be located with the outside bottom of the containershell more than 5 feet (1.52 m) above the surface of the ground unlessfire-resisting supports are provided.(iii) The bottom of the skids shall not be less than 2 inches (5.08 cm) ormore than 12 inches (30.48 cm) below the outside bottom of the containershell.(iv) Flanges, nozzles, valves, fittings, and the like, having communicationwith the interior of the container, shall be protected against physicaldamage.(v) When not permanently located on fire-resisting foundations, pipingconnections shall be sufficiently flexible to minimize the possibility ofbreakage or leakage of connections if the container settles, moves, or isotherwise displaced.(vi) Skids, or lugs for attachment of skids, shall be secured to thecontainer in accordance with the code or rules under which the container isdesigned and built (with a minimum factor of safety of four) to withstandloading in any direction equal to four times the weight of the container andattachments when filled to the maximum permissible loaded weight.(4) Field welding where necessary shall be made only on saddle plates orbrackets which were applied by the manufacturer of the tank.(n) When LP-Gas and one or more other gases are stored or used in the samearea, the containers shall be marked to identify their content. Marking shallbe in compliance with American National Standard Z48.1-1954, "Method ofMarking Portable Compressed Gas Containers To Identify the MaterialContained."(o) "Damage from vehicles." When damage to LP-Gas systems from vehiculartraffic is a possibility, precautions against such damage shall be taken.21. A new undesignated center heading and 1926.156 and 1926.157 are addedto read as follows:1926.156 Fixed extinguishing systems, general.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to all fixedextinguishing systems installed to meet a particular OSHA standard except forautomatic sprinkler systems which are covered by 1910.159.(2) This section also applies to fixed systems not installed to meet aparticular OSHA standard, but which, by means of their operation, may exposeemployees to possible injury, death, or adverse health consequences caused bythe extinguishing agent. Such systems are only subject to the requirementsof paragraphs (b)(4) through (b)(7) and (c) of this section.(3) Systems otherwise covered in paragraph (a)(2) of this section which areinstalled in areas with no employee exposure are exempted from therequirements of this section.(b) "General requirements." (1) Fixed extinguishing system components andagents shall be designed and approved for use on the specific fire hazardsthey are expected to control or extinguish.(2) If for any reason a fixed extinguishing system becomes inoperable, theemployer shall notify employees and take the necessary temporary precautionsto assure their safety until the system is restored to operating order. Anydefects or impairments shall be properly corrected by trained personnel.(3) The employer shall provide a distinctive alarm or signaling system whichcomplies with 1926.159 and is capable of being perceived above ambient noiseor light levels, on all extinguishing systems in those portions of theworkplace covered by the extinguishing system to indicate when theextinguishing system is discharging. Discharge alarms are not required onsystems where discharge is immediately recognizable.(4) The employer shall provide effective safeguards to warn employeesagainst entry into discharge areas where the atmosphere remains hazardous toemployee safety or health.(5) The employer shall post hazard warning or caution signs at the entranceto, and inside of, areas protected by fixed extinguishing systems which useagents in concentrations known to be hazardous to employee safety and health.(6) The employer shall assure that fixed systems are inspected annually by aperson knowledgeable in the design and function of the system to assure thatthe system is maintained in good operating condition.(7) The employer shall assure that the weight and pressure of refillablecontainers is checked at least semi-annually. If the container shows a lossin net content or weight of more than 5 percent, or a loss in pressure ofmore than 10 percent, it shall be subjected to maintenance.(8) The employer shall assure that factory charged nonrefillable containerswhich have no means of pressure indication are weighted at leastsemi-annually. If a container shows a loss in net weight or more than 5percent it shall be replaced.(9) The employer shall assure that inspection and maintenance dates arerecorded on the container, on a tag attached to the container, or in acentral location. A record of the last semi-annual check shall be maintaineduntil the container is checked again or for the life of the container,whichever is less.(10) The employer shall train employees designated to inspect, maintain,operate, or repair fixed extinguishing systems and annually review theirtraining to keep them up-to-date in the functions they are to perform.(11) The employer shall not use chlorobromomethane or carbon tetrachlorideas an extinguishing agent where employees may be exposed.(12) The employer shall assure that systems installed in the presence ofcorrosive atmospheres are constructed of non-corrosive material or otherwiseprotected against corrosion.(13) Automatic detection equipment shall be approved, installed andmaintained in accordance with 1926.158.(14) The employer shall assure that all systems designed for and installedin areas with climatic extremes shall operate effectively at the expectedextreme temperatures.(15) The employer shall assure that at least one manual station is providedfor discharge activation of each fixed extinguishing system.(16) The employer shall assure that manual operating devices are identifiedas to the hazard against which they will provide protection.(17) The employer shall provide and assure the use of the personalprotective equipment needed for immediate rescue of employees trapped inhazardous atmospheres created by an agent discharge.(c) "Total flooding systems with potential health and safety hazards toemployees." (1) The employer shall provide an emergency action plan inaccordance with 1926.35 for each area within a workplace that is protected bya total flooding system which provides agent concentrations exceeding themaximum safe levels set forth in paragraphs (b)(5) and (b)(6) of 1926.157.(2) Systems installed in areas where employees cannot enter during or afterthe system's operation are exempt from the requirements of paragraph (c) ofthis section.(3) On all total flooding systems the employer shall provide a pre-dischargeemployee alarm which complies with 1926.159, and is capable of beingperceived above ambient light or noise levels before the system discharges,which will give employees time to safely exit from the discharge area priorto system discharge.(4) The employer shall provide automatic actuation of total flooding systemsby means of an approved fire detection device installed and interconnectedwith a pre-discharge employee alarm system to give employees time to safelyexit from the discharge area prior to system discharge.1926.157 Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.(a) "Scope and application" - (1) "Scope." This section applies to allfixed extinguishing systems, using a gas as the extinguishing agent,installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. These systems shall alsocomply with 1926.156. In some cases, the gas may be in a liquid state duringstorage.(2) "Application." The requirements of paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(4) through(b)(6) shall apply only to total flooding systems.(b) "Specific requirements." (1) Agents used for initial supply andreplenishment shall be of the type approved for the system's application.Carbon dioxide obtained by dry ice conversion to liquid is not acceptableunless it is processed to remove excess water and oil.(2) Except during overhaul, the employer shall assure that the designedconcentration of gaseous agents is maintained until the fire has beenextinguished or is under control.(3) The employer shall assure that employees are not exposed to toxic levelsof gaseous agent or its decomposition products.(4) The employer shall assure that the designed extinguishing concentrationis reached within 30 seconds of initial discharge except for Halon systemswhich must achieve design concentration within 10 seconds.(5) The employer shall provide a distinctive pre-discharge employee alarmcapable of being perceived above ambient light or noise levels when agentdesign concentrations exceed the maximum safe level for employee exposure. Apre-discharge employee alarm for alerting employees before system dischargeshall be provided on Halon 1211 and carbon dioxide systems with a designconcentration of 10 percent or greater. The pre-discharge employee alarmshall provide employees time to safely exit the discharge area prior tosystem discharge.(6)(i) Where egress from an area cannot be accomplished within one minute,the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in concentrations greater than 7percent.(ii) Where egress takes greater than 30 seconds but less than one minute,the employer shall not use Halon 1301 in a concentration greater then 10percent.(iii) Halon 1301 concentrations greater than 10 percent are only permittedin areas not normally occupied by employees provided that any employee in thearea can escape within 30 seconds. The employer shall assure that nounprotected employees enter the area during agent discharge.22. A new undesignated center heading and 1926.158 and 1926.159 are added toread as follows:Other Fire Protection Systems1926.158 Fire detection systems.(a) "Scope and application." This section applies to all automatic firedetection systems installed to meet the requirements of a particular OSHAstandard.(b) "Installation and restoration." (1) The employer shall assure that alldevices and equipment constructed and installed to comply with this standardare approved for the purpose for which they are intended.(2) The employer shall restore all fire detection systems and components tonormal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test or alarm.Spare detection devices and components which are normally destroyed in theprocess of detecting fires shall be available on the premises of from a localsupplier in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt restoration of thesystem.(c) "Maintenance and testing." (1) The employer shall maintain all systemsin an operable condition except during repairs or maintenance.(2) The employer shall assure that fire detectors and fire detection systemsare tested and adjusted as often as needed to maintain proper reliability andoperating condition except that factory calibrated detectors need not beadjusted after installation.(3) The employer shall assure that pneumatic and hydraulic operateddetection systems installed after January 1, 1981, are equipped withsupervised systems.(4) The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing offire detection systems, including cleaning and necessary sensitivityadjustments are performed by a trained person knowledgeable in the operationand functions of the system.(5) The employer shall also assure that fire detectors that need to becleaned of dirt, dust, or other particulates in order to be fully operationalare cleaned at regular periodic intervals.(d) "Protection of fire detectors." (1) The employer shall assure that firedetection equipment installed outdoors or in the presence of corrosiveatmospheres be protected from corrosion. The employer shall provide acanopy, hood, or other suitable protection for detection equipment requiringprotection from the weather.(2) The employer shall locate or otherwise protect detection equipment sothat it is protected from mechanical or physical impact which might render itinoperable.(3) The employer shall assure that detectors are supported independently oftheir attachment to wires or tubing.(e) "Response time." (1) The employer shall assure that fire detectionsystems installed for the purpose of actuating fire extinguishment orsuppression systems shall be designed to operate in time to control orextinguish a fire.(2) The employer shall assure that fire detection systems installed for thepurpose of employee alarm and evacuation be designed and installed to providea warning for emergency action and safe escape of employees.(3) The employer shall not delay alarms or devices initiated by firedetector actuation for more than 30 seconds unless such delay is necessaryfor the immediate safety of employees. When such delay is necessary, itshall be addressed in an emergency action plan meeting the requirements of1926.35.(f) "Number, location and spacing of detecting devices." The employer shallassure that the number, spacing and location of fire detectors is based upondesign data obtained from field experience, or tests, engineering surveys,the manufacturer's recommendations, or a recognized testing laboratorylisting.1926.159 Employer alarm systems.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to all emergencyemployee alarms installed to meet a particular OSHA standard. This sectiondoes not apply to those discharge or supervisory alarms required on variousfixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression,alarm or detection systems unless they are intended to be employee alarmsystems.(2) The requirements in this section that pertain to maintenance, testingand inspection shall apply to all local fire alarm signaling systems used foralerting employees regardless of the other functions of the system.(3) All pre-discharge employee alarms installed to meet a particular OSHAstandard shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (b)(1) through (4), (c),and (d)(1) of this section.(b) "General requirements." (1) The employee alarm system shall providewarning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency actionplan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace orthe immediate work area, or both.(2) The employee alarm shall be capable of being perceived above ambientnoise or light levels by all employees in the affected portions of theworkplace. Tactile devices may be used to alert those employees who wouldnot otherwise be able to recognize the audible or visual alarm.(3) The employee alarm shall be distinctive and recognizable as a signal toevacuate the work area or to perform actions designated under the emergencyaction plan.(4) The employer shall explain to each employee the preferred means ofreporting emergencies, such as manual pull box alarms, public addresssystems, radio or telephones. The employer shall post emergency telephonenumbers near telephones, or employee notice boards, and other conspicuouslocations when telephones serve as a means of reporting emergencies. Where acommunication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergencymessages shall have priority over all non-emergency messages.(5) The employer shall establish procedures for sounding emergency alarms inthe workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in aparticular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedurefor sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm. Suchworkplaces need not have a back-up system.(c) "Installation and restoration." (1) The employer shall assure that alldevices, components, combinations of devices or systems constructed andinstalled to comply with this standard are approved. Steam whistles, airhorns, strobe lights or similar lighting devices, or tactile devices meetingthe requirements of this section are considered to meet this requirement forapproval.(2) The employer shall assure that all employee alarm systems are restoredto normal operating condition as promptly as possible after each test oralarm. Spare alarm devices and components subject to wear or destructionshall be available in sufficient quantities and locations for promptrestoration of the system.(d) "Maintenance and testing." (1) The employer shall assure that allemployee alarm systems are maintained in operating condition except whenundergoing repairs or maintenance.(2) The employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy ofnon-supervised employee alarm systems is made every two months. A differentactuation device shall be used in each test of a multi-actuation devicesystem so that no individual device is used for two consecutive tests.(3) The employer shall maintain or replace power supplies as often as isnecessary to assure a fully operational condition. Back-up means of alarm,such as employee runners or telephones, shall be provided when systems areout of service.(4) The employer shall assure that employee alarm circuitry installed afterJanuary 1, 1981, which is capable of being supervised is supervised and thatit will provide positive notification to assigned personnel whenever adeficiency exists in the system. The employer shall assure that allsupervised employee alarm systems are tested at least annually forreliability and adequacy.(5) The employer shall assure that the servicing, maintenance and testing ofemployee alarms are done by persons trained in the designed operation andfunctions necessary for reliable and safe operation of the system.(e) "Manual operation." The employer shall assure that manually operatedactuation devices for use in conjunction with employee alarms areunobstructed, conspicuous and readily accessible.23. In 1926.200, a new paragraph (c)(3) is added to read as follows:1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags.* * * * *(c) Caution signs.* * * * * *(3) Standard color of the background shall be yellow; and the panel, blackwith yellow letters. Any letters used against the yellow background shall beblack. The colors shall be those of opaque glossy samples as specified inTable 1 of American National Standard Z53.1-1967.* * * * * *24. In 1926.250, new paragraphs (c) and (d) are added to read as follows:1926.250 General requirements for storage.* * * * * *(c) "Housekeeping." Storage areas shall be kept free from accumulation ofmaterials that constitute hazards from tripping, fire, explosion, or pestharborage. Vegetation control will be exercised when necessary.(d) "Dockboards (bridge plates)." (1) Portable and powered dockboards shallbe strong enough to carry the load imposed on them.(2) Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by beinganchored or equipped with devices which will prevent their slipping.(3) Handholds, or other effective means, shall be provided on portabledockboards to permit safe handling.(4) Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars frombeing moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.25. In 1926.251, new paragraphs (a)(5) and (6), (b)(6)(i) and (ii), (c)(6)through (15), (d)(3) through (6), and (e)(3) through (8) are added to read asfollows:1926.251 Rigging equipment for material handling.* * * * *(a) General.* * * * *(5) "Scope." This section applies to slings used in conjunction with othermaterial handling equipment for the movement of material by hoisting, inemployments covered by this part. The types of slings covered are those madefrom alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiberrope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon,polyester, and polypropylene).(6) "Inspections." Each day before being used, the sling and all fasteningsand attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a competentperson designated by the employer. Additional inspections shall be performedduring sling use, where service conditions warrant. Damaged or defectiveslings shall be immediately removed from service.(b) Alloy steel chains.* * * * *(6) "Inspections." (i) In addition to the inspection required by otherparagraphs of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steelchain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on thebasis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service conditions; (C)nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience gained on the service life ofslings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in no event beat intervals greater than once every 12 months.(ii) The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent monthin which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shallmake such record available for examination.(c) Wire rope.* * * * *(6) Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other makeshiftdevices.(7) Sling legs shall not be kinked.(8) Slings used in a baskethitch shall have the loads balanced to prevent slippage.(9) Slings shall be padded or protected from the sharp edges of their loads.(10) Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling and its loadwhile the sling is being tightened around the load.(11) Shock loading is prohibited.(12) A sling shall not be pulledfrom under a load when the load is resting on the sling.(13) "Minimum sling lengths." (i) Cable laid and 6 X 19 and 6 X 37 slingsshall have minimum clear length of wire rope 10 times the component ropediameter between splices, sleeves or end fittings.(ii) Braided slings shall have a minimum clear length of wire rope 40 timesthe component rope diameter between the loops or end fittings.(iii) Cable laid grommets, strand laid grommets and endless slings shallhave a minimum circumferential length of 96 times their body diameter.(14) "Safe operating temperatures." Fiber core wire rope slings of allgrades shall be permanently removed from service if they are exposed totemperatures in excess of 200 deg. F (93.33 deg. C). When nonfiber core wirerope slings of any grade are used at temperatures above 400 deg. F (204.44deg. C) or below minus 60 deg. F (15.55 deg. C), recommendations of the slingmanufacturer regarding use at that temperature shall be followed.(15) "End attachments." (i) Welding of end attachments, except covers tothimbles, shall be performed prior to the assembly of the sling.(ii) All welded end attachments shall not be used unless proof tested by themanufacturer or equivalent entity at twice their rated capacity prior toinitial use. The employer shall retain a certificate of proof test, and makeit available for examination.(d) Natural rope, and synthetic fiber-* * * * * *(3) "Safe operating temperatures." Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings,except for wet frozen slings, may be used in a temperature range from minus20 deg. F (-28.88 deg. C) to plus 180 deg. F (82.2 deg. C) without decreasingthe working load limit. For operations outside this temperature range andfor wet frozen slings, the sling manufacturer's recommendations shall befollowed.(4) "Splicing." Spliced fiber rope slings shall not be used unless they havebeen spliced in accordance with the following minimum requirements and inaccordance with any additional recommendations of the manufacturer:(i) In manila rope, eye splices shall consist of at least three full tucks,and short splices shall consist of at least six full tucks, three on eachside of the splice center line.(ii) In synthetic fiber rope, eye splices shall consist of at least fourfull tucks, and short splices shall consist of at least eight full tucks,four on each side of the center line.(iii) Strand end tails shall not be trimmed flush with the surface of therope immediately adjacent to the full tucks. This applies to all types offiber rope and both eye and short splices. For fiber rope under 1 inch (2.54cm) in diameter, the tail shall project at least six rope diameters beyondthe last full tuck. For fiber rope 1 inch (2.54 cm) in diameter and larger,the tail shall project at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) beyond the last fulltuck. Where a projecting tail interferes with the use of the sling, the tailshall be tapered and spliced into the body of the rope using at lest twoadditional tucks (which will require a tail length of approximately six ropediameters beyond the last full tuck).(iv) Fiber rope slings shall have a minimum clear length of rope between eyesplices equal to 10 times the rope diameter.(v) Knots shall not be used in lieu of splices.(vi) Clamps notdesigned specifically for fiber ropes shall not be used forsplicing.(vii) For all eye splices, the eye shall be of such size to provide anincluded angle of not greater than 60 degrees at the splice when the eye isplaced over the load or support.(5) "End attachments." Fiber rope slings shall not be used if endattachments in contact with the rope have sharp edges or projections.(6) "Removal from service." Natural and synthetic fiber rope slings shall beimmediately removed from service if any of the following conditions arepresent:(i) Abnormal wear. (ii) Powdered fiber between strands. (iii) Brokenor cut fibers. (iv) Variations in the size or roundness of strands. (v)Discoloration or rotting. (vi) Distortion of hardware in the sling. (e)Synthetic webbing (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).* * * * * *(3) "Webbing." Synthetic webbing shall be of uniform thickness and width andselvage edges shall not be split from the webbing's width.(4) "Fittings." Fittings shall be:(i) Of a minimum breaking strength equal to that of the sling; and(ii) Free of all sharp edges that could in any way damage thewebbing.(5) "Attachment of end fittings to webbing and formation ofeyes."Stitching shall be the only method used to attach end fittings to webbingand to form eyes. The thread shall be in an even pattern and contain asufficient number of stitches to develop the full breaking strength of thesling.(6) "Environmental conditions." When synthetic web slings are used, thefollowing precautions shall be taken:(i) Nylon web slings shall not be used where fumes, vapors, sprays, mists orliquids of acids or phenolics are present.(ii) Polyester and polypropylene web slings shall not be used where fumes,vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.(iii) Web slings with aluminum fittings shall not be used where fumes,vapors, sprays, mists or liquids of caustics are present.(7) "Safe operating temperatures." Synthetic web slings of polyester andnylon shall not be used at temperatures in excess of 180 deg. F (82.2 deg.C). Polypropylene web slings shall not be used at temperatures in excess of200 deg. F (93.33 deg. C).(8) "Removal from service." Synthetic web slings shall be immediatelyremoved from service if any of the following conditions are present:(i) Acid or caustic burns;(ii) Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface;(iii) Snags, punctures, tears or cuts;(iv) Broken or worn stitches; or (v) Distortion offittings.26. In 1926.300, new paragraphs (b)(3) through (7) are added to read asfollows:1926.300 General requirements.* * * * * * *(b) Guarding. (1) When power operated tools are designed to accommodateguards, they shall be equipped with such guards when in use.(3) "Types of guarding." One or more methods of machine guarding shall beprovided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area fromhazards such as those created by point of operation, ingoing nip points,rotating parts, flying chips and sparks. Examples of guarding methods are -barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, etc.(4) "Point of operation guarding." (i) Point of operation is the area on amachine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed.(ii) The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employeeto injury, shall be guarded. The guarding device shall be in conformity withany appropriate standards therefor, or, in the absence of applicable specificstandards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operatorfrom having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operatingcycle.(iii) Special handtools for placing and removing material shall be such asto permit easy handling of material without the operator placing a hand inthe danger zone. Such tools shall not be in lieu of other guarding requiredby this section, but can only be used to supplement protection provided.(iv) The following are some of the machines which usually require point ofoperation guarding:{a} Guillotine cutters. {b} Shears. {c} Alligator shears. {d}Powered presses. {e} Milling machines. {f} Power saws. {g} Jointers. {h}Portable power tools. {i} Forming rolls and calenders. (5) "Exposure ofblades." When the periphery of the blades of a fan is less than 7 feet (2.128m) above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded. The guardshall have openings no larger than 1/2 inch (1.27 cm).(6) "Anchoring fixed machinery." Machines designed for a fixed locationshall be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving.(7) "Guarding of abrasive wheel machinery - exposure adjustment."Safety guards of the types described in paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of thissection, where the operator stands in front of the opening, shall beconstructed so that the peripheral protecting member can be adjusted to theconstantly decreasing diameter of the wheel. The maximum angular exposureabove the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle as specified in paragraphs(b)(3) and (4) of this section shall never be exceeded, and the distancebetween the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the end of theperipheral member at the top shall never exceed 1/4 inch (0.635 cm). (SeeFigures O-18, O-19, O-20, O-21, O-22, and O-23.)* * * * * *27. In 1926.302, new paragraph (b)(10) is added to read as follows:1926.302 Power-operated hand tools.* * * * * *(b) Pneumatic power tools.* * * * * *(10) "Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles." The blast cleaning nozzles shall beequipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually. A supportshall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.27. In 1926.302, new paragraph (b)(10) is added to read as follows:1926.302 Power-operated hand tools.* * * * * *(b) Pneaumatic hand tools.* * * * * *(10) Abrasive blast cleaning nozzles. The blast cleaning nozzles shall beequipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually. A supportshall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.28. In paragraph (b) of 1926.303, the existing text is designated asparagraph (b)(1) and a new paragraph (b)(2) is added; in addition, a newparagraph (e) is added. The new paragraphs read as follows:1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools.(b) Guarding.* * * * * *(2) "Guarding design." The safety guard shall cover the spindle end, nut,and flange projections. The safety guard shall be mounted so as to maintainproper alignment with the wheel, and the strength of the fastenings shallexceed the strength of the guard, except:(i) Safety guards on all operations where the work provides a suitablemeasure of protection to the operator, may be so constructed that the spindleend, nut, and outer flange are exposed; and where the nature of the work issuch as to entirely cover the side of the wheel, the side covers of the guardmay be omitted; and(ii) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machinesdesigned as portable saws.* * * * * * *(e) "Work rests." On offhand grinding machines, work rests shall be used tosupport the work. They shall be of rigid construction and designed to beadjustable to compensate for wheel wear. Work rests shall be kept adjustedclosely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 1/8 inch (0.3175 cm) toprevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest, which maycause wheel breakage. The work rest shall be securely clamped after eachadjustment. The adjustment shall not be made with the wheel in motion.29. In 1926.304, new paragraphs (g) through (i) are added to read as follows:1926.304 Woodworking tools * * * * * *(g) "Radial saws." (1) The upper hood shall completely enclose the upperportion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the sawarbor. The upper hood shall be constructed in such a manner and of suchmaterial that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken sawteeth, etc., and will defect sawdust away from the operator. The sides ofthe lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameterof the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to thethickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to givemaximum protection possible for the operation being performed.(h) "Hand-fed crosscut table saws." (1) Each circular crosscut table sawshall be guarded by a hood which shall meet all the requirements of paragraph(c)(1) of this section for hoods for circular ripsaws.(i) "Hand-fed ripsaws." (1) Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guardedby a hood which shall completely enclose the portion of the saw above thetable and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood andmounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itselfto the thickness of and remain in contact with the material being cut but itshall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to sawor to passage of the material being sawed. The hood shall be made ofadequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonableoperation, adjusting, and handling, and shall be so designed as to protectthe operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It shall be made ofmaterial that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely cause toothbreakage. the hood shall be so mounted as to insure that its operation willbe positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw; and the mountingshall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or otherforce tending to throw it out of line.30. New paragraph (d) is added to 1926.305 to read as follows:1926.305 Jacks - lever and rachet, screw, and hydraulic. * * * * * *(d)(1) "Operation and maintenance." (i) After the load has been raised, itshall be cribbed, blocked, or otherwise secured at once.(ii) Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied withan adequate antifreeze liquid.(iii) All jacks shall be properly lubricated at regular intervals.(iv) Each jack shall be thoroughly inspected at times which depend upon theservice conditions. Inspections shall be not less frequent than thefollowing:(a) For constant or intermittent use at one locality, once every 6 months,(b) For jacks sent out of shop for special work, when sent out and whenreturned,(c) For a jack subjected to abnormal load or shock, immediatelybefore and immediately thereafter.(v) Repair or replacement parts shall be examined for possibledefects.(vi) Jacks which are out of order shall be tagged accordingly, andshall not be used until repairs are made.31. New 1926.306 and 1926.307 are added to read as follows:1926.306 Air receivers(a) "General requirements - (1) "Application." This section applies tocompressed air receivers, and other equipment used in providing and utilizingcompressed air for performing operations such as cleaning, drilling,hoisting, and chipping. On the other hand, however, this section does notdeal with the special problems created by using compressed air to conveymaterials nor the problems created when men work in compressed air as intunnels and caissons. This section is not intended to apply to compressedair machinery and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steamrailroad cars, electric railway cars, and automotive equipment.(2) "New and existing equipment." (i) All new air receivers installed afterthe effective date of these regulations shall be constructed in accordancewith the 1968 edition of the A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code SectionVIII.(ii) All safety valves used shall be constructed, installed and maintainedin accordance with the A.S.M.E. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIIIEdition 1968.(b) "Installation and equipment requirements" - (1) "Installation."Air receivers shall be so installed that all drains, handholes, and manholestherein are easily accessible. Under no circumstances shall an air receiverbe buried underground or located in an inaccessible place.(2) "Drains and traps." A drain pipe and valve shall be installed at thelowest point of every air receiver to provide for the removal of accumulatedoil and water. Adequate automatic traps may be installed in addition todrain valves. The drain valve on the air receiver shall be opened and thereceiver completely drained frequently and at such intervals as to preventthe accumulation of excessive amounts of liquid in the receiver.(3) "Gages and valves." (i) Every air receiver shall be equipped with anindicating pressure gage (so located as to be readily visible) and with oneor more spring-loaded safety valves. The total relieving capacity of suchsafety valves shall be such as to prevent pressure in the receiver fromexceeding the maximum allowable working pressure of the receiver by more than10 percent.(ii) No valve of any type shall be placed between the air receiver and itssafety valve or valves.(iii) Safety appliances, such as safety valves, indicating devices andcontrolling devices, shall be constructed, located, and installed so thatthey cannot be readily rendered inoperative by any means, including theelements.(iv) All safety valves shall be tested frequently and at regular intervalsto determine whether they are in good operating condition.1926.307 Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.(a) "General requirements." (1) This section covers all types and shapes ofpower-transmission belts, except the following when operating at two hundredand fifty (250) feet per minute or less: (i) Flat belts 1 inch (2.54 cm) orless in width, (ii) flat belts 2 inches (5.08 cm) or less in width which arefree from metal lacings or fasteners, (iii) round belts 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) orless in diameter; and (iv) single strand V-belts, the width of which isthirteen thirty-seconds (13/32) inches or less.(2) Vertical and inclined belts (paragraphs (e)(3) and (4) of this section)if not more than 2 1/2 inches (6.35 cm) wide and running at a speed of lessthan one thousand (1,000) feet per minute, and if free from metal lacings orfastening may be guarded with a nip-point belt and pully guard.(3) For the Textile Industry, because of the presence of excessive depositsof lint, which constitute a serious fire hazard, the sides and face sectionsonly of nip-point belt and pully guards are required, provided the guardshall extend at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) beyond the rim of the pulley on thein-running and off-running sides of the belt and at least 2 inches (5.08 cm)away from the rim and face of the pulley in all other directions.(4) This section covers the principal features with which power transmissionsafeguards shall comply.(b) "Prime-mover guards" - (1) "Flywheels." Flywheels located so that anypart is 7 feet (2.128 m) or less above floor or platform shall be guarded inaccordance with the requirements of this subparagraph:(i) With an enclosure of sheet, perforated, or expanded metal, or woven wire;(ii) With guard rails placed not less than 15 inches (38.1 cm) nor more than20 inches (50.8 cm) from rim. When flywheel extends into pit or is within12 inches (30.48 cm) of floor, a standard toeboard shall also be provided;(iii) When the upper rim of flywheel protrudes through a working floor, itshall be entirely enclosed or surrounded by a guardrail and toeboard.(iv) For flywheels with smooth rims 5 feet (1.52 m) or less in diameter,where the preceding methods cannot be applied, the following may be used: Adisk attached to the flywheel in such manner as to cover the spokes of thewheel on the exposed side and present a smooth surface and edge, at the sametime providing means for periodic inspection. An open space, not exceeding 4inches (10.16 cm) in width, may be left between the outside edge of the diskand the rim of the wheel if desired, to facilitate turning the wheel over.Where a disk is used, the keys or other dangerous projections not covered bydisk shall be cut off or covered. This subdivision does not apply toflywheel with solid web centers.(v) Adjustable guard to be used for starting engine or for runningadjustment may be provided at the flywheel of gas or oil engines. A slotopening for jack bar will be permitted.(vi) Wherever flywheels are above working areas, guards shall be installedhaving sufficient strength to hold the weight of the flywheel in the event ofa shaft or wheel mounting failure.(2) "Cranks and connecting rods." Cranks and connecting rods, when exposedto contact, shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (n) ofthis section, or by a guardrail as described in paragraph (o)(5) of thissection.(3) "Tail rods or extension piston rods." Tail rods or extension pistonrods shall be guarded in accordance with paragraphs (m) and (o) of thissection, or by a guardrail on sides and end, with a clearance of not lessthan 15 (38.1 cm) nor more than 20 inches (50.8 cm) when rod is fullyextended.(c) "Shafting" - (1) "Installation." (i) Each continuous line of shaftingshall be secured in position against excessive endwise movement.(ii) Inclined and vertical shafts, particularly inclined idler shafts, shallbe securely held in position against endwise thrust.(2) "Guarding horizontal shafting." (i) All exposed parts of horizontalshafting 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from floor or working platform, exceptingrunways used exclusively for oiling, or running adjustments, shall beprotected by a stationary casing enclosing shafting completely or by a troughenclosing sides and top or sides and bottom of shafting as location requires.(ii) Shafting under bench machines shall be enclosed by a stationary casing,or by a trough at sides and top or sides and bottom, as location requires.The sides of the trough shall come within at least 6 inches (15.24 cm) of theunderside of table, or if shafting is located near floor within 6 inches(15.24 cm) of floor. In every case the sides of trough shall extend at least2 inches (5.08 cm) beyond the shafting or protuberance.(3) "Guarding vertical and inclined shafting." Vertical and inclinedshafting 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from floor or working platform, exceptingmaintenance runways, shall be enclosed with a stationary casing in accordancewith requirements of paragraphs (m) and (o) of this section.(4) "Projecting shafts ends." (i) Projecting shaft ends shall present asmooth edge and end and shall not project more than one-half the diameter ofthe shaft unless guarded by nonrotating caps or safety sleeves.(ii) Unused keyways shall be filled up or covered.(5)"Power-transmission apparatus located in basements." All mechanical powertransmission apparatus located in basements, towers, and rooms usedexclusively for power transmission equipment shall be guarded in accordancewith this section, except that the requirements for safeguarding belts,pulleys, and shafting need not be complied with when the followingrequirements are met:(i) The basement, tower, or room occupied by transmission equipment islocked against unauthorized entrance.(ii) The vertical clearance in passageways between the floor and powertransmission beams, ceiling, or any other objects, is not less than 5 ft. 6in. (1.672 m).(iii) The intensity of illumination conforms to the requirements of ANSIA11.1-1965 (R-1970).(iv) [Reserved](v) The route followed by the oiler is protected insuch manner as to prevent accident.(d) "Pulleys" - (1) "Guarding." Pulleys, any parts of which are 7 feet(2.128 m) or less from the floor or working platform, shall be guarded inaccordance with the standards specified in paragraphs (m) and (o) of thissection. Pulleys serving as balance wheels (e.g., punch presses) on whichthe point of contact between belt and pulley is more than 6 ft. 6 in. (1.976m) from the floor or platform may be guarded with a disk covering the spokes.(2) "Location of pulleys." (i) Unless the distance to the nearest fixedpulley, clutch, or hanger exceeds the width of the belt used, a guide shallbe provided to prevent the belt from leaving the pulley on the side whereinsufficient clearance exists.(ii) [Reserved](3) "Broken pulleys." Pulleys with cracks, orpieces broken out of rims, shall not be used.(4) "Pulley speeds." Pulleys intended to operate at rim speed in excess ofmanufacturers normal recommendations shall be specially designed andcarefully balanced for the speed at which they are to operate.(e) "Belt, rope, and chain drives" - (1) "Horizontal belts and ropes."(i) Where both runs of horizontal belts are 7 feet (2.128 m) or less fromthe floor level, the guard shall extend to at least 15 inches (38.1 cm) abovethe belt or to a standard height (see Table O-12), except that where bothruns of a horizontal belt are 42 inches (106.68 cm) or less from the floor,the belt shall be fully enclosed.(ii) In powerplants or power-development rooms, a guardrail may be used inlieu of the guard required by paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section.(2) "Overhead horizontal belts." (i) Overhead horizontal belts, with lowerparts 7 feet (2.128 m) or less from the floor or platform, shall be guardedon sides and bottom in accordance with paragraph (o)(3) of this section.(ii) Horizontal overhead belts more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above floor orplatform shall be guarded for their entire length under the followingconditions:(a) If located over passageways or work places and traveling 1,800 feet ormore per minute.(b) If center to center distance between pulleys is 10 feet (3.04 m) or more.(c) If belt is 8 inches (20.32 cm) or more in width.(iii) Where theupper and lower runs of horizontal belts are so located that passage ofpersons between them would be possible, the passage shall beeither:(a) Completely barred by a guardrail or other barrier in accordance withparagraphs (m) and (o) of this section; or (b) Where passage is regarded asnecessary, there shall be a platform over the lower run guarded on eitherside by a railing completely filled in with wire mesh or other filler, or bya solid barrier. The upper run shall be so guarded as to prevent contacttherewith either by the worker or by objects carried by him. In powerplantsonly the lower run of the belt need be guarded.(iv) Overhead chain and link belt drives are governed by the same rules asoverhead horizontal belts and shall be guarded in the same manner as belts.(3) "Vertical and inclined belts." (i) Vertical and inclined belts shall beenclosed by a guard conforming to standards in paragraphs (m) and (o) of thissection.(ii) All guards for inclined belts shall be arranged in such a manner that aminimum clearance of 7 feet (2.128 m) is maintained between belt and floor atany point outside of guard.(4) "Vertical belts." Vertical belts running over a lower pulley more than 7feet (2.128 m) above floor or platform shall be guarded at the bottom in thesame manner as horizontal overhead belts, if conditions are as stated inparagraphs (e)(2)(ii)(a) and (c) of this section.(5) "Cone-pulley belts." (i) The cone belt and pulley shall be equipped witha belt shifter so constructed as to adequately guard the nip point of thebelt and pulley. If the frame of the belt shifter does not adequately guardthe nip point of the belt and pulley, the nip point shall be furtherprotected by means of a vertical guard placed in front of the pulley andextending at least to the top of the largest step of the cone.(ii) If the belt is of the endless type or laced with rawhide laces, and abelt shifter is not desired, the belt will be considered guarded if the nippoint of the belt and pulley is protected by a nip point guard located infront of the cone extending at least to the top of the largest step of thecone, and formed to show the contour of the cone in order to give the nippoint of the belt and pulley the maximum protection.(iii) If the cone is located less than 3 feet (0.912 m) from the floor orworking platform, the cone pulley and belt shall be guarded to a height of 3feet (0.912 m) regardless of whether the belt is endless or laced withrawhide.(6) "Belt tighteners." (i) Suspended counterbalanced tighteners and allparts thereof shall be of substantial construction and securely fastened; thebearings shall be securely capped. Means must be provided to preventtightener from falling, in case the belt breaks.(ii) When suspended counterweights are used and not guarded by location,they shall be so encased as to prevent accident.(f) "Gears, sprockets, and chains" - (1) "Gears." Gears shall be guarded inaccordance with one of the following methods:(i) By a complete enclosure; or (ii) By a standard guard asdescribed in paragraph (o) of this section, at least 7 feet (2.128 m) highextending 6 inches (15.24 cm) above the mesh point of the gears; or (iii) Bya band guard covering the face of gear and having flanges extended inwardbeyond the root of the teeth on the exposed side or sides. Where any portionof the train of gears guarded by a band guard is less than 6 feet (1.824 m)from the floor a disk guard or a complete exposure to the height of 6 feet(1.824 m) shall be required.(2) "Hand-operated gears." Paragraph (f)(1) of this section does not applyto hand-operated gears used only to adjust machine parts and which do notcontinue to move after hand power is removed. However, the guarding of thesegears is highly recommended.(3) "Sprockets and chains." All sprocket wheels and chains shall be enclosedunless they are more than 7 feet (2.128 m) above the floor or platform.Where the drive extends over other machine or working areas, protectionagainst falling shall be provided. This subparagraph does not apply tomanually operated sprockets.(4) "Openings for oiling." When frequent oiling must be done, openings withhinged or sliding self-closing covers shall be provided. All points notreadily accessible shall have oil feed tubes if lubricant is to be addedwhile machinery is in motion.(g) "Guarding friction drives." The driving point of all friction driveswhen exposed to contact shall be guarded, all arm or spoke friction drivesand all web friction drives with holes in the web shall be entirely enclosed,and all projecting belts on friction drives where exposed to contact shall beguarded.(h) "Keys, setscrews, and other projections." (1) All projecting keys,setscrews, and other projections in revolving parts shall be removed or madeflush or guarded by metal cover. This subparagraph does not apply to keys orsetscrews within gear or sprocket casings or other enclosures, nor to keys,setscrews, or oilcups in hubs of pulleys less than 20 inches (50.8 cm) indiameter where they are within the plane of the rim of the pulley.(2) It is recommended, however, that no projecting setscrews or oilcups beused in any revolving pulley or part of machinery.(i) "Collars and couplings" - (1) "Collars." All revolving collars,including split collars, shall be cylindrical, and screws or bolts used incollars shall not project beyond the largest periphery of the collar.(2) "Couplings." Shall couplings shall be so constructed as to present nohazard from bolts, nuts, setscrews will, however, be permitted where they arecovered with safety sleeves or where they are used parallel with the shaftingand are countersunk or else do not extend beyond the flange of the coupling.(j) "Bearings and facilities for oiling." All drip cups and pans shall besecurely fastened.(k) "Guarding of clutches, cutoff couplings, and clutch pulleys" - (1)"Guards." Clutches, cutoff couplings, or clutch pulleys having projectingparts, where such clutches are located 7 feet (2.128 m) or less above thefloor or working platform, shall be enclosed by a stationary guardconstructed in accordance with this section. A "U" type guard ispermissible.(2) "Engine rooms." In engine rooms a guardrail, preferably with toeboard,may be used instead of the guard required by paragraph (k)(1) of thissection, provided such a room is occupied only by engine room attendants.(l) "Belt shifters, clutches, shippers, poles, perches, and fasteners" -(1) "Belt shifters." (i) Tight and loose pulleys on all new installationsmade on or after August 31, 1971, shall be equipped with a permanent beltshifter provided with mechanical means to prevent belt from creeping fromloose to tight pulley. It is recommended that old installations be changedto conform to this rule.(ii) Belt shifter and clutch handles shall be rounded and be located as faras possible from danger of accidental contact, but within easy reach of theoperator. Where belt shifter are not directly located over a machine orbench, the handles shall be cut off 6 ft. 6 in. (1.976 m) above floor level.(2) "Belt shippers and shipper poles." The use of belt poles as substitutesfor mechanical shifter is not recommended.(3) "Belt perches." Where loose pulleys or idlers are not practicable, beltperches in form of brackets, rollers, etc., shall be used to keep idle beltsaway from the shafts.(4) "Belt fasteners." Belts which of necessity must be shifted by hand andbelts within 7 feet (2.128 m) of the floor or working platform which are notguarded in accordance with this section shall not be fastened with metal inany case, nor with any other fastening which by construction or wear willconstitute an accident hazard.(m) "Standard guards - general requirements" - (1) Materials. (i) Standardconditions shall be secured by the use of the following materials. Expandedmetal, perforated or solid sheet metal, wire mesh on a frame of angle iron,or iron pipe securely fastened to floor or frame of machine.(ii) All metal should be free from burrs and sharp edges. (2)"Methods of manufacturer." (i) Expanded metal, sheet or perforated metal, andwire mesh shall be securely fastened to frame.(n) [Reserved](o) "Approved materials" - (1) Minimum requirements." The materials and dimensions specified in this paragraph shall apply to allguards, except horizontal overhead belts, rope, cable, or chain guards morethan 7 feet (2.128 m) above floor, or platform.(i) [Reserved] (a) All guards shall be rigidly braced every 3 feet(0.912 m) or fractional part of their height to some fixed part of machineryor building structure. Where guard is exposed to contact with movingequipment additional strength may be necessary.(2) "Wood guards." (i) Wood guards may be used in the woodworking andchemical industries, in industries where the presence of fumes or wheremanufacturing conditions would cause the rapid deterioration of metal guards;also in construction work and in locations outdoors where extreme cold orextreme heat make metal guards and railings undesirable. In all otherindustries, wood guards shall not be used.(3) "Guards for horizontal overhead belts." (i) Guards for horizontaloverhead belts shall run the entire length of the belt and follow the line ofthe pulley to the ceiling or be carried to the nearest wall, thus enclosingthe belt effectively. Where belts are so located as to make it impracticableto carry the guard to wall or ceiling, construction of guard shall be such asto enclose completely the top and bottom runs of belt and the face ofpulleys.(ii) [Reserved](iii) Suitable reinforcement shall be provided forthe ceiling rafters or overhead floor beams, where such is necessary, tosustain safely the weight and stress likely to be imposed by the guard. Theinterior surface of all guards, by which is meant the surface of the guardwith which a belt will come in contact, shall be smooth and free from allprojections of any character, except where construction demands it;protruding shallow roundhead rivets may be used. Overhead belt guards shallbe at least one quarter wider than belt which they protect, except that thisclearance need not in any case exceed 6 inches (15.24 cm) on each side.Overhead rope drive and block and roller-chain-drive guards shall be not lessthan 6 inches (15.24 cm) wider than the drive on each side. In overheadsilent chain-drive guards where the chain is held from lateral displacementon the sprockets, the side clearances required on drives of 20 inch (50.8 cm)centers or under shall be not less than 1/4 inch (0.635 cm) from the nearestmoving chain part, and on drives of over 1/2 inch (1.27 cm) from the nearestmoving chain part.(4) "Guards for horizontal overhead rope and chain drives."Overhead-rope and chain-drive guard construction shall conform to the rulesfor overhead-belt guard.(5) "Guardrails and toeboards." (i) Guardrail shall be 42 inches (106.68 cm)in height, with midrail between top rail and floor.(ii) Posts shall be not more than 8 feet (2.432 m) apart; they are to bepermanent and substantial, smooth, and free from protruding nails, bolts, andsplinters. If made of pipe, the post shall be 1 1/4 inches (3.175 cm) insidediameter, or larger. If made of metal shapes or bars their section shall beequal in strength to that of 1 1/2 (3.81 cm) by 1 1/2 (3.81 cm) by 3/16 inchangle iron. If made of wood, the posts shall be two by four (2 X 4) inchesor larger. The upper rail shall be two by four (2 X 4) inches, or two one byfour (1 X 4) strips, one at the top and one at the side of posts. Themidrail may be one by four (1 X 4) inches or more. Where panels are fittedwith expanded metal or wire mesh as noted in Table O-12 the middle rails maybe omitted. Where guard is exposed to contact with moving equipment,additional strength may be necessary.(iii) Toeboards shall be 4 inches (10.16 cm) or more in height, of wood,metal, or of metal grill not exceeding 1 inch (2.54 cm) mesh.(p) "Care of equipment" - (1) "General." All power-transmission equipmentshall be inspected at intervals not exceeding 60 days and be kept in goodworking condition at all times.(2) "Shafting." (i) Shafting shall be kept in alignment, free from rust andexcess oil or grease.(ii) Where explosives, explosive dusts, flammable vapors or flammableliquids exist, the hazard of static sparks from shafting shall be carefullyconsidered.(3) "Bearings." Bearings shall be kept in alignment and properly adjusted.(4) "Hangers." Hangers shall be inspected to make certain that allsupporting bolts and screws are tight and that supports of hanger boxes areadjusted properly.(5) "Pulleys." (i) Pulleys shall be kept in proper alignment to preventbelts from running off.(6) "Care of belts."(i) [Reserved](ii) Inspection shall be made of belts, lacings, andfasteners and such equipment kept in good repair.(7) "Lubrication." The regular oilers shall wear tight-fitting clothing.Machinery shall be oiled when not in motion, wherever possible.Subpart J -- Welding and Cutting32. In 1926.350, new paragraphs (a)(10) through (12) are added to read asfollows:1926.350 Gas welding and cutting.(a) "Transporting, moving, and storing compressed gas cylinders. * * * * * *(10) Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from fuel-gas cylindersor combustible materials (especially oil or grease), a minimum distance of 20feet (6.1 m) or by a noncombustible barrier at least 5 feet (1.5 m) highhaving a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour.(11) Inside of buildings, cylinders shall be stored in a well-protected,well-ventilated, dry location, at least 20 feet (6.1 m) from highlycombustible materials such as oil or excelsior. Cylinders should be storedin definitely assigned places away from elevators, stairs, or gangways.Assigned storage places shall be located where cylinders will not be knockedover or damaged by passing or falling objects, or subject to tampering byunauthorized persons. Cylinders shall not be kept in unventilated enclosuressuch as lockers and cupboards.(12) The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gasesin cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanksshall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965.* * * * * *33. In 1926.353, new paragraph (b)(3) is added to read as follows:1926.353 Ventilation and protection in welding, cutting, and heating. ** * * * * *(b) "Welding, cutting, and heating in confined spaces."* * * * * * *(3) "Lifelines." Where a welder must enter a confined space through amanhole or other small opening, means shall be provided for quickly removinghim in case of emergency. When safety belts and lifelines are used for thispurpose they shall be so attached to the welder's body that his body cannotbe jammed in a small exit opening. An attendant with a pre-planned rescueprocedure shall be stationed outside to observe the welder at all times andbe capable of putting rescue operations into effect.Subpart K - ElectricalSafety-Related Work Practices34. In 1926.416, new paragraphs (a)(4), (f), and (g) are added to read asfollows:1926.416 General requirements.(a) "Protection of employees - "* * * * * * *(4) "Work on energized equipment." Only qualified persons may work onelectric circuit parts or equipment that have not been deenergized under theprocedures of 1926.417(d) of this section. Such persons shall be capable ofworking safely on energized circuits and shall be familiar with the properuse of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment,insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools.* * * * * * *(f)(1) "Interlocks." Only a qualified person following the requirements ofparagraph (c) of this section may defeat an electrical safety interlock, andthen only temporarily while he or she is working on the equipment. Theinterlock system shall be returned to its operable condition when this workis completed.(2) "Portable electric equipment - Handling" - Portable equipment shall behandled in a manner which will not cause damage. Flexible electric cordsconnected to equipment may not be used for raising or lowering the equipment. Flexible cords may not be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in such afashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation.(3) "Visual inspection." When an attachment plug is to be connected to areceptacle (including an on a cord set), the relationship of the plug andreceptacle contacts shall first be checked to ensure that they are of propermating configurations.(4) "Connecting attachment plugs." (i) Employees' hands may not be wet whenplugging and unplugging flexible cords and cord and plug connected equipment,if energized equipment is involved.(ii) Energized plug and receptacle connections may be handled only withinsulating protective equipment if the condition of the connection couldprovide a conducting path to the employee's hand (if, for example, a cordconnector is wet from being immersed in water).(iii) Locking type connectors shall be properly secured after connection.(5) "Routine opening and closing of electric power and lighting circuits."Load rated switches, circuit breakers, or other devices specifically designedas disconnecting means shall be used for the opening, reversing, or closingof circuits under load conditions. Cable connectors not of the load breaktype, fuses, terminal lugs, and cable splice connections may not be used forsuch purposes, except in an emergency.(6) "Reclosing circuits after protective device operation." After a circuitis deenergized by a circuit protective device, the circuit protective device,the circuit may not be manually reenergized until it has been determined thatthe equipment and circuit can be safely energized. The repetitive manualreclosing of circuit breakers or reenergizing circuits through replaced fusesis prohibited.Note: When it can be determined from the design of the circuit and theovercurrent devices involved that the automatic operation of a device wascaused by an overload rather than a fault condition, no examination of thecircuit or connected equipment is needed before the circuit is reenergized.(7) "Test instruments and equipment - Use." Only qualified persons mayperform testing work on electric circuits or equipment.(8) "Visual inspection." Test instruments and equipment and all associatedtest leads, cables, power cords, probes, and connectors shall be visuallyinspected for external defects and damage before the equipment is used. Ifthere is a defect or evidence of damage that might expose an employee toinjury, the defective or damaged item shall be removed from service, and noemployee may use it until repairs and tests necessary to render the equipmentsafe have been made.(9) "Rating of equipment." Test instruments and equipment and theiraccessories shall be rated for the circuits and equipment to which they willbe connected and shall be designed for the environment in which they will beused.(10) "Occasional use of flammable or ignitable materials." Where flammablematerials are present only occasionally, electric equipment capable ofigniting them shall not be used, unless measures are taken to preventhazardous conditions from developing. Such materials include, but are notlimited to: flammable gases, vapors, or liquids; combustible dust; andignitable fibers or flyings.(g) "Use of equipment." (1) "Work on energized equipment." Only qualifiedpersons may work on electric circuit parts or equipment that have not beendeenergized under the procedures of paragraph (b) of this section. Suchpersons shall be capable of working safely on energized circuits and shall befamiliar with the proper use of special precautionary techniques, personalprotective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulatedtools.(2) "Overhead lines." If work is to be performed near overhead lines, thelines shall be deenergized and grounded, or other protective measures shallbe provided before work is started. If the lines are to be deenergized,arrangements shall be made with the person or organization that operates orcontrols the electric circuits involved to deenergize and ground them. Ifprotective measures, such as guarding, isolating, or insulating, areprovided, these precautions shall prevent employees from contacting suchlines directly with any part of their body or indirectly through conductivematerials, tools or equipment.(i) "Unqualified persons." (A) When an unqualified person is working in anelevated position near overhead lines, the location shall be such that theperson and the longest conductive object he or she may contact cannot comecloser to any unguarded, energized overhead line than the followingdistances:(1) For voltages to ground 50kV or below - 10 feet (305 cm);(2) For voltages to ground over 50kV - 10 feet (305 cm) plus 4 inches (10cm) for every 10kV over 50kV.(B) When an unqualified person is working on the ground in the vicinity ofoverhead lines, the person may not bring any conductive object closer tounguarded, energized overhead lines than the distances given in paragraph(g)(2)(i)(A) of this section.Note: For voltages normally encountered with overhead power line, objectswhich do not have an insulating rating for the voltage involved areconsidered to be conductive.(ii) "Qualified persons." When a qualified person is working in the vicinityof overhead lines, whether in an elevated position or on the ground, theperson may not approach or take any conductive object without an approvedinsulating handle closer to exposed energized parts than shown in Table K-2unless:(A) The person is insulated from energized part (gloves, with sleeves ifnecessary, rated for the voltage involved are considered to be insulation ofthe person from the energized part on which work is performed), or (B) Theenergized part is insulated both from all other conductive objects at adifferent potential and from the person, or (C) The person is insulated fromall conductive objects at a potential different from that of the energizedpart. TABLE K-2 - APPROACH DISTANCES FOR QUALIFIED EMPLOYEES
- ALTERNATING CURRENT
Voltage range (phase to phase)Minimum approach distance
300 V and lessAvoid contact
Over 300 V, not over 750 V1 ft. 0 in. (30.5 cm)
Over 750 V, not over 2k V1 ft. 6 in. (46 cm)
Over 2k V, not over 15k V2 ft. 0 in. (61 cm)
Over 15k V, not over 37k V3 ft. 0 in. (91 cm)
Over 37k V, not over 87.5kV3 ft. 6 in. (107 cm)
Over 87.5k V, not over 121k V4 ft. 0 in. (122 cm)
Over 121k V, not over 140k V4 ft. 6 in. (137 cm)
(iii) "Vehicular and mechanical equipment." (A) Any vehicle or mechanicalequipment capable of having parts of its structure elevated near energizedoverhead lines shall be operated so that a clearance of 10 ft. (305 cm) ismaintained. If the voltage is higher than 50kV, the clearance shall beincreased 4 in. (10 cm) for every 10kV over that voltage. However, under anyof the following conditions, the clearance may be reduced:{1} If the vehicle is in transit with its structure lowered, the clearancemay be reduced to 4 ft. (1.22 cm). If the voltage is higher than 50kV, theclearance shall be increased 4 in. (10 cm) for every 10kV over that voltage.{2} If insulating barriers are installed to prevent contact with the lines,and if the barriers are rated for the voltage of the line being guarded andare not a part of or an attachment to the vehicle or its raised structure,the clearance may be reduced to a distance within the designed workingdimensions of the insulating barrier.{3} If the equipment is an aerial lift insulated for the voltage involved,and if the work is performed by a qualified person, the clearance (betweenthe uninsulated portion of the aerial lift and the power line) may be reducedto the distance given in Table K-2.(B) Employees standing on the ground may not contact the vehicle ormechanical equipment or any of the structure that provides a conductive pathto employees on the ground can come closer to the line than permitted inparagraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section.(C) If any vehicle or mechanical equipment capable of having parts of itsstructure elevated near energized overhead lines is intentionally grounded,employees working on the ground near the point of grounding may not stand atthe grounding location whenever there is a possibility of overhead linecontact. Additional precautions, such as the use of barricades orinsulation, shall be taken to protect employees from hazardous groundpotentials, depending on earth resistivity and fault currents, which candevelop within the first few feet or more outward from the grounding point.(3) "Illumination." (i) Employees may not enter spaces containing exposedenergized parts, unless illumination is provided that enables the employeesto perform the work safely.(ii) Where lack of illumination or an obstruction precludes observation ofthe work to be performed, employees may not perform tasks near exposedenergized parts. Employees may not reach blindly into areas which maycontain energized parts.(4) "Confined or enclosed work spaces." When an employee works in a confinedor enclosed space (such as a manhole or vault) that contains exposedenergized parts, the employer shall provide, and the employee shall use,protective shields, protective barriers, or insulating materials as necessaryto avoid inadvertent contact with these parts. Doors, hinged panels, and thelike shall be secured to prevent their swinging into an employee and causingthe employee to contact exposed energized parts.(5) "Conductive materials and equipment." Conductive materials andequipment that are in contact with any part of an employee's body shall behandled in a manner that will prevent them from contacting exposed energizedconductors or circuit parts. If an employee must handle long dimensionalconductive objects (such as ducts and pipes) in areas with exposed liveparts, the employer shall institute work practices (such as the use ofinsulation, guarding, and material handling techniques) which will minimizethe hazard.(6) "Portable ladders." Portable ladders shall have nonconductive siderailsif they are used where the employee or the ladder could contact exposedenergized parts.(7) "Conductive apparel." Conductive articles of jewelry and clothing (suchas watch bands, bracelets, rings, key chains, necklaces, metalized aprons,cloth with conductive thread, or metal headgear) may not be worn if theymight contact exposed energized parts. However, such articles may be worn ifthey are rendered nonconductive by covering, wrapping, or other insulatingmeans.(8) "Housekeeping duties." Where live parts present an electrical contacthazard, employees may not perform housekeeping duties at such close distancesto the parts that there is a possibility of contact, unless adequatesafeguards (such as insulating equipment or barriers) are provided.Electrically conductive cleaning materials (including conductive solids suchas steel wool, metalized cloth, and silicon carbide, as well as conductiveliquid solutions) may not be used in proximity to energized parts unlessprocedures are followed which will prevent electrical contact.35. In 1926.417, a new paragraph (d) is added to read as follows:1926.417 Lockout and tagging of circuits. * * * * * **(d) "Lockout and tagging." While any employee is exposed to contact withparts of fixed electric equipment or circuits which have been deenergized,the circuits energizing the parts shall be locked out or tagged or both inaccordance with the requirements of this paragraph. The requirements shall befollowed in the order in which they are presented (i.e., paragraph (d)(1)first, than paragraph (d)(2), etc.).Note 1: As used in this section, fixed equipment refers to equipmentfastened in place or connected by permanent wiring methods.Note 2: Lockout and tagging procedures that comply with paragraphs (c)through (f) of 1910.147 will also be deemed to comply with paragraph (d) ofthis section provided that:{1} The procedures address the electrical safety hazards covered by thissubpart; and{2} The procedures also incorporate the requirements of paragraphs(d)(3)(iv) and (d)(4)(ii) of this section.(1) "Procedures." The employer shall maintain a written copy of theprocedures outlined in paragraph (d) and shall make it available forinspection by employees and by the Assistant Secretary of Labor and his orher authorized representatives.Note: The written procedures may be in the form of a copy of paragraph (b)of this section.(2) "Deenergizing equipment." (i) Safe procedures for deenergizing circuitsand equipment shall be determined before circuits or equipment aredeenergized.(ii) The circuits and equipment to be worked on shall be disconnected fromall electric energy sources. Control circuit devices, such as push buttons,selector switches, and interlocks, may not be used as the sole means fordeenergizing circuits or equipment. Interlocks for electric equipment maynot be used as a substitute for lockout and tagging procedures.(iii) Stored electric energy which might endanger personnel shall bereleased. Capacitors shall be discharged and high capacitance elements shallbe short-circuited and grounded, if the stored electric energy might endangerpersonnel.Note: If the capacitors or associated equipment are handled in meeting thisrequirement, they shall be treated as energized.(iv) Stored non-electrical energy in devices that could reenergize electriccircuit parts shall be blocked or relieved to the extent that the circuitparts could not be accidentally energized by the device.(3) "Application of locks and tags." (i) A lock and a tag shall be placed oneach disconnecting means used to deenergized circuits and equipment on whichwork is to be performed, except as provided in paragraphs (d)(3)(iii) and (v)of this section. The lock shall be attached so as to prevent persons fromoperating the disconnecting means unless they resort to undue force or theuse of tools.(ii) Each tag shall contain a statement prohibiting unauthorized operationof the disconnecting means and removal of the tag.(iii) If a lock cannot be applied, or if the employer can demonstrate thattagging procedures will provide a level of safety equivalent to that obtainedby the use of a lock, a tag may be used without a lock.(iv) A tag used without a lock, as permitted by paragraph (d)(3)(iii) ofthis section, shall be supplemented by at least one additional safety measurethat provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by use of a lock. Examples of additional safety measures include the removal of an isolatingcircuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, or opening of an extradisconnecting device.(v) A lock may be placed without a tag only under the following conditions;(A) Only one circuit or piece of equipment is deenergized, and (B)The lockout period does not extend beyond the work shift, and (C) Employeesexposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the circuit or equipmentare familiar with this procedure.(4) "Verification of deenergized condition." The requirements of thisparagraph shall be met before any circuits or equipment can be considered andworked as deenergized.(i) A qualified person shall operate the equipment operating controls orotherwise verify that the equipment cannot be restarted.(ii) A qualified person shall use test equipment to test the circuitelements and electrical parts of equipment to which employees will be exposedand shall verify that the circuit elements and equipment parts aredeenergized. The test shall also determine if any energized condition existsas a result of inadvertently induced voltage or unrelated voltage backfeedeven though specific parts of the circuit have been deenergized and presumedto be safe. If the circuit to be tested is over 600 volts, nominal, the testequipment shall be checked for proper operation immediately after this test.(5) "Reenergizing equipment." These requirements shall be met, in the ordergiven, before circuits or equipment are reenergized, even temporarily.(i) A qualified person shall conduct tests and visual inspections, asnecessary, to verify that all tools, electrical jumpers, shorts, grounds, andother such devices have been removed, so that the circuits and equipment canbe safely energized.(ii) Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing thecircuit or equipment shall be warned to stay clear of circuits and equipment.(iii) Each lock and tag shall be removed by the employee who applied it orunder his or her direct supervision. However, if this employee is absentfrom the workplace, then the lock or tag may be removed by a qualified persondesignated to perform this task provided that:(A) The employer ensures that the employee who applied the lock or tag isnot available at the workplace, and (B) The employer ensures that theemployee is aware that the lock or tag has been removed before he or sheresumes work at that workplace.(iv) There shall be a visual determination that all employees are clear ofthe circuits and equipment.Subpart L - Scaffolding36. In 1926.451, new paragraphs (a)(22) through (24) are added to read asfollows:1926.451 Scaffolding.(a) "General requirements. * * * * * * *(22) Materials being hoisted onto a scaffold shall have a tag line.(23) Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds. (24)Tools, materials, and debris shall not be allowed to accumulate in quantitiesto cause a hazard.* * * * * * *37. A new 1926.453 is added to read as follows:1926.453 Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).(a) "General requirements" - (1) "Application." This section is intended toprescribe rules and requirements for the design, construction, and use ofmobile work platforms (including ladder stands but not including aerialladders) and rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard ispromulgated to aid in providing for the safety of life, limb, and property,by establishing minimum standards for structural design requirements and forthe use of mobile work platforms and towers.(2) "Working loads." (i) Work platforms and scaffolds shall be capable ofcarrying the design load under varying circumstances depending upon theconditions of use. Therefore, all parts and appurtenances necessary fortheir safe and efficient utilization must be integral parts of the design.(ii) Specific design and construction requirements are not apart of thissection because of the wide variety of materials and design possibilities.However, the design shall be such as to produce a mobile ladder stand orscaffold that will safely sustain the specified loads. The material selectedshall be of sufficient strength to meet the test requirements and shall beprotected against corrosion or deterioration.{a} The design working load of ladder stands shall be calculated on thebasis of one or more 200-pound (90.6 kg) persons together with 50 pounds(22.65 kg) of equipment each.{b} The design load of all scaffolds shall be calculated on the basis of:"Light" - Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 25 poundsper square foot (1.05 kg m(2))."Medium" - Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 50 poundsper square foot (2.1 kg m(2))."Heavy" - Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 75 poundsper square foot (3.15 kg m(2)).All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be capable of supporting at least fourtimes the design working load.(iii) The materials used in mobile ladder stands and scaffolds shall be ofstandard manufacture and conform to standard specifications of strength,dimensions, and weights, and shall be selected to safely support the designworking load.(iv) Nails, bolts, or other fasteners used in the construction of ladders,scaffolds, and towers shall be of adequate size and in sufficient numbers ateach connection to develop the designed strength of the unit. Nails shall bedriven full length. (All nails should be immediately withdrawn formdismantled lumber.) (v) All exposed surfaces shall be free from sharp edges,burrs or other safety hazards.(3) "Work levels." (i) The maximum work level height shall not exceed four(4) times the minimum or least base dimensions of any mobile ladder stand orscaffold. Where the basic mobile unit does not meet this requirement,suitable outrigger frames shall be employed to achieve this least basedimension, or provisions shall be made to guy or brace the unit againsttipping.(ii) The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20inches (50.8 cm) for mobile scaffolds (towers). Ladder stands shall have aminimum step width of 16 inches (40.64 cm).(iii) The supporting structure for the work level shall be rigidly braced,using adequate cross bracing or diagonal bracing with rigid platforms at eachwork level.(iv) The steps of ladder stands shall be fabricated from slip resistanttreads.(v) The work level platform of scaffolds (towers) shall be wood, aluminum,or plywood planking, steel or expanded metal, for the full width of thescaffold, except for necessary openings. Work platforms shall be secured inplace. All planking shall be 2-inch (5.08 cm) (nominal) scaffold grademinimum 1,500 f. (stress grade) construction grade lumber or equivalent.(vi) All scaffold work levels 10 feet (3.04 m) or higher above the ground orfloor shall have a standard (4-inch (10.16 cm) nominal) toeboard.(vii) All work levels 10 feet (3.04 m) or higher above the ground or floorshall have a guardrail of 2- by 4-inch nominal or the equivalent installed noless than 36 inches (0.912 m) or more than 42 inches (106.68 cm) high, with amidrail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch nominal lumber or equivalent.(viii) A climbing ladder or stairway shall be provided for proper access andegress, and shall be affixed or built into the scaffold and so located thatits use will not have a tendency to tip the scaffold. A landing platformshall be provided at intervals not to exceed 30 feet (9.12 m).(4) "Wheels or casters." (i) Wheels or casters shall be properly designedfor strength and dimensions to support four (4) times the design workingload.(ii) All scaffold casters shall be provided with a positive wheel and/orswivel lock to prevent movement. Ladder stands shall have at least two (2)of the four (4) casters and shall be of the swivel type.(iii) Where leveling of the elevated work platform is required, screw jacksor other suitable means for adjusting the height shall be provided in thebase section of each mobile unit.(b) "Mobile tubular welded sectional folding scaffolds" - (1) "General."Units including sectional stairway and sectional ladder scaffolds shall bedesigned to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.(2) "Stairway." An integral stairway and work platform shall be incorporatedinto the structure of each sectional folding stairway scaffold.(3) "Bracing." An integral set of pivoting and hinged folding diagonal andhorizontal braces and a detachable work platform shall be incorporated intothe structure of each sectional folding ladder scaffold.(4) "Sectional folding stairway scaffolds." Sectional folding stairwayscaffolds shall be designed as medium duty scaffolds except for highclearance. These special base sections shall be designed as light dutyscaffolds. When upper sectional folding stairway scaffolds are used with aspecial high clearance base, the load capacity of the entire scaffold shallbe reduced accordingly. The width of a sectional folding stairway scaffoldshall not exceed 4 1/2 feet (1.368 m). The maximum length of a sectionalfolding stairway scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet (1.824 m) (5) "Sectionalfolding ladder scaffolds." Sectional folding ladder scaffolds shall bedesigned as light duty scaffolds including special base (open end) sectionswhich are designed for high clearance. For certain special applications the6'-(1.824 m) folding ladder scaffolds, except for special high clearance basesections, shall be designed for use as medium duty scaffolds. The width of asectional folding ladder scaffold shall not exceed 4 1/2 feet (1.368 m). Themaximum length of a sectional folding ladder scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet6 inches (1.976 m) for a 6'-(1.824 m) long unit, 8 feet 6 inches (2.584 m)for an 8'-(2.432 m) unit or 10 feet 6 inches (3.192 m) for a 10'-(3.04 m)long unit.(6) "End frames." The end frames of sectional ladder and stairway scaffoldsshall be designed so that the horizontal bearers provide supports formultiple planking levels.(7) "Erection." Only the manufacturer of the scaffold or his qualifieddesignated agent shall be permitted to erect or supervise the erection ofscaffolds exceeding 50 feet (15.2 m) in height above the base, unless suchstructure is approved in writing by a licensed professional engineer, orerected in accordance with instructions furnished by the manufacturer.Subpart N - Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors38. In 1926.550, a new paragraph (a)(19) is added to read as follows:1926.550 Cranes and derricks.(a) "General requirements."* * * * * *(19) All employees shall be kept clear of loads about to be lifted and ofsuspended loads.* * * * * *Subpart O - Motor Vehicles, Merchanized Equipment, and Marine Operations39. In 1926.600, new paragraph (a)(7) is added to read as follows:1926.600 Equipment.(a) "General requirements."* * * * * *(7) "Rolling railroad cars." Derail and/or bumper blocks shall be providedon spur railroad tracks where a rolling car could contact other cars beingworked, enter a building, work or traffic areas.* * * * * *40. In 1926.602, new paragraphs (c)(1)(vii) and (viii) are added to read asfollows:1926.602 Material handling equipment. * * * * * *(c) "Lifting and hauling (other than equipment covered under subpart N ofthis part).(1)*** * * * * * *(vii) Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on poweredindustrial trucks. A safe place to ride shall be provided where riding oftrucks is authorized.(viii) Whenever a truck is equipped with vertical only, or vertical andhorizontal controls elevatable with the lifting carriage or forks for liftingpersonnel, the following additional precautions shall be taken for theprotection of personnel being elevated.(A) Use of a safety platform firmly secured to the lifting carriage and/orforks.(B) Means shall be provided whereby personnel on the platform can shut offpower to the truck.(C) Such protection from falling objects as indicated necessary by theoperating conditions shall be provided.Subpart U - Blasting and Use of Explosives41. In 1926.900, new paragraphs (s) and (t) are added to read as follows:1926.900 General provisions. * * * * * *(s) Buildings used for the mixing of blasting agents shall conform to therequirements of this section.(1) Buildings shall be of noncombustible construction or sheet metal on woodstuds.(2) Floors in a mixing plant shall be of concrete or of other nonabsorbentmaterials.(3) All fuel oil storage facilities shall be separated from the mixing plantand located in such a manner that in case of tank rupture, the oil will drainaway from the mixing plant building.(4) The building shall be well ventilated.(5) Heating units whichdo not depend on combustion processes, when properly designed and located,may be used in the building. All direct sources of heat shall be providedexclusively from units located outside the mixing building.(6) All internal-combustion engines used for electric power generation shallbe located outside the mixing plant building, or shall be properly ventilatedand isolated by a firewall. The exhaust systems on all such engines shall belocated so any spark emission cannot be a hazard to any materials in oradjacent to the plant.(t) Buildings used for the mixing of water gels shall conform to therequirements of this subdivision.(1) Buildings shall be of noncombustible construction or sheet metal on woodstuds.(2) Floors in a mixing plant shall be of concrete or of other nonabsorbentmaterials.(3) Where fuel oil is used all fuel oil storage facilities shall beseparated from the mixing plant and located in such a manner that in case oftank rupture, the oil will drain away from the mixing plant building.(4) The building shall be well ventilated.(5) Heating units that donot depend on combustion processes, when properly designed and located, maybe used in the building. All direct sources of heat shall be providedexclusively from units located outside of the mixing building.(6) All internal-combustion engines used for electric power generation shallbe located outside the mixing plant building, or shall be properly ventilatedand isolated by a firewall. The exhaust systems on all such engines shall belocated so any spark emission cannot be a hazard to any materials in oradjacent to the plant.42. In 1926.905, new paragraph (u) is added to read as follows:1926.905 Loading of explosives or blasting agents. * * * * *(u) When loading blasting agents pneumatically over electric blasting caps,semiconductive delivery hose shall be used and the equipment shall be bondedand grounded.43. In 1926.914, new paragraph (aa) is added to read as follows:1926.914 Definitions applicable to this subpart. * * * * *(aa) "Semiconductive hose." Semiconductive hose - a hose with an electricalresistance high enough to limit flow of stray electric currents to safelevels, yet not so high as to prevent drainage of static electric charges toground; hose of not more than 2 megohms resistance over its entire length andof not less than 5,000 ohms per foot meets the requirement.Subpart X - Stairways and Ladders44. In 1926.1050, a new paragraph defining "ladder stands" is added to readas follows:1926.1050 Scope, application, and definitions applicable to this subpart. * * * * * *(b) * * * * * *"Ladder stand." A mobile fixed size self-supporting ladder consisting of awide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs. The assembly may includehandrails.45. In part 1926, a new subpart Y - Diving is added to read as follows:Subpart Y - DivingGeneral1926.1071 Scope and application(a) "Scope." (1) This subpart (standard) applies to every place ofemployment within the waters of the United States, or within any State, theDistrict of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands,American Samoa, Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, WakeIsland, Johnston Island, the Canal Zone, or within the Outer ContinentalShelf lands as defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (67 Stat.462, 43 U.S.C. 1331), where diving and related support operations areperformed.(2) This standard applies to diving and related support operations conductedin connection with all types of work and employments, including generalindustry, construction, ship repairing, shipbuilding, shipbreaking andlongshoring. However, this standard does not apply to any diving operation:(i) Performed solely for instructional purposes, using open-circuit,compressed-air SCUBA and conducted within the no-decompression limits;(ii) Performed solely for search, rescue, or related public safety purposesby or under the control of a governmental agency; or (iii) Governed by 45 CFRpart 46 (Protection of Human Subjects, U.S.Department of Health and Human Services) or equivalent rules or regulationsestablished by another federal agency, which regulate research, development,or related purposes involving human subjects.(iv) Defined as scientific diving and which is under the direction andcontrol of a diving program containing at least the following elements:(A) Diving safety manual which includes at a minimum: Procedures coveringall diving operations specific to the program; procedures for emergency care,including recompression and evacuation; and criteria for diver training andcertification.(B) Diving control (safety) board, with the majority of its members beingactive divers, which shall at a minimum have the authority to: Approve andmonitor diving projects; review and revise the diving safety manual; assurecompliance with the manual; certify the depths to which a diver has beentrained; take disciplinary action for unsafe practices; and, assure adherenceto the buddy system (a diver is accompanied by and is in continuous contactwith another diver in the water) for SCUBA diving.(b) "Application in emergencies." An employer may deviate from therequirements of this standard to the extent necessary to prevent or minimizea situation which is likely to cause death, serious physical harm, or majorenvironmental damage, provided that the employer:(1) Notifies the Area Director, Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration within 48 hours of the onset of the emergency situationindicating the nature of the emergency and extent of the deviation from theprescribed regulations; and(2) Upon request from the Area Director, submits such information in writing.(c) "Employer obligation." The employer shall be responsible for compliancewith:(1) All provisions of this standard of general applicability; and(2) All requirements pertaining to specific diving modes to the extentdiving operations in such modes are conducted.1926.1072 Definitions.As used in this standard, the listed terms are defined as follows:"Acfm:" Actual cubic feet per minute. "ASME Code of equivalent:"ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Boiler and Pressure VesselCode, Section VIII, or an equivalent code which the employer can demonstrateto be equally effective."ATA:" Atmosphere absolute. "Bell:" An enclosed compartment,pressurized (closed bell) or unpressurized (open bell), which allows thediver to be transported to and from the underwater work area and which may beused as a temporary refuge during diving operations."Bottom time:" The total elasped time measured in minutes from the time whenthe diver leaves the surface in descent to the time that the diver beginsascent."Bursting pressure:" The pressure at which a pressure containment devicewould fail structurally."Cylinder:" A pressure vessel for the storage of gases."Decompression chamber:" A pressure vessel for human occupancy such as asurface decompression chamber, closed bell, or deep diving system used todecompress divers and to treat decompression sickness."Decompression sickness:" A condition with a variety of symptoms which mayresult from gas or bubbles in the tissue of divers after pressure reduction."Decompression table:" A profile or set of profiles of depth-timerelationships for ascent rates and breathing mixtures to be followed after aspecific depth-time exposure or exposures."Dive location:" A surface or vessel from which a diving operation isconducted."Dive-location reserve breathing gas:" A supply system of air or mixed-gas(as appropriate) at the dive location which is independent of the primarysupply system and sufficient to support divers during the planneddecompression."Dive team:" Divers and support employees involved in a diving operation,including the designated person-in-charge."Diver:" An employee working in water using underwater apparatus whichsupplies compressed breathing gas at the ambient pressure."Diver-carried reserve breathing gas:" A diver-carried supply of air ormixed gas (as appropriate) sufficient under standard operating conditions toallow the diver to reach the surface, or another source of breathing gas, orto be reached by a standby diver."Diving mode:" A type of diving requiring specific equipment, procedures andtechniques (SCUBA, surface-supplied air, or mixed gas)."Fsw:" Feet of seawater (or equivalent static pressure head). "Heavygear: Diver-worn deep-sea dress including helmet, breastplate, dry suit, andweighted shoes."Hyperbaric conditions:" Pressure conditions in excess of surface pressure."Inwater stage:" A suspended underwater platform which supports a diver inthe water."Liveboating:" The practice of supporting a surface-supplied air or mixedgas diver from a vessel which is underway."Mixed-gas diving:" A diving mode in which the diver is supplied in thewater with a breathing gas other than air."No-decompression limits:" The depth-time limits of the "no-decompressionair dives", U.S. Navy Diving Manual or equivalent limits which the employercan demonstrate to be equally effective."Psi(g):" Pounds per square inch (gauge). "Scientific diving" meansdiving performed solely as a necessary part of a scientific, research, oreducational activity by employees whose sole purpose for diving is toperform scientific research tasks. Scientific diving does not includeperforming any tasks usually associated with commercial diving such as;Placing or removing heavy objects underwater; inspection of pipelines andsimilar objects; construction; demolition; cutting or welding; or the use ofexplosives."SCUBA diving:" A dive mode independent of surface supply in which the diveruses open circuit self-contained underwater breathing apparatus."Standby diver:" A diver at the dive location available to assist a diver inthe water.Surface-supplied air diving:" A diving mode in which the diver in the wateris supplied from the dive location with compressed air for breathing."Treatment table:" A depth-time and breathing gas profile designed to treatdecompression sickness."Umbilical:" The composite hose bundle between a dive location and a diveror bell, or between a diver and a bell, which supplies the diver or bell withbreathing gas, communications, power, or heat as appropriate to the divingmode or conditions, and includes a safety line between the diver and the divelocation."Volume tank:" A pressure vessel connected to the outlet of a compressor andused as an air reservoir."Working pressure:" The maximum pressure to which a pressure containmentdevice may be exposed under standard operating conditions.Personnel Requirements1926.1076 Qualifications of dive team.(a) "General." (1) Each dive team member shall have the experience ortraining necessary to perform assigned tasks in a safe and healthful manner.(2) Each dive team member shall have experience or training in the following:(i) The use of tools, equipment and systems relevant to assigned tasks;(ii) Techniques of the assigned diving mode; and(iii) Diving operations and emergency procedures. (3) All dive teammembers shall be trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid(American Red Cross standard course or equivalent).(4) Dive team members who are exposed to or control the exposure of othersto hyperbaric conditions shall be trained in diving-related physics andphysiology.(b) "Assignments." (1) Each dive team member shall be assigned tasks inaccordance with the employee's experience or training,. except that limitedadditional tasks may be assigned to an employee undergoing training providedthat these tasks are performed under the direct supervision of an experienceddive team member.(2) The employer shall not require a dive team member to be exposed tohyperbaric conditions against the employee's will, except when necessary tocomplete decompression or treatment procedures.(3) The employer shall not permit a dive team member to dive or be otherwiseexposed to hyperbaric conditions for the duration of any temporary physicalimpairment or condition which is known to the employer and is likely toaffect adversely the safety or health of a dive team member.(c) "Designated person-in-charge." (1) The employer or an employeedesignated by the employer shall be at the dive location in charge of allaspects of the diving operation affecting the safety and health of dive teammembers.(2) The designated person-in-charge shall have experience and training inthe conduct of the assigned diving operation.General Operations Procedures1926.1080 Safe practices manual.(a) "General." The employer shall develop and maintain a safe practicesmanual which shall be made available at the dive location to each dive teammember.(b) "Contents." (1) The safe practices manual shall contain a copy of thisstandard and the employer's policy for implementing the requirements of thisstandard.(2) For each diving mode engaged in, the safe practices manual shall include:(i) Safety procedures and checklists for diving operations:(ii) Assignments and responsibilities of the dive team members;(iii) Equipment procedures and checklists; and(iv) Emergency procedures for fire, equipment failure, adverse environmentalconditions, and medical illness and injury.(The information collection requirements contained in paragraph (b) wereapproved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0069)1926.10810 Pre-dive procedures.(a) "General." The employer shall comply with the following requirementsprior to each diving operation, unless otherwise specified.(b) "Emergency aid." A list shall be kept at the dive location of thetelephone or call numbers of the following:(1) An operational decompression chamber (if not at the dive location);(2) Accessible hospitals;(3) Available physicians;(4) Available means of transportation; and(5) The nearest U.S. Coast Guard Rescue Coordination Center.(c)"First aid supplies." (1) A first aid kit appropriate for the divingoperation and approved by a physician shall be available at the divelocation.(2) When used in a decompression chamber or bell, the first aid kit shall besuitable for use under hyperbaric conditions.(3) In addition to any other first aid supplies, an American Red Crossstandard first aid handbook or equivalent, and a bag-type manual resuscitatorwith transparent mask and tubing shall be available at the dive location.(d) "Planning and assessment." Planning of a diving operation shall includean assessment of the safety and health aspects of the following:(1) Diving mode;(2) Surface and underwater conditions and hazards;(3) Breathing gas supply (including reserves);(4) Thermal protection;(5) Diving equipment and systems;(6) Dive team assignments and physical fitness of dive team members(including any impairment known to the employer);(7) Repetitive dive designation or residual inert gas status of dive teammembers;(8) Decompression and treatment procedures (including altitude corrections);and(9) Emergency procedures. (e) "Hazardous activities." To minimizehazards to the dive team, diving operations shall be coordinated with otheractivities in the vicinity which are likely to interfere with the divingoperation.(f) "Employee briefing." (1) Dive team members shall be briefed on:(i) The tasks to be undertaken;(ii) Safety procedures for the diving mode;(iii) Any unusual hazards or environmental conditions likely to affect thesafety of the diving operation; and(iv) Any modifications to operating procedures necessitated by the specificdiving operation.(2) Prior to making individual dive team member assignments, the employershall inquire into the dive team member's current state of physical fitness,and indicate to the dive team member the procedure for reporting physicalproblems or adverse physiological effects during and after the dive.(g) "Equipment inspection." The breathing gas supply system includingreserve breathing gas supplies, masks, helmets, thermal protection, and bellhandling mechanism (when appropriate) shall be inspected prior to each dive.(h) "Warning signal." When diving from surfaces other than vessels in areascapable of supporting marine traffic, a rigid replica of the internationalcode flag "A" at least one meter in height shall be displayed at the divelocation in a manner which allows all-round visibility, and shall beilluminated during night diving operations.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0069)1926.1082 Procedures during dive.(a) "General." The employer shall comply with the following requirementswhich are applicable to each diving operation unless otherwise specified.(b) "Water entry and exit." (1) A means capable of supporting the divershall be provided for entering and exiting the water.(2) The means provided for exiting the water shall extend below the watersurface.(3) A means shall be provided to assist an injured diver from the water orinto a bell.(c) "Communications." (1) An operational two-way voice communication systemshall be used between:(i) Each surface-supplied air or mixed-gas diver and a dive team member atthe dive location or bell (when provided or required); and(ii) The bell and the dive location.(2) An operational, two-waycommunication system shall be available at the dive location to obtainemergency assistance.(d) "Decompression tables." Decompression, repetitive, and no-decompressiontables (as appropriate) shall be at the dive location.(e) "Dive profiles." A depth-time profile, including when appropriate anybreathing gas changes, shall be maintained for each diver during the diveincluding decompression.(f) "Hand-held power tools and equipment." (1) Hand-held electrical toolsand equipment shall be de-energized before being placed into or retrievedfrom the water.(2) Hand-held power tools shall not be supplied with power from the divelocation until requested by the diver.(g) "Welding and burning." (1) A current supply switch to interrupt thecurrent flow to the welding or burning electrode shall be:(i) Tended by a dive team member in voice communication with the diverperforming the welding or burning; and(ii) Kept in the open position except when the diver is welding or burning.(2) The welding machine frame shall be grounded.(3) Welding andburning cables, electrode holders, and connections shall be capable ofcarrying the maximum current required by the work, and shall be properlyinsulated.(4) Insulated gloves shall be provided to divers performing welding andburning operations.(5) Prior to welding or burning on closed compartments, structures or pipes,which contain a flammable vapor or in which a flammable vapor may begenerated by the work, they shall be vented, flooded, or purged with amixture of gases which will not support combustion.(h) "Explosives." (1) Employers shall transport, store, and use explosivesin accordance with this section and the applicable provisions of CFR 1910.109and 1926.912.(2) Electrical continuity of explosive circuits shall not be tested untilthe diver is out of the water.(3) Explosives shall not be detonated while the diver is in thewater. (i) "Termination of dive. The working interval of a dive shall beterminated when:(1) A diver requests termination;(2) a diver fails to respond correctly to communications or signals from adive team member;(3) Communications are lost and can not be quickly re-established betweenthe diver and a dive team member at the dive location, and between thedesignated person-in-charge and the person controlling the vessel inliveboating operations; or (4) A diver begins to use diver-carried reservebreathing gas or the dive-location reserve breathing gas.1926.1083 Post-dive procedures.(a) "General." The employer shall comply with the following requirementswhich are applicable after each diving operation, unless otherwise specified.(b) "Precautions." (1) After the completion of any dive, the employer shall:(i) Check the physical condition of the diver;(ii) Instruct the diver to report any physical problems or adversephysiological effects including symptoms of decompression sickness;(iii) Advise the diver of the location of a decompression chamber which isready for use; and(iv) Alert the diver to the potential hazards of flying afterdiving. (2) For any dive outside the no-decompression limits, deeper than 100fsw or using mixed gas as a breathing mixture, the employer shall instructthe diver to remain awake and in the vicinity of the decompression chamberwhich is at the dive location for at least one hour after the dive (includingdecompression or treatment as appropriate).(c) "Recompression capability." (1) A decompression chamber capable ofrecompressing the diver at the surface to a minimum of 165 fsw (6 ATA) shallbe available at the dive location for:(i) Surface-supplied air diving to depths deeper than 100 fsw and shallowerthan 220 fsw;(ii) Mixed gas diving shallower than 300 fsw; or(iii) Divingoutside the no-decompression limits shallower than 300 fsw.(2) Adecompression chamber capable of recompressing the diver at the surface tothe maximum depth of the dive shall be available at the dive location fordives deeper than 300 fsw.(3) The decompression chamber shall be:(i) Dual-lock;(ii) Multiplace; and(iii) Located within 5 minutes of the dive location.(4) Thedecompression chamber shall be equipped with: (i) A pressure gauge for eachpressurized compartment designed for human occupancy;(ii) A built-in-breathing-system with a minimum of one mask per occupant;(iii) A two-way voice communication system between occupants and a dive teammember at the dive location;(iv) A viewport; and(v) Illumination capability to light the interior.(5) Treatmenttables, treatment gas appropriate to the diving mode, and sufficient gas toconduct treatment shall be available at the dive location.(6) A dive team member shall be available at the dive location during andfor at least one hour after the dive to operate the decompression chamber(when required or provided).(d) "Record of dive." (1) The following information shall be recorded andmaintained for each diving operation:(i) Names of dive team members including designated person-in-charge;(ii) Date, time, and location;(iii) Diving modes used;(iv) General nature of work performed;(v) Approximate underwater and surface conditions (visibility, watertemperature and current); and(vi) Maximum depth and bottom time for each diver.(2) For each diveoutside the no-decompression limits, deeper than 100 fsw or using mixed gas,the following additional information shall be recorded andmaintained:(i) Depth-time and breathing gas profiles;(ii) Decompression table designation (including modification); and(iii) Elapsed time since last pressure exposure if less than 24 hours orrepetitive dive designation for each diver.(3) For each dive in which decompression sickness is suspected or symptomsare evident, the following additional information shall be recorded andmaintained:(i) Description of decompression sickness symptoms (including depth and timeof onset); and(ii) Description and results of treatment.(e) "Decompressionprocedure assessment." The employer shall: (1) Investigate and evaluate eachincident of decompression sickness based on the recorded information,consideration of the past performance of decompression table used, andindividual susceptibility;(2) Take appropriate corrective action to reduce the probability ofrecurrence of decompression sickness; and(3) Prepare a written evaluation of the decompression procedure assessment,including any corrective action taken, within 45 days of the incident ofdecompression sickness.(The information collection requirements contained in paragraphs (d) and (e)were approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0069)Specific Operations Procedures1926.1084 SCUBA diving.(a) "General." Employers engaged in SCUBA diving shall comply with thefollowing requirements, unless otherwise specified.(b) "Limits." SCUBA diving shall not be conducted:(1) At depths deeper than 130 fsw;(2) At depths deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limitsunless a decompression chamber is ready for use;(3) Against currents exceeding one (1) knot unless line-tended; or(4) In enclosed or physically confined spaces unless line-tended. (c)"Procedures." (1) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in thewater.(2) A diver shall be line-tended from the surface, or accompanied by anotherdiver in the water in continuous visual contact during the diving operations.(3) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when divingis conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.(4) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for eachdiver consisting of:(i) A manual reserve (J valve); or(ii) An independent reservecylinder with a separate regulator or connected to the underwater breathingapparatus.(5) The valve of the reserve breathing gas supply shall be in the closedposition prior to the dive.1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving.(a) "General." Employers engaged in surface-supplied air diving shall complywith the following requirements, unless otherwise specified.(b) "Limits." (1) Surface-supplied air diving shall not be conducted atdepths deeper than 190 fsw, except that dives with bottom times of 30 minutesor less may be conducted to depths of 220 fsw.(2) A decompression chamber shall be ready for use at the dive location forany dive outside the no-decompression limits or deeper than 100 fsw.(3) A bell shall be used for dives with an inwater decompression timegreater than 120 minutes, except when heavy gear is worn or diving isconducted in physically confining spaces.(c) "Procedures." (1) Each diver shall be continuously tended while in thewater.(2) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry when divingis conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.(3) Each diving operation shall have a primary breathing gas supplysufficient to support divers for the duration of the planned dive includingdecompression.(4) For dives deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits:(i) A separate dive team member shall tend each diver in the water;(ii) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in the water;(iii) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided foreach diver except when heavy gear is worn; and(iv) A dive-location reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided.(5) For heavy-gear diving deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompressionlimits:(i) An extra breathing gas hose capable of supplying breathing gas to thediver in the water shall be available to the standby diver.(ii) An inwater stage shall be provided to divers in the water.(6)Except when heavy gear is worn or where physical space does not permit, adiver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided whenever thediver is prevented by the configuration of the dive area from ascendingdirectly to the surface.1926.1086 Mixed-gas diving.(a) "General." Employers engaged in mixed-gas diving shall comply with thefollowing requirements, unless otherwise specified.(b) "Limits." Mixed-gas diving shall be conducted only when:(1) A decompression chamber is ready for use at the dive location; and(i) A bell is used at depths greater than 220 fsw or when the dive involvesinwater decompression time or greater than 120 minutes, except when heavygear is worn or when diving in physically confining spaces; or (ii) A closedbell is used at depths greater than 300 fsw, except when diving is conductedin physically confining spaces.(c) "Procedures." (1) A separate dive team member shall tend each diver inthe water.(2) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in thewater. (3) A diver shall be stationed at the underwater point of entry whendiving is conducted in enclosed or physically confining spaces.(4) Each diving operation shall have a primary breathing gas supplysufficient to support divers for the duration of the planned dive includingdecompression.(5) Each diving operation shall have a dive-location reserve breathing gassupply.(6) When heavy gear is worn:(i) An extra breathing gas hose capable of supplying breathing gas to thediver in the water shall be available to the standby diver; and(ii) An inwater stage shall be provided for divers in the water.(7)An inwater stage shall be provided for divers without access to a bell fordives deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits.(8) When a closed bell is used, one dive team member in the bell shall beavailable and tend the diver in the water.(9) Except when heavy gear is worn or where physical space does not permit,a diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be provided for eachdiver:(i) Diving deeper than 100 fsw or outside the no-decompression limits;or(ii) Prevented by the configuration of the dive area from directly ascendingto the surface.1926.1087 Liveboating.(a) "General." Employers engaged in diving operations involving liveboatingshall comply with the following requirements.(b) "Limits." Diving operations involving liveboating shall not be conducted:(1) With an inwater decompression time of greater than 120 minutes;(2) Using surface-supplied air at depths deeper than 190 fsw, except thatdives with bottom times of 30 minutes or less may be conducted to depths of220 fsw;(3) Using mixed gas at depths greater than 220 fsw;(4) In rough seas which significantly impede diver mobility or workfunction; or(5) In other than daylight hours.(c) "Procedures." (1) Thepropeller of the vessel shall be stopped before the diver enters or exits thewater.(2) A device shall be used which minimizes the possibility of entanglementof the diver's hose in the propeller of the vessel.(3) Two-way voice communication between the designated person-in-charge andthe person controlling the vessel shall be available while the diver is inthe water.(4) A standby diver shall be available while a diver is in thewater.(5) A diver-carried reserve breathing gas supply shall be carried byeach diver engaged in liveboating operations.Equipment Procedures and Requirements1926.1090 Equipment.(a) "General." (1) All employers shall comply with the followingrequirements, unless otherwise specified.(2) Each equipment modification, repair, test, calibration or maintenanceservice shall be recorded by means of a tagging or logging system, andinclude the date and nature of work performed, and the name or initials ofthe person performing the work.(b) "Air compressor system." (1) Compressors used to supply air to the divershall be equipped with a volume tank with a check valve on the inlet side, apressure gauge, a relief valve, and a drain valve.(2) Air compressor intakes shall be located away from areas containingexhaust or other contaminants.(3) Respirable air supplied to a diver shall not contain:(i) A level of carbon monoxide (CO) greater than 20 p/m;(ii) A level of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) greater than 1,000 p/m;(iii) A level of oil mist greater than 5 milligrams per cubic meter;or (iv) A noxious or pronounce odor. (4) The output of air compressor systemsshall be tested for air purity every 6 months by means of samples taken atthe connection to the distribution system, except that non-oil lubricatedcompressors need not be tested for oil mist.(c) "Breathing gas supply hoses." (1) Breathing gas supply hoses shall:(i) Have a working pressure at least equal to the working pressure of thetotal breathing gas system;(ii) Have a rated bursting pressure at least equal to 4 times the workingpressure;(iii) Be tested at least annually to 1.5 times their working pressure;and (iv) Have their open ends taped, capped or plugged when not in use.(2)Breathing gas supply hose connectors shall: (i) Be made ofcorrosion-resistant materials; (ii) Have a working pressure at least equal tothe working pressure of the hose to which they are attached; and(iii) Be resistant to accidental disengagement.(3) Umbilicalsshall: (i) Be marked in 10-ft. increments to 100 feet beginning at thediver's end, and in 50 ft. increments thereafter;(ii) Be made of kink-resistant materials; and(iii) Have a working pressure greater than the pressure equivalent to themaximum depth of the dive (relative to the supply source) plus 100 psi.(d) "Buoyancy control. (1) Helmets or masks connected directly to the drysuit or other buoyancy-changing equipment shall be equipped with an exhaustvalve.(2) A dry suit or other buoyancy-changing equipment not directly connectedto the helmet or mask shall be equipped with an exhaust valve.(3) When used for SCUBA diving, a buoyancy compensator shall have aninflation source separate from the breathing gas supply.(4) An inflatable flotation device capable of maintaining the diver at thesurface in a face-up position, having a manually activated inflation sourceindependent of the breathing supply, an oral inflation device, and an exhaustvalve shall be used for SCUBA diving.(e) "Compressed gas cylinders." Compressed gas cylinders shall:(1) Be designed, constructed and maintained in accordance with theapplicable provisions of 29 CFR 1910.101 and 1910.169 through 1910.171 and1926.306;(2) Be stored in a ventilated area and protected from excessive heat;(3) Be secured from falling; and(4) Have shut-off valves recessed into the cylinder or protected by a cap,except when in use or manifolded, or when used for SCUBA diving.(f) "Decompression chambers." (1) Each decompression chamber manufacturedafter the effective date of this standard, shall be built and maintained inaccordance with the ASME Code or equivalent.(2) Each decompression chamber manufactured prior to the effective date ofthis standard shall be maintained in conformity with the code requirements towhich it was built, or equivalent.(3) Each decompression chamber shall be equipped with:(i) Means to maintain the atmosphere below a level of 25 percent oxygen byvolume;(ii) Mufflers on intake and exhaust lines, which shall be regularlyinspected and maintained;(iii) Suction guards on exhaust line openings; and(iv) A means for extinguishing fire, and shall be maintained to minimizesources of ignition and combustible material.(g) "Gauges and timekeeping devices." (1) Gauges indicating diver depthwhich can be read at the dive location shall be used for all dives exceptSCUBA.(2) Each depth gauge shall be deadweight tested or calibrated against amaster reference gauge every 6 months, and when there is a discrepancygreater than two percent (2 percent) of full scale between any two equivalentgauges.(3) A cylinder pressure gauge capable of being monitored by the diver duringthe dive shall be worn by each SCUBA diver.(4) A timekeeping device shall be available at each dive location.(h) "Masks and helmets." (1) Surface-supplied air and mixed-gas masks andhelmets shall have:(i) A non-return valve at the attachment point between helmet or mask andhose which shall close readily and positively; and(ii) An exhaust valve.(2) Surface-supplied air masks and helmetsshall have a minimum ventilation rate capability of 4.5 acfm at any depth atwhich they are operated or the capability of maintaining the diver's inspiredcarbon dioxide partial pressure below 0.02 ATA when the diver is producingcarbon dioxide at the rate of 1.6 standard liters per minute.(i) "Oxygen safety." (1) Equipment used with oxygen or mixtures containingover forty percent (40 percent) by volume oxygen shall be designed for oxygenservice.(2) Components (except umbilicals) exposed to oxygen or mixtures containingover forty percent (40 percent) by volume oxygen shall be cleaned offlammable materials before use.(3) Oxygen systems over 125 psig and compressed air systems over 500 psigshall have slow-opening shut-off valves.(j) "Weights and harnesses." (1) Except when heavy gear is worn, diversshall be equipped with a weight belt or assembly capable of quick release.(2) Except when heavy gear is worn or in SCUBA diving, each diver shall weara safety harness with:(i) A positive buckling device;(ii) An attachment point for the umbilical to prevent strain on the mask orhelmet; and(iii) A lifting point to distribute the pull force of the line over thediver's body.(The information collection requirements contained in paragraph (a)(2) wereapproved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0069)Recordkeeping1926.1091 Recordkeeping requirements.(a)(1) [Reserved] (2) The employer shall record the occurrence ofany diving-related injury or illness which requires any dive team member tobe hospitalized for 24 hours or more, specifying the circumstances of theincident and the extent of any injuries or illnesses.(b) "Availability of records." (1) Upon the request of the AssistantSecretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, or the Director,National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Healthand Human Services of their designees, the employer shall make available forinspection and copying any record or document required by this standard.(2) Records and documents required by this standard shall be provided uponrequest to employees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretaryin accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i). Safe practicesmanuals (1926.1080), depth-time profiles (1926.1082), recordings of dives(1926.1083), decompression procedure assessment evaluations (1926.1083), andrecords of hospitalizations (1926.1091) shall be provided in the same manneras employee exposure records or analyses using exposure or medical records.Equipment inspections and testing records which pertain to employees(1926.1090) shall also be provided upon request to employees and theirdesignated representatives.(3) Records and documents required by this standard shall be retained by theemployer for the following period:(i) Dive team member medical records (physician's reports) (1926.1076) - 5years;(ii) Safe practices manual (1926.1080) - current document only;(iii) Depth-time profile (1926.1082) - until completion of the recording ofdive, or until completion of decompression procedure assessment where therehas been an incident of decompression sickness;(iv) Recording of dive (1926.1083) - 1 year, except 5 years where there hasbeen an incident of decompression sickness;(v) Decompression procedure assessment evaluations (1926.1083) - 5 years;(vi) Equipment inspections and testing records (1926.1090) - current entryor tag, or until equipment is withdrawn from service;(vii) Records of hospitalizations (1926.1091) - 5 years. (4) Afterthe expiration of the retention period of any record required to be kept forfive (5) years, the employer shall forward such records to the NationalInstitute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Health and HumanServices. The employer shall also comply with any additional requirementsset forth at 29 CFR 1926.33(h).(5) In the event the employer ceases to do business:(i) The successor employer shall receive and retain all dive and employeemedical records required by this standard; or (ii) If there is no successoremployer, dive and employee medical records shall be forwarded to theNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Healthand Human Services.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0058)1926.1092 Effective date.This standard shall be effective on October 20, 1977, except that forprovisions where decompression chambers or bells are required and suchequipment is not yet available, employers shall comply as soon as possiblethereafter buy in no case later than 6 months after the effective date of thestandard.Appendix A to Subpart Y - Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or LimitExposure to Hyperbaric ConditionsThe following disorders may restrict or limit occupational exposures tohyperbaric conditions depending on severity, presence of residual effects,response to therapy, number of occurrences, diving mode, or degree andduration of isolation.History of seizure disorder other than early febrile convulsions.Malignancies (active) unless treated and without recurrence for 5 yrs.Chronic inability to equalize sinus and/or middle ear pressure. Cystic orcavitary disease o;f the lungs. Impaired organ function caused by alcohol ordrug use. Conditions requiring continuous medication for control (e.g.,antihistamines, steroids, barbiturates, moodaltering drugs, orinsulin).Meniere's disease. Hemoglobinopathies. Obstructive or restrictivelung disease. Vestibular end organ destruction. Pneumothorax. Cardiacabnormalities (e.g., pathological heart block, valvular disease,intraventricular condition defects other than isolated right bundle branchblock, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, coronary artery disease).Appendix B to Subpart Y - Guidelines for Scientific DivingThis appendix contains guidelines that will be used in conjunction with1926.1071(a)(2)(iv) to determine those scientific diving programs, which areexempt from the requirements for commercial diving. The guidelines are asfollows:1. The diving Control Board consists of a majority of active scientificdivers and has autonomous and absolute authority over the scientific divingprogram's operations.2. The purpose of the project using scientific diving is the advancement ofscience; therefore, information and data resulting from the project arenon-proprietary.3. The tasks of a scientific diver are those of an observer and datagatherer. Construction and trouble-shooting tasks traditionally associatedwith commercial diving are not included within scientific diving.4. Scientific divers, based on the nature of their activities, must usescientific expertise in studying the underwater environment and, therefore,are scientists or scientists in training.46. In part 1926, a new subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous Substances is addedto read as follows:Subpart Z - Toxic and Hazardous SubstancesAUTHORITY: Sections 6 and 8, Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C.655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Orders Nos. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736) or 1-90 (55 FR 9033) as applicable; and 29 CFRpart 1911.Section 1926.1102 not issued under 29 U.S.C. 655 or 29 CFR part 1911;also issued under 5 U.S.C. 653.Section 1926.1103 through 1926.1118 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653.Section 1926.1128 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653. Section 1926.1145 and1926.1147 also issued under 29 U.S.C. 653. Section 1926.1148 also issuedunder 29 U.S.C. 653.1926.1100 - 1926.1101 [Reserved]1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpretation of term.Coal tar pitch volatiles include the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons whichvolatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excludingasphalt), wood, and other organic matter. Asphalt (CAS 8052-42-4, and CAS64742-93-4) is not covered under the "coal tar pitch volatiles" standard.1926.1103 4-Nitrobiphenyl.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which4-Nitrobiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92933 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Nitrobiphenyl.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section:(1) "Absolute filter" is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a monodisperse aerosol of 0.3 um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Nitrobiphenyl. Theclean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl wherecontainment prevents the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas,non-regulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Nitrobiphenyl or its safedisposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Nitrobiphenyl from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of 4-Nitrobiphenyl which may result in exposure toor contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, which is impervious to the passageof 4-Nitrobiphenyl, and which would prevent the entry of 4-Nitrobiphenyl intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, shouldleakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an-averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving 4-Nitrobiphenyl within the hood does not require the insertion ofany portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl in anopen vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, norin any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of4-Nitrobiphenyl into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to 4-Nitrobiphenyl.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Nitrobiphenyl." A regulated areashall be established by an employer where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is manufactured,processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areasshall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the followingcategory or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Nitrobiphenyl within anisolated system such as a "glove box' shall wash their hands and arms uponcompletion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities notassociated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Nitrobiphenylis stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, includingpiping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while4-Nitrobiphenyl is contained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponexit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before otheractivities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Nitrobiphenyl is containedin an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or dischargedinto other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraphshall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long- sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Nitrobiphenyl handling operations shall beprovided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit,from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or anyoperations involving work in an area where direct contact with4-Nitrobiphenyl could result, each authorized employee entering that areashall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergencyhas been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Nitrobiphenyl suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco, products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove 4-Nitrobiphenyl from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training." - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-Nitrobiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible onlyto, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trainedin accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contentsidentification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of 4-Nitrobiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which areaccessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees oremployees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shallhave contents identification which includes the full chemical name andChemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) ofthis section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have 4-Nitrobiphenyl contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements wanting of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraphshall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containersrequired under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of thelargest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in anyinstance. "Provided", That no such required lettering need be more than 1inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Nitrobiphenyl, includinglocal and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Nitrobiphenyl whichcould result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of4-Nitrobiphenyl;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of4-Nitrobiphenyl in each regulated area, (iii) The number of employees in eachregulated area, during normal operations including maintenance activities;and(iv) The manner in which 4-Nitrobiphenyl is present in each regulated area;e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled, (2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in therelease of 4-Nitrobiphenyl into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shallbe reported in accordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrenceof the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report onany medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours tothe nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0085)1926.1104 alpha-Naphthylamine.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichalpha-Naphthylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 134327 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1.0 percent by weight or volume of alpha-Naphthylamine.(3) This section will not apply to operations involving the destructivedistillation of carbonaceous materials, such as occurs in coke ovens.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of alpha-Naphthylamine.The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine wherecontainment prevents the release of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas,nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of alpha-Naphthylamine or itssafe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of alpha-Naphthylamine from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of alpha-Naphthylamine which may result in exposureto or contact with alpha-Naphthylamine.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of alpha-Naphthylamine, which is impervious to thepassage of alpha-Naphthylamine, and which would prevent the entry ofalpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained, so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving alpha-Naphthylamine within the hood does not require the insertionof any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving alpha-Naphthylaminein an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory typehood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against theentry of alpha-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or theexternal environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to alpha-Naphthylamine.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing alpha-Naphthylamine." A regulatedarea shall be established by an employer where alpha-Naphthylamine ismanufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. Allsuch areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for thefollowing category or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with alpha-Naphthylamine within anisolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms uponcompletion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities notassociated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas wherealpha-Naphthylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closedsystem, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closedwhile alpha-Naphthylamine is contained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations, involving"laboratory type hoods" or in locations where alpha-Naphthylamine iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thissubparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), and shoe covers and gloves prior to entering a regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in alpha-Naphthylamine handling operations shall beprovided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection maybe substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exist of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or anyoperations involving work in an area where direct contact withalpha-Naphthylamine could result, each authorized employee entering that areashall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall beimplemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected areas shall be decontaminated prior to theresumption of normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours, for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known, contact with alpha-Naphthylamine suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing ,and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove alpha-Naphthylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited. (e) "Signs,information and training." - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, areas, informing employees of the procedures that must befollowed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers ofalpha-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible onlyto, and handled only by authorized employees, or by other employees trainedin accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contentsidentification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of alpha-Naphthylamine and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(vii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have alpha-Naphthylamine contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8point type in any instance: "Provided", That no such required lettering needbe more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of alpha-Naphthylamine, includinglocal and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving alpha-Naphthylamine whichcould result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release ofalpha-Naphthylamine;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofalpha-Naphthylamine in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which alpha-Naphthylamine is present in each regulatedarea; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release ofalpha-Naphthylamine into any area where employees may be potentially exposedshall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable atthat time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employeesshall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedures used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program ofmedical surveillance shall be established and implemented for employeesconsidered for assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorizedemployees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause be maintained complete and accurate records of all suchmedical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration of theemployee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director (iii) Any physician who conducts amedical examination required by this paragraph shall furnish to the employera statement of the employee's suitability for employment in the specificexposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0084)1926.1105 [Reserved]1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichmethyl chloromethyl ether, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 107302is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, butshall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for thelabeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 0.1 percent by weight or volume of methyl chloromethyl ether.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section. (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of methyl chloromethylether. The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from ashower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in thissection.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving methyl chloromethyl etherwhere containment prevents the release of methyl chloromethyl ether intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of methyl chloromethyl ether orits safe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of methyl chloromethyl ether from thework environment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting fn the release of methyl chloromethyl ether which may result inexposure to or contact with methyl chloromethyl ether.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonrogulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of methyl chloromethyl ether, which is impervious tothe passage of methyl chloromethyl ether, and which would prevent the entryof methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or theexternal environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel ofcontainment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving methyl chloromethyl ether within the hood does not require theinsertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands andarms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employorwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving methyl chloromethylether in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratorytype hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection againstthe entry of methyl chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulatedareas, or the external environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to methyl chloromethyl ether.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing methyl chloromethyl ether." Aregulated area shall be established by an employer where methyl chloromethylether is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled orstored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordance with therequirements for the following category or categories describing theoperation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with methyl chloromethyl etherwithin an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands andarms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in otheractivities not associated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where methylchloromethyl ether is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closedsystem, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closedwhile methyl chloromethyl ether is contained within. Access shall berestricted to authorized employees only.(3) "Open-vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where methyl chloromethyl ether iscontained in an otherwise "closed system." but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thissubparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long- sleeved shirt andpants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in methyl chloromethyl ether handling operationsshall be provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied airrespirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordancewith 1926.103.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or anyoperations involving work in an area where direct contact with methylchloromethyl ether could result, each authorized employee entering that areashall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,induding gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall beimplemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with methyl chloromethyl ethersuch employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment, clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(iv) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove methyl chloromethyl ether from the surfaces of materials, equipmentand the decontamination facility.(e) "Signs, information and training." (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances toregulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQURIED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of methylchloromethyl ether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible onlyto, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trainedin accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section may have, contentsidentification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of methyl chloromethyl ether and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by, employees ether than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have methyl chloromethyl ether contents with corrosiveor irritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8point type in any instance: "Provided", That no such required lettering needbe more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of methyl chloromethyl etherincluding local and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving methyl chloromethyl etherwhich could result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of methylchloromethyl ether;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofmethyl chloromethyl ether in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which methyl chloromethyl ether is present in eachregulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged,released, stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of methylchloromethyl ether into any area where employees may be potentially exposedshall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable atthat time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employeesshall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances be taken, with specific completiondates, of the incident, and measures taken or to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.1926.1107 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (and its salts).(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), Chemical Abstracts Service RegistryNumber 91941 is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, orstored, but shall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers except forthe labeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of thissection.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1 percent by weight or volume of 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine(or its salts). The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have anentry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwiserequired in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (orits salts) where containment prevents the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine(or its salts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine orits safe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or itssalts) from the work environment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) which mayresult in exposure to or contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment, of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts), which isimpervious to the passage of 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and whichwould prevent the entry of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, shouldleakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving 3,3'- Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) within the hood does notrequire the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than hishands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) in an open vessel, which is not in anisolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affordingequivalent protection against the entry of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or itssalts) into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to 3,3,-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts).(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or itssalts)." A regulated area shall be established by an employer where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is manufactured, processed, used,repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlledin accordance with the requirements for the following category or categoriesdescribing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (orits salts) within an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash theirhands and arms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging inother activities not associated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is stored in sealed containers, orcontained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample portsor openings closed while 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is containedwithin:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or itssalts) is contained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred,charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers, the provisionsof this subparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) handlingoperations shall be provided with and required to wear and use a half- face,filter-type respirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with1926.103. A respirator affording higher levels of protection may be -substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall-be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountain's are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or anyoperations involving work in an area where direct contact with3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) could result, each authorized employeeentering that area shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall beimplemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report. in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (orits salts), such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible,unless contraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) from the surfaces of materials,equipment and the decontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training." (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and containers required under paragraphs(c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which areaccessible only to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by otheremployees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, mayhave contents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, orother proprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) and containersrequired under paragraphs (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) contentswith corrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warningof such hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affectedportions of the body.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8point type in any instance: "Provided", That no such required lettering needbe more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or itssalts), including local and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) which could result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purpose;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific Information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts);(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary, and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) is present ineach regulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, usedrepackaged, released, stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (or its salts) into any area where employees may bepotentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable atthat time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employeesshall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination, and (C) A report of any medicaltreatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance programimplemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas. and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids ofcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shallalso be provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0083)1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichbis-chloromethyl ether, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 542881 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 0.1 percent by weight or volume of bis-chloromethyl ether.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of training 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 umparticles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of bis-chloromethyl ether.The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving bis-chloromethyl etherwhere containment prevents the release of bis-chloromethyl ether intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of bis-chloromethyl ether orits safe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of bis-chloromethyl ether form thework environment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of bis-chloromethyl ether which may result inexposure to or contact with bis-chloromethyl ether.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment, of bis-chloromethyl ether and which is impervious tothe passage of, bis-chloromethyl ether and which would prevent the entry ofbis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or theexternal environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel ofcontainment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving bis-chloromethyl ether within the hood does not require theinsertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands andarms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving bis-chloromethylether in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratorytype hood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection againstthe entry of bis-chloromethyl ether into regulated areas, nonregulated areas,or the external environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to bis-chloromethyl ether.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing bis-chloromethyl ether." A regulatedarea shall be established by an employer where bis-chloromethyl ether ismanufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. Allsuch areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for thefollowing category or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with bis-chloromethyl ether withinan isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and armsupon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activitiesnot associated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where bis-chloromethylether is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system,including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed whilebis-chloromethyl ether is contained within. Access shall be restricted toauthorized employees only.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where bis-chloromethyl ether iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thisparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in bis-chloromethyl ether handling operations shallbe provided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied airrespirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordancewith 1926.103.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area. (5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or anyoperations involving work in an area where direct contact withbis-chloromethyl ether could result, each authorized employee entering thatarea shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergencyhas been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated adthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with bis-chloromethyl ether suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts, are prohibited in regulated areas.(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.52(f)(4).(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed form aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove bis-chloromethyl ether form the surfaces of materials, equipment andthe decontamination facility.(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances toregulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER - SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER - SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identifications." (i) Containers of bis-chloromethylether and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B),and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handledonly by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordancewith paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identificationlimited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of bis-chloromethyl ether and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have bis-chloromethyl ether contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required bysubparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be a minimum letter height of 2inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall notbe less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and notless than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided", That no such requiredlettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of bis-chloromethyl ether,including local and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving bis-chloromethyl etherwhich could result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release ofbis-chloromethyl ether;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and implant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofbis-chloromethyl ether in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which bis-chloromethyl ether is present in each regulatedarea; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of bis-chloromethylether into any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall bereported in accordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of theoccurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time including areport on any medical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0087)1926.1109 beta-Naphthylamine.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichbeta-Naphthylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 91598 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to transshipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 0.1 percent by weight or volume of beta-Naphthylamine.(3) This section will not apply to operations involving the destructivedistillation of carbonaceous materials, such as occurs in coke ovens.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of beta-Naphthylamine. Theclean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine wherecontainment prevents the release of beta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas,nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of beta-Naphthylamine or itssafe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of beta-Naphthylamine from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of beta-Naphthylamine which may result in exposureto or contact with beta-Naphthylamine.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of beta-Naphthylamine, which is impervious to thepassage of beta-Naphthylamine, and which would prevent the entry ofbeta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving beta-Naphthylamine within the hood does not require the insertionof any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving beta-Naphthylamine inan open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood,nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry ofbeta-Naphthylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to beta-Naphthylamine.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing beta-Naphthylamine." A regulated areashall be established by an employer where beta-Naphthylamine is manufactured,processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areasshall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the followingcategory or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with beta-Naphthylamine within anisolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms uponcompletion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities notassociated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas wherebeta-Naphthylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closedsystem, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closedwhile beta-Naphthylamine is contained within: (i) Access shall be restrictedto authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where beta-Naphthylamine iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thisparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.(ii)Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation sothat air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation.Exhaust air shall not be, discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areasor the external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall beintroduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of thelocal exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in beta-Naphthylamine handling operations shall beprovided with, and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit, from the, regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with beta-Naphthylamine could result, each authorized employeeentering that area shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented. (i)The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency hasbeen determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with beta-Naphthylamine, suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done, so in a manner that does not causecontamination in nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove beta-Naphthylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOODS REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers ofbeta-Naphthylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible onlyto, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trainedin accordance, with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contentsidentification limited to generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of beta-Naphthylamine and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have beta-Naphthylamine contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm). Labels oncontainers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size ofthe largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in anyinstance: "Provided", That no such required lettering need be more than 1inch (2.54 cm,) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information, or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of beta-Naphthylamine, includinglocal and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving beta-Naphthylamine whichcould result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination, practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release ofbeta-Naphthylamine;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation, required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s), regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofbeta-Naphthylamine in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which beta-Naphthylamine is present in each regulatedarea; e.g. whether it manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of beta-Naphthylamineinto any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported inaccordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of theincident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on anymedical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to thenearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwith in 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation, of the procedure used in determining thefigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination;(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less, often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof shallbe forwarded by registered mail to, the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated, representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination, required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0089)1926.1110 Benzidine.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichBenzidine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92875 is manufactured,processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shall not apply totransshipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling requirementsunder paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 0.1 percent by weight or volume in Benzidine.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono dispense aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of Benzidine. The cleanchange room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a shower room, whenthe shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving Benzidine where containmentprevents the release of Benzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas,or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of Benzidine or its safedisposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of Benzidine from the work environment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of Benzidine which may result in exposure to orcontact with Benzidine.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of Benzidine, which is impervious to the passage ofBenzidine, and which would prevent the entry of Benzidine into regulatedareas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, should leakage orspillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving Benzidine within the hood does not require the insertion of anyportion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open vessel system" means an operation involving Benzidine in an openvessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor inany other system affording equivalent protection against the entry ofBenzidine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to Benzidine.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing Benzidine." A regulated area shall beestablished by an employer where Benzidine is manufactured, processed, used,repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlledin accordance with the requirements for the following category or categoriesdescribing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with Benzidine within an isolatedsystem, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms upon completionof the assigned task and before engaging in other activities not associatedwith the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where Benzidine isstored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, includingpiping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while Benzidine iscontained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where Benzidine is contained in anotherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged intoother normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shallapply. (i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in Benzidine handling operations shall be providedwith and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-type respirator fordusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. A respirator affordinghigher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be requiredto remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exitand at the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with Benzidine could result, each authorized employee enteringthat area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, imperviousgarments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood inaccordance with 1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergencyhas been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with Benzidine such employeeshall be required to shower as soon as possible unless contraindicated byphysical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove Benzidine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping an dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training"- (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of Benzidine andcontainers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and(c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handledonly by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordancewith paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identificationlimited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of Benzidine and containers required under paragraphs(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which areaccessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees oremployees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shallhave contents identification which includes the full chemical name andChemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) ofthis section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have Benzidine contents with corrosive or irritatingproperties shall have label statements warning of such hazards, noting, ifappropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of the body.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering needbe more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of Benzidine, including local andsystemic toxicity;(B)The specific nature of the operation involving Benzidine which couldresult in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of Benzidine;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports"- (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant locationof the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area:(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofBenzidine in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which Benzidine is present in each regulated area;e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of Benzidine into anyarea where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported inaccordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of theincident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on anymedical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to thenearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0082)1926.1111 4-Aminodiphenyl.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which4-Aminodiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 92671 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 0.1 percent by weight or volume of 4-Aminodiphenyl.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of 4-Aminodiphenyl. Theclean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl wherecontainment prevents the release of 4-Arninodiphenyl into regulated areas,nonregulated area, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Aminodiphenyl or its safedisposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Aminodiphenyl from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of 4-Aminodiphenyl which may result in exposure toor contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of 4-Aminodiphenyl, which is impervious to the passageof 4-Aminodiphenyl, and which would prevent the entry of 4-Aminodiphenyl intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, shouldleakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving 4-Aminodiphenyl within the hood does not require the insertion ofany portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl in anopen vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, norin any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry of4-Aminodiphenyl into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to 4-Aminodiphenyl.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Aminodiphenyl." A regulated areashall be established by an employer where 4-Aminodiphenyl is manufactured,processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areasshall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the followingcategory or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Aminodiphenyl within anisolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms uponcompletion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities notassociated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where 4-Aminodiphenylis stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, includingpiping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while4-Aminodiphenyl is contained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations. "Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Aminodiphenyl is containedin an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or dischargedinto other normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraphshall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Aminodiphenyl handling operations shall beprovided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl could result, each authorized employeeentering that area shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as, soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Aminodiphenyl suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove 4-Aminodiphenyl from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training" - (1) Signs. (i) Entrances to regulated areas shallbe posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of 4-Aminodiphenyland containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and(c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handledonly by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordancewith paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contents identificationlimited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of 4-Aminodiphenyl and containers required under paragraphs(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which areaccessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorized employees oremployees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shallhave contents identification which includes the full chemical name andChemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) ofthis section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have 4-Aminodiphenyl contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required bysubparagraph (1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm).Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 pointtype in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering need bemore than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive including, but notnecessarily limited to: A training and indoctrination program (A) The natureof the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Aminodiphenyl, including local and systemictoxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Aminodiphenyl whichcould result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of4-Aminodiphenyl;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in thisapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant locationof the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of4-Aminodiphenyl in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which 4-Aminodiphenyl is present in each regulated area;e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of 4-Aminodiphenylinto any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported inaccordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of theincident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on anymedical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to thenearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management an Budget under control number(1218-0090)1926.1112 Ethyleneimine.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichEthyleneimine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 151564 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under (e)(2), paragraphs (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1.0 percent by weight or volume of Ethyleneimine.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of Ethyleneimine. Theclean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving Ethyleneimine wherecontainment prevents the release of Ethyleneimine into regulated areas,nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of Ethyleneimine or its safedisposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of Ethyleneimine from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of Ethyleneimine which may result in exposure to orcontact with Ethyleneimine.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of Ethyleneimine, which is impervious to the passage ofEthyleneimine, and which would prevent the entry of Ethyleneimine intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment, shouldleakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving Ethyleneimine within the hood does not require the insertion of anyportion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving Ethyleneimine in anopen vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, norin any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry ofEthyleneimine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to Ethyleneimine.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing Ethyleneimine." A regulated areashall be established by an employer where Ethyleneimine is manufactured,processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areasshall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the followingcategory or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with Ethyleneimine within anisolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms uponcompletion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities notassociated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where Ethyleneimine isstored in sealed containers, or contained in a closed system, includingpiping systems, with any sample ports or openings closed while Ethyleneimineis contained within: Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where Ethyleneimine is contained inan otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, or discharged intoother normally closed containers, the provisions of this subparagraph shallapply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation sothat air movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation.Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, nonregulated areas orthe external environment unless decontaminated. Clean makeup air shall beintroduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correct operation of thelocal exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long- sleeved shirt andpants), and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in Ethyleneimine handling operations shall beprovided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied airrespirator, of the continuous flow or pressure- demand type, in accordancewith 1926.103.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with Ethyleneimine could result, each authorized employeeentering that area shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood;(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall beimplemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with Ethyleneimine, such employeeshall be required to shower as soon as possible, unless contraindicated byphysical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(vi) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with runningpotable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same levelwith locations where a direct exposure of Ethyleneimine would be most likelyas a result of equipment failure, or improper work practice.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking. storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1928.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed fromregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove Ethyleneimine from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(e) "Signs, information and training"- (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances toregulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of Ethyleneimine andcontainers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and(c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible only to, and handledonly by, authorized employees, or by other employees trained in accordancewith paragraph (e)(5) of this section may have contents identificationlimited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of Ethyleneimine and containers required under paragraphs(c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which areaccessible to, or handled by employees other than authorized employees oremployees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section shallhave contents identification which includes the full chemical name andChemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph (a)(1) ofthis section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have Ethyleneimine contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering needbe more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of Ethyleneimine, including localand systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving, Ethyleneimine whichcould result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release ofEthyleneimine;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports"- (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change. (i) A brief description and in-plant locationof the area(s) regulated and the address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of,Ethyleneimine in each,regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which Ethyleneimine is present in each regulated area;e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of Ethyleneimine intoany area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported inaccordance with this paragraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of theincident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on anymedical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to thenearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0080)1926.1113 beta-Propiolactone.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichbeta-Propiolactone, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 57578 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1.0 percent by weight or volume of beta-Propiolactone.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of beta-Propiolactone. Theclean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving beta-Propiolactone wherecontainment prevents the release of beta-Propiolactone into regulated areas,nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of beta-Propiolactone or itssafe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of beta-Propiolactone from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of beta-Propiolactone which may result in exposureto or contact with beta-Propiolactone.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of beta-Propiolactone, which is impervious to thepassage of beta-Propiolactone, and which would prevent the entry ofbeta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving beta-Propiolactone within the hood does not require the insertionof any portion of any employee's body other than his hands and arms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving beta-Propiolactone inan open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood,nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against the entry ofbeta-Propiolactone into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the externalenvironment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to beta-Propiolactone.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing beta-Propiolactone." A regulated areashall be established by an employer where beta-Propiolactone is manufactured,processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areasshall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for the followingcategory or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with beta-Propiolactone within anisolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and arms uponcompletion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activities notassociated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas wherebeta-Propiolactone is stored in sealed containers, or contained in a closedsystem, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openings closedwhile beta-Propiolactone is contained within. Access shall be restricted toauthorized employees only.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where beta-Propiolactone iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thissubparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in beta-Propiolactone handling operations shall beprovided with and required to wear and use a full-face, supplied airrespirator, of the continuous flow or pressure-demand type, in accordancewith 1926.103.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with beta-Propiolactone could result, each authorized employeeentering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wear clean,impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hoodin accordance with 1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergencyhas been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with beta-Propiolactone, suchemployee shall be required to shower soon as possible, unless contraindicatedby physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(vi) Emergency deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with runningpotable water shall be located near, within sight of, and on the same levelwith locations where a direct exposure to beta-Propiolactone would be mostlikely as a result of equipment failure, or improper work practice.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(iii) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(iv) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(v) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove beta-Propiolactone from the surfaces of materials, equipment and thedecontamination facility.(e) "Signs, information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances toregulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers ofbeta-Propiolactone and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible onlyto, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trainedin accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contentsidentification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or other proprietaryidentification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of beta-Propiolactone and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have beta-Propiolactone contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches. Labels on containersrequired under this section shall not be less than 1/2 the size of thelargest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point type in anyinstance: Provided, That no such required lettering need be more than 1 inchin height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of beta-Propiolactone, includinglocal and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving beta-Propiolactone whichcould result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release ofbeta-Propiolactone;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofbeta-Propiolactone in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which beta-Propiolactone is present in each regulatedarea; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of beta-Propiolactoneinto any area where employees may be potentially exposed shall be reported inaccordance with this subparagraph. (i) A report of the occurrence of theincident and the facts obtainable at that time including a report on anymedical treatment of affected employees shall be made within 24 hours to thenearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agent, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i). These records shall alsobe provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0079)1926.1114 2-Acetylaminofluorene.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which2-Acetylaminofluorene, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 53963 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1.0 percent by weight or volume of 2-Acetylaminofluorene.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter isone capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3 umparticles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of 2-Acetylaminofluorene.The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorene wherecontainment prevents the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulatedareas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 2-Acetylaminofluorene or itssafe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 2-Acetylaminofluorene from the workenvironment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of 2-Acetylaminofluorene which may result inexposure to or contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, which is impervious to thepassage of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, and which would prevent the entry of2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or theexternal environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel ofcontainment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving 2-Acetylaminofluorene within the hood does not require theinsertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands andarms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorenein an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system, a laboratory typehood, nor in any other system affording equivalent protection against theentry of 2-Acetylaminofluorene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, orthe external environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to 2-Acetylaminofluorene.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing 2-Acetylaminofluorene." A regulatedarea shall be established by an employer where 2-Acetylaminofluorene ismanufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. Allsuch areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for thefollowing category or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 2-Acetylaminofluorene withinan isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and armsupon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activitiesnot associated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where2-Acetylaminofluorene is stored in sealed containers, or contained in aclosed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openingsclosed while 2-Acetylaminofluorene is contained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 2-Acetylaminofluorene iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thissubparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in 2-Acetylaminofluorene handling operations shall beprovided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene could result, each authorizedemployee entering that area shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garments,including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall beimplemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 2-Acetylaminofluorene, suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove 2-Acetylaminofluorene from the surfaces of materials, equipment andthe decontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of2-Acetylaminofluorene and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessible onlyto, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employees trainedin accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may have contentsidentification, limited to a generic or proprietary name, or otherproprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of 2-Acetylaminofluorene and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by, employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have 2-Acetylaminofluorene contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required bysubparagraph (1) shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08 cm).Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than 1/2the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 pointtype in any instance; Provided, That no such required lettering need be morethan 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to: (A) Thenature of the carcinogenic hazards of 2-Acetylaminofluorene, including localand systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 2-Acetylaminofluorenewhich could result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of2-Acetylaminofluorene;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees, shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of2-Acetylaminofluorene in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which 2-Acetylaminofluorene is present in each regulatedarea; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of2-Acetylaminofluorene into any area where employees may be potentiallyexposed shall be reported in accordance with this subparagraph.(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable atthat time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employeesshall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shallalso be provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0088)1926.1115 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in which4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 60117is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, butshall not apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for thelabeling requirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1.0 percent by weight or volume of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene. The clean change room shall be contiguous to andhave an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities areotherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving 4-Dimeth-ylaminoazo-benzenewhere containment prevents the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene orits safe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene from thework environment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which may result inexposure to or contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene, which is impervious tothe passage of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene which would prevent the entry of4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or theexternal environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel ofcontainment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene within the hood does not require theinsertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands andarms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involving4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene in an open vessel, which is not in an isolatedsystem, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalentprotection against the entry of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into regulatedareas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene." Aregulated area shall be established by an employer where4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged,released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled in accordancewith the requirements for the following category or categories describing theoperation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzenewithin an isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands andarms upon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in otheractivities not associated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas where4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is stored in sealed containers, or contained in aclosed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openingsclosed while 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is contained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thissubparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers, and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene handling operationsshall be provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exist of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene could result, each authorizedemployee entering that area shall: (i) Be provided with and required to wearclear, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and continuous-airsupplied hood in accordance with 1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs(d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall be implemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergencyhas been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene,such employee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changeroom shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number of suchemployees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean makeup air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene from the surfaces of materials, equipmentand the decontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers of4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene and containers required under paragraph (c)(4)(v)and (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessibleonly to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employeestrained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may havecontents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or otherproprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT" displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification. (iv) Containers which have 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene contents withcorrosive or irritating properties shall have label statements warning ofsuch hazards, noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affectedportions of the body.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required bysubparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be a minimum letter height of 2inches (5.08 cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall notbe less than 1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and notless than 8 point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such requiredlettering need be more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene,including local and sytemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzenewhich could result in exposure;(C) The purpose for the application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose for and application of decontamination practices andpurposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release of4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices;(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence of4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene is present in eachregulated area; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged,released, stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release of4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene into any area where employees may be potentiallyexposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph.(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable atthat time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employeesshall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examination, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examination. Records shall be maintained for the duration of theemployee's employment. Upon termination of the employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shallalso be provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0044)1926.1116 N-Nitrosodimethylamine.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section applies to any area in whichN-Nitrosodimethylamine, Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number 62759 ismanufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored, but shallnot apply to trans-shipment in sealed containers, except for the labelingrequirements under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(2) This section shall not apply to solid or liquid mixtures containing lessthan 1.0 percent by weight or volume of N-Nitrosodimethylamine.(b) "Definitions." For the purposes of this section: (1) "Absolute filter"is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a mono disperse aerosol of 0.3um particles.(2) "Authorized employee" means an employee whose duties require him to bein the regulated area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.(3) "Clean change room" means a room where employees put on clean clothingand/or protective equipment in an environment free of N-Nitrosodimethylamine.The clean change room shall be contiguous to and have an entry from a showerroom, when the shower room facilities are otherwise required in this section.(4) "Closed system" means an operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylaminewhere containment prevents the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine intoregulated areas, nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(5) "Decontamination" means the inactivation of N-Nitrosodimethylamine orits safe disposal.(6) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, or any person directed by him or the Secretary of Healthand Human Services to act for the Director.(7) "Disposal" means the safe removal of N-Nitrosodimethylamine from thework environment.(8) "Emergency" means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstancesresulting in the release of N-Nitrosodimethylamine which may result inexposure to or contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine.(9) "External environment" means any environment external to regulated andnonregulated areas.(10) "Isolated system" means a fully enclosed structure other than thevessel of containment of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, which is impervious to thepassage of N-Nitrosodimethylamine, and which would prevent the entry ofN-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas, nonregulated areas, or theexternal environment, should leakage or spillage from the vessel ofcontainment occur.(11) "Laboratory type hood" is a device enclosed on three sides and the topand bottom, designed and maintained so as to draw air inward at an averagelinear face velocity of 150 feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet perminute; designed, constructed, and maintained in such a way that an operationinvolving N-Nitrosodimethylamine within the hood does not require theinsertion of any portion of any employee's body other than his hands andarms.(12) "Nonregulated area" means any area under the control of the employerwhere entry and exit is neither restricted nor controlled.(13) "Open-vessel system" means an operation involvingN-Nitrosodimethylamine in an open vessel, which is not in an isolated system,a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording equivalentprotection against the entry of N-Nitrosodimethylamine into regulated areas,nonregulated areas, or the external environment.(14) "Protective clothing" means clothing designed to protect an employeeagainst contact with or exposure to N-Nitrosodimethylamine.(15) "Regulated area" means an area where entry and exit is restricted andcontrolled.(c) "Requirements for areas containing N-Nitrosodimethylamine." A regulatedarea shall be established by an employer where N-Nitrosodimethylamine ismanufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. Allsuch areas shall be controlled in accordance with the requirements for thefollowing category or categories describing the operation involved:(1) "Isolated systems." Employees working with N-Nitrosodimethylamine withinan isolated system, such as a "glove box" shall wash their hands and armsupon completion of the assigned task and before engaging in other activitiesnot associated with the isolated system.(2) "Closed system operation." Within regulated areas whereN-Nitrosodimethylamine is stored in sealed containers, or contained in aclosed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports or openingsclosed while N-Nitrosodimethylamine is contained within:(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck uponeach exit from the regulated areas, close to the point of exit and beforeengaging in other activities.(3) "Open vessel system operations." Open vessel system operations asdefined in paragraph (b)(13) of this section are prohibited.(4) "Transfer from a closed system, charging or discharging pointoperations, or otherwise opening a closed system." In operations involving"laboratory type hoods," or in locations where N-Nitrosodimethylamine iscontained in an otherwise "closed system," but is transferred, charged, ordischarged into other normally closed containers, the provisions of thissubparagraph shall apply.(i) Access shall be restricted to authorized employees only;(ii) Each operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaustventilation so that air movement is always from ordinary work areas to theoperation. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas,nonregulated areas or the external environment unless decontaminated. Cleanmakeup air shall be introduced in sufficient volume to maintain the correctoperation of the local exhaust system.(iii) Employees shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, fullbody protective clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt andpants), shoe covers, and gloves prior to entering the regulated area.(iv) Employees engaged in N-Nitrosodimethylamine handling operations shallbe provided with and required to wear and use a half-face, filter-typerespirator for dusts, mists, and fumes, in accordance with 1926.103. Arespirator affording higher levels of protection may be substituted.(v) Prior to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required toremove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit andat the last exit of the day, to place used clothing and equipment inimpervious containers at the point of exit for purposes of decontamination ordisposal. The contents of such impervious containers shall be identified, asrequired under paragraphs (e)(2), (3), and (4) of this section.(vi) Employees shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck oneach exit from the regulated area, close to the point of exit, and beforeengaging in other activities.(vii) Employees shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.(viii) Drinking fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.(5)"Maintenance and decontamination activities." In cleanup of leaks or spills,maintenance or repair operations on contaminated systems or equipment, wheredirect contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine could result, each authorizedemployee entering that area shall:(i) Be provided with and required to wear clean, impervious garment,including gloves, boots and continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with1926.103.(ii) Be decontaminated before removing the protective garments and hood;(iii) Be required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.(d) "General regulated area requirements."(1) [Reserved] (2) "Emergencies." In an emergency, immediatemeasures including, but not limited to, the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this section shall beimplemented.(i) The potentially affected area shall be evacuated as soon as theemergency has been determined.(ii) Hazardous conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated andthe potentially affected area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumptionof normal operations.(iii) Special medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within24 hours for employees present in the potentially affected area at the timeof the emergency. A report of the medical surveillance and any treatmentshall be included in the incident report, in accordance with paragraph (f)(2)of this section.(iv) Where an employee has a known contact with N-Nitrosodimethylamine, suchemployee shall be required to shower as soon as possible, unlesscontraindicated by physical injuries.(v) An incident report on the emergency shall be reported as provided inparagraph (f)(2) of this section.(3) "Hygiene facilities and practices." (i) Storage or consumption of food,storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application ofcosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or otherproducts for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited inregulated areas.(ii) Where employees are required by this section to wash, washingfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(iii) Where employees are required by this section to shower, showerfacilities shall be provided in accordance with 1926.51(f)(4).(iv) Where employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean changerooms shall be provided, in accordance with 1926.51(i), for the number ofsuch employees required to change clothes.(v) Where toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in aseparate room.(4) "Contamination control." (i) Regulated areas, except for outdoorsystems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with respect tononregulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy thisrequirement. Clean make-up air in equal volume shall replace air removed.(ii) Any equipment, material, or other item taken into or removed from aregulated area shall be done so in a manner that does not cause contaminationin nonregulated areas or the external environment.(iii) Decontamination procedures shall be established and implemented toremove N-Nitrosodimethylamine from the surfaces of materials, equipment andthe decontamination facility.(iv) Dry sweeping and dry mopping are prohibited.(e) "Signs,information and training" - (1) "Signs." (i) Entrances to regulated areasshall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(ii) Entrances to regulated areas containing operations covered in paragraph(c)(5) of this section shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT EXPOSED IN THIS AREAIMPERVIOUS SUIT INCLUDING GLOVES, BOOTS, AND AIR-SUPPLIED HOOD REQUIRED ATALL TIMESAUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(iii) Appropriate signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to,and exit from, regulated areas, informing employees of the procedures thatmust be followed in entering and leaving a regulated area.(2) "Container contents identification." (i) Containers ofN-Nitrosodimethylamine and containers required under paragraphs (c)(4)(v) and(c)(6)(vii) (B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this section which are accessibleonly to, and handled only by, authorized employees, or by other employeestrained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of this section, may havecontents identification limited to a generic or proprietary name, or otherproprietary identification, of the carcinogen and percent.(ii) Containers of N-Nitrosodimethylamine and containers required underparagraphs (c)(4)(v), (c)(6)(vii)(B), and (c)(6)(viii)(B) of this sectionwhich are accessible to, or handled by employees other than authorizedemployees or employees trained in accordance with paragraph (e)(5) of thissection shall have contents identification which includes the full chemicalname and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number as listed in paragraph(a)(1) of this section.(iii) Containers shall have the warning words "CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT"displayed immediately under or adjacent to the contents identification.(iv) Containers which have N-Nitrosodimethylamine contents with corrosive orirritating properties shall have label statements warning of such hazards,noting, if appropriate, particularly sensitive or affected portions of thebody.(3) "Lettering." Lettering on signs and instructions required by paragraph(e)(1) of this section shall be a minimum letter height of 2 inches (5.08cm). Labels on containers required under this section shall not be less than1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8point type in any instance: "Provided," That no such required lettering needbe more than 1 inch (2.54 cm) in height.(4) "Prohibited statements." No statement shall appear on or near anyrequired sign, label, or instruction which contradicts or detracts from theeffect of any required warning, information or instruction.(5) "Training and indoctrination." (i) Each employee prior to beingauthorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training andindoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:(A) The nature of the carcinogenic hazards of N-Nitrosodimethylamine,including local and systemic toxicity;(B) The specific nature of the operation involving N-Nitrosodimethylaminewhich could result in exposure;(C) The purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program,including, as appropriate, methods of self-examination;(D) The purpose of and application of decontamination practices and purposes;(E) The purpose for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;(F) The employee's specific role in emergency procedures;(G) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluationof conditions and situations which may result in the release ofN-Nitrosodimethylamine;(H) The purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures andpractices.(I) A review of this section at the employee's first training andindoctrination program and annually thereafter.(ii) Specific emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, andemployees shall be familiarized with their terms, and rehearsed in theirapplication.(iii) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon requestto authorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(f) "Reports" - (1) "Operations." Not later than March 1, 1974, theinformation required in paragraphs (f)(1)(i), (ii), (iii), and (iv) of thissection shall be reported in writing to the nearest OSHA Area Director. Anychanges in such information shall be similarly reported in writing within 15calendar days of such change.(i) A brief description and in-plant location of the area(s) regulated andthe address of each regulated area;(ii) The name(s) and other identifying information as to the presence ofN-Nitrosodimethylamine in each regulated area;(iii) The number of employees in each regulated area, during normaloperations including maintenance activities; and(iv) The manner in which N-Nitrosodimethylamine is present in each regulatedarea; e.g. whether it is manufactured, processed, used, repackaged, released,stored, or otherwise handled.(2) "Incidents." Incidents which result in the release ofN-Nitrosodimethylamine into any area where employees may be potentiallyexposed shall be reported in accordance with this paragraph.(i) A report of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable atthat time including a report on any medical treatment of affected employeesshall be made within 24 hours to the nearest OSHA Area Director.(ii) A written report shall be filed with the nearest OSHA Area Directorwithin 15 calendar days thereafter and shall include:(A) A specification of the amount of material released, the amount of timeinvolved, and an explanation of the procedure used in determining thisfigure;(B) A description of the area involved, and the extent of known and possibleemployee exposure and area contamination; and(C) A report of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medicalsurveillance program implemented; and(D) An analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken orto be taken, with specific completion dates, to avoid further similarreleases.(g) "Medical surveillance." At no cost to the employee, a program of medicalsurveillance shall be established and implemented for employees consideredfor assignment to enter regulated areas, and for authorized employees.(1) "Examinations." (i) Before an employee is assigned to enter a regulatedarea, a preassignment physical examination by a physician shall be provided.The examination shall include the personal history of the employee, familyand occupational background, including genetic and environmental factors.(ii) Authorized employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations,not less often than annually, following the preassignment examination.(iii) In all physical examinations, the examining physician shall considerwhether there exist conditions of increased risk, including reducedimmunological competence, those undergoing treatment with steroids orcytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette smoking.(2) "Records." (i) Employers of employees examined pursuant to thisparagraph shall cause to be maintained complete and accurate records of allsuch medical examinations. Records shall be maintained for the duration ofthe employee's employment. Upon termination of an employee's employment,including retirement or death, or in the event that the employer ceasesbusiness without a successor, records, or notarized true copies thereof,shall be forwarded by registered mail to the Director.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33 (a) - (e) and (g) - (i). These records shallalso be provided upon request to the Director.(iii) Any physician who conducts a medical examination required by thisparagraph shall furnish to the employer a statement of the employee'ssuitability for employment in the specific exposure.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0081)1926.1117 Vinyl chloride.(a) "Scope and application." (1) This section includes requirements for thecontrol of employee exposure to vinyl chloride (chloroethene), ChemicalAbstracts Service Registry No. 75014.(2) This section applies to the manufacture, reaction, packaging,repackaging, storage, handling or use of vinyl chloride or polyvinylchloride, but does not apply to the handling or use of fabricated productsmade of polyvinyl chloride.(3) This section applies to the transportation of vinyl chloride orpolyvinyl chloride except to the extent that the Department of Transportationmay regulate the hazards covered by this section.(b) "Definitions." (1) Action level means a concentration of vinyl chlorideof 0.5 ppm averaged over an 8-hour work day.(2) "Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor forOccupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or his designee.(3) "Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by theemployer whose duties require him to enter a regulated area or any personentering such an area as a designated representative of employees for thepurpose of exercising an opportunity to observe monitoring and measuringprocedures.(4) "Director" means the Director, National Institute for OccupationalSafety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or hisdesignee.(5) "Emergency" means any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipmentfailure, or operation of a relief device which is likely to, or does, resultin massive release of vinyl chloride.(6) "Fabricated product" means a product made wholly or partly frompolyvinyl chloride, and which does not require further processing attemperatures, and for times, sufficient to cause mass melting of thepolyvinyl chloride resulting in the release of vinyl chloride.(7) "Hazardous operation" means any operation, procedure, or activity wherea release of either vinyl chloride liquid or gas might be expected as aconsequence of the operation or because of an accident in the operation,which would result in an employee exposure in excess of the permissibleexposure limit.(8) "OSHA Area Director" means the Director for the Occupational Safety andHealth Administration Area Office having jurisdiction over the geographicarea in which the employer's establishment is located.(9) "Polyvinyl chloride" means polyvinyl chloride homopolymer or copolymerbefore such is converted to a fabricated product.(10) "Vinyl chloride" means vinyl chloride monomer. (c) "Permissibleexposure limit." (1) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride atconcentrations greater than 1 ppm averaged over any 8-hour period, and (2) Noemployee may be exposed to vinyl chloride at concentrations greater than 5ppm averaged over any period not exceeding 15 minutes.(3) No employee may be exposed to vinyl chloride by direct contact withliquid vinyl chloride.(d) "Monitoring." (1) A program of initial monitoring and measurement shallbe undertaken in each establishment to determine if there is any employeeexposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the actionlevel.(2) Where a determination conducted under paragraph (d)(1) of this sectionshows any employee exposures, without regard to the use of respirators, inexcess of the action level, a program for determining exposures for each suchemployee shall be established. Such a program:(i) Shall be repeated at least monthly where any employee is exposed,without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the permissibleexposure limit.(ii) Shall be repeated not less than quarterly where any employee isexposed, without regard to the use of respirators, in excess of the actionlevel.(iii) May be discontinued for any employee only when at least twoconsecutive monitoring determinations, made not less than 5 working daysapart, show exposures for that employee at or below the action level.(3) Whenever there has been a production, process or control change whichmay result in an increase in the release of vinyl chloride, or the employerhas any other reason to suspect that any employee may be exposed in excess ofthe action level, a determination of employee exposure under paragraph (d)(1)of this section shall be performed.(4) The method of monitoring and measurement shall have an accuracy (with aconfidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 50 percentfrom 0.25 through 0.5 ppm, plus or minus 35 percent from over 0.5 ppm through1.0 ppm, and plus or minus 25 percent over 1.0 ppm. (Methods meeting theseaccuracy requirements are available in the "NIOSH Manual of AnalyticalMethods").(5) Employees or their designated representatives shall be affordedreasonable opportunity to observe the monitoring and measuring required bythis paragraph.(e) "Regulated area." (1) A regulated area shall be established where:(i) Vinyl chloride or polyvinyl chloride is manufactured, reacted,repackaged, stored, handled or used; and(ii) Vinyl chloride concentrations are in excess of the permissible exposurelimit.(2) Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorizedpersons. (f) "Methods of compliance." Employee exposures to vinyl chlorideshall be controlled to at or below the permissible exposure limit provided inparagraph (c) of this section by engineering, work practice, and personalprotective controls as follows:(1) Feasible engineering and work practice controls shall immediately beused to reduce exposures to at or below the permissible exposure limit.(2) Wherever feasible engineering and work practice controls which can beinstituted immediately are not sufficient to reduce exposures to at or belowthe permissible exposure limit, they shall nonetheless be used to reduceexposures to the lowest practicable level, and shall be supplemented byrespiratory protection in accordance with paragraph (g) of this section. Aprogram shall be established and implemented to reduce exposures to at orbelow the permissible exposure limit, or to the greatest extent feasible,solely by means of engineering and work practice controls, as soon asfeasible.(3) Written plans for such a program shall be developed and furnished uponrequest for examination and copying to authorized representatives of theAssistant Secretary and the Director. Such plans shall be updated at leastevery six months.(g) "Respiratory protection." Where respiratory protection is required underthis section:(1) The employer shall provide a respirator which meets the requirements ofthis paragraph and shall assure that the employee uses such respirator,except that until April 1, 1976, wearing of respirators shall be at thediscretion of each employee for exposures not in excess of 25 ppm, measuredover any 15-minute period. Until April 1, 1976, each employee who chooses notto wear an appropriate respirator shall be informed at least quarterly of thehazards of vinyl chloride and the purpose, proper use, and limitations ofrespiratory devices.(2) Respirators shall be selected from among those jointly approved by theMining Enforcement and Safety Administration, Department of the Interior, andthe National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under theprovisions of 30 CFR part 11.(3) A respiratory protection program meeting the requirements of 1926.103shall be established and maintained.(4) Selection of respirators for vinyl chloride shall be as follows:
Atmospheric concentration of vinyl chlorideRequired apparatus
(i) Unknown, or above 3,600 p/mOpen-circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, pressure demand type, with full facepiece
(ii) Not over 3,600 p/m(A) Combination type C supplied air respirator, pressure demand type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or
(iii) Not over 1,000 p/m(B) Combination type, supplied air respirator continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply Type C, supplied air respirator, continuous flow type, with full or half facepiece, helmet or hood
(iv) Not over 100 p/m(A) Combination type C supplied air respirator demand type, with full facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

(B) Open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus with full facepiece, in demand mode; or

(C) Type C supplied air respirator, demand type, with full facepiece

(v) Not over 25 p/m(A) A powered air-purifying respirator with hood, helmet, full or half facepiece, and a canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 p/m, or

(B) Gas mask, front-or back-mounted canister which provides a service life of at least 4 hours for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 25 p/m

(vi) Not over 10 p/m(A) Combination type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece, and auxiliary self-contained air supply; or

(B) Type C supplied-air respirator, demand type, with half facepiece; or

(C) Any chemical cartridge respirator with an organic vapor cartridge which provides a service life of at least 1 hour for concentrations of vinyl chloride up to 10 p/m

(5)(i) Entry into unknown concentrations or concentrations greater than36,000 ppm (lower explosive limit) may be made only for purposes of liferescue; and(ii) Entry into concentrations of less than 36,000 ppm, but greater than3,600 ppm may be made only for purposes of life rescue, fire fighting, orsecuring equipment so as to prevent a greater hazard from release of vinylchloride.(6) Where air-purifying respirators are used:(i) Air-purifying canisters or cartridges shall be replaced prior to theexpiration of their service life or the end of the shift in which they arefirst used, whichever occurs first, and (ii) A continuous monitoring andalarm system shall be provided where concentrations of vinyl chloride couldreasonably exceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use. Suchsystem shall be used to alert employees when vinyl chloride concentrationsexceed the allowable concentrations for the devices in use.(7) Apparatus prescribed for higher concentrations may be used for any lowerconcentration.(h) "Hazardous operations." (1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations,including entry of vessels to clean polyvinyl chloride residue from vesselwalls, shall be provided and required to wear and use;{i} Respiratory protection in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (g) of thissection; and{ii} Protective garments to prevent skin contact with liquid vinyl chlorideor with polyvinyl chloride residue from vessel walls. The protective garmentsshall be selected for the operation and its possible exposure conditions.(2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for eachuse. (i) "Emergency situations." A written operational plan for emergencysituations shall be developed for each facility storing, handling, orotherwise using vinyl chloride as a liquid or compressed gas. Appropriateportions of the plan shall be implemented in the event of an emergency. Theplan shall specifically provide that:(1) Employees engaged in hazardous operations or correcting situations ofexisting hazardous releases shall be equipped as required in paragraph (h) ofthis section;(2) Other employees not so equipped shall evacuate the area and not returnuntil conditions are controlled by the methods required in paragraph (f) ofthis section and the emergency is abated.(j) "Training." Each employee engaged in vinyl chloride or polyvinylchloride operations shall be provided training in a program relating to thehazards of vinyl chloride and precautions for its safe use.(1) The program shall include:(i) The nature of the health hazard from chronic exposure to vinyl chlorideincluding specifically the carcinogenic hazard;(ii) The specific nature of operations which could result in exposure tovinyl chloride in excess of the permissible limit and necessary protectivesteps;(iii) The purpose for, proper use, and limitations of respiratory protectivedevices;(iv) The fire hazard and acute toxicity of vinyl chloride, and the necessaryprotective steps;(v) The purpose for and a description of the monitoring program;(vi) The purpose for, and a description of, the medical surveillance program;(vii) Emergency procedures;(viii) Specific information to aid the employee in recognition of conditionswhich may result in the release of vinyl chloride; and(ix) A review of this standard at the employee's first training andindoctrination program, and annually thereafter.(2) All materials relating to the program shall be provided upon request tothe Assistant Secretary and the Director.(k) "Medical surveillance." A program of medical surveillance shall beinstituted for each employee exposed, without regard to the use ofrespirators, to vinyl chloride in excess of the action level. The programshall provide each such employee with an opportunity for examinations andtests in accordance with this paragraph. All medical examinations andprocedures shall be performed by or under the supervision of a licensedphysician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee.(1) At the time of initial assignment, or upon institution of medicalsurveillance;(i) A general physical examination shall be performed, with specificattention to detecting enlargement of liver, spleen or kidneys, ordysfunction in these organs, and for abnormalities in skin, connectivetissues and the pulmonary system (See Appendix A).(ii) A medical history shall be taken, including the following topics:(A) Alcohol intake;(B) Past history of hepatitis;(C) Work history and past exposure to potential hepatotoxic agents,including drugs and chemicals;(D) Past history of blood transfusions; and(E) Past history of hospitalizations.(iii) A serum specimen shallbe obtained and determinations made of: (A) Total bilirubin; (B) Alkalinephosphatase; (C) Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT); (D) Serumglutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT); and (E) Gamma glustamyl transpeptidase.(2) Examinations provided in accordance with this paragraph shall beperformed at least:(i) Every 6 months for each employee who has been employed in vinyl chlorideor polyvinyl chloride manufacturing for 10 years or longer; and(ii) Annually for all other employees.(3) Each employee exposed toan emergency shall be afforded appropriate medical surveillance.(4) A statement of each employee's suitability for continued exposure tovinyl chloride including use of protective equipment and respirators, shallbe obtained from the examining physician promptly after any examination. Acopy of the physician's statement shall be provided each employee.(5) If any employee's health would be materially impaired by continuedexposure, such employee shall be withdrawn from possible contact with vinylchloride.(6) Laboratory analyses for all biological specimens included in medicalexaminations shall be performed in laboratories licensed under 42 CFR part74.(7) If the examining physician determines that alternative medicalexaminations to those required by paragraph (k)(1) of this section willprovide at least equal assurance of detecting medical conditions pertinent tothe exposure to vinyl chloride, the employer may accept such alternativeexaminations as meeting the requirements of paragraph (k)(1) of this section,if the employer obtains a statement from the examining physician settingforth the alternative examinations and the rationale for substitution. Thisstatement shall be available upon request for examination and copying toauthorized representatives of the Assistant Secretary and the Director.(l) "Signs and labels." (1) Entrances to regulated areas shall be postedwith legible signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT AREA AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY(2) Areas containing hazardous operations or where an emergency currentlyexists shall be posted with legible signs bearing the legend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT IN THIS AREA PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED AUTHORIZEDPERSONNEL ONLY(3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or otherwaste contaminated with vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:CONTAMINATED WITH VINYL CHLORIDECANCER-SUSPECT AGENT(4) Containers of polyvinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled:POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (OR TRADE NAME)CONTAINSVINYL CHLORIDEVINYL CHLORIDE IS A CANCER-SUSPECT AGENT(5) Containers of vinyl chloride shall be legibly labeled either:(i)VINYL CHLORIDEEXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS UNDER PRESSURECANCER SUSPECT AGENTor (ii) In accordance with 49 CFR parts 170 through 189, with the additionallegend:CANCER-SUSPECT AGENTapplied near the label or placard.(6) No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label orinstruction which contradicts or detracts from the effect of, any requiredwarning, information or instruction.(m) "Records." (1) All records maintained in accordance with this sectionshall include the name and social security number of each employee whererelevant.(2) Records of required monitoring and measuring and medical records shallbe provided upon request to employees, designated representatives, and theAssistant Secretary in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a) through (e) and (g)through (i). These records shall be provided upon request to the Director.Authorized personnel rosters shall also be provided upon request to theAssistant Secretary and the Director.(i) Monitoring and measuring records shall:(A) State the date of such monitoring and measuring and the concentrationsdetermined and identify the instruments and methods used;(B) Include any additional information necessary to determine individualemployee exposures where such exposures are determined by means other thanindividual monitoring of employees; and(C) Be maintained for not less than 30 years.(ii) [Reserved] (iii)Medical records shall be maintained for the duration of the employment ofeach employee plus 20 years, or 30 years, whichever is longer.(3) In the event that the employer ceases to do business and there is nosuccessor to receive and retain his records for the prescribed period, theserecords shall be transmitted by registered mail to the Director, and eachemployee individually notified in writing of this transfer. The employershall also comply with any additional requirements set forth in 29 CFR1926.33(h).(n) "Reports." (1) Not later than 1 month after the establishment of aregulated area, the following information shall be reported to the OSHA AreaDirector. Any changes to such information shall be reported within 15 days.(i) The address and location of each establishment which has one or moreregulated areas; and(ii) The number of employees in each regulated area during normaloperations, including maintenance.(2) Emergencies, and the facts obtainable at that time, shall be reportedwithin 24 hours to the OSHA Area Director. Upon request of the Area Director,the employer shall submit additional information in writing relevant to thenature and extent of employee exposures and measures taken to prevent futureemergencies of similar nature.(3) Within 10 working days following any monitoring and measuring whichdiscloses that any employee has been exposed, without regard to the use ofrespirators, in excess of the permissible exposure limit, each such employeeshall be notified in writing of the results of the exposure measurement andthe steps being taken to reduce the exposure to within the permissibleexposure limit.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0010)Appendix A to 1926.1117 - Supplementary Medical InformationWhen required tests under paragraph (k)(1) of this section showabnormalities, the tests should be repeated as soon as practicable,preferably within 3 to 4 weeks. If tests remain abnormal, considerationshould be given to withdrawal of the employee from contact with vinylchloride, while a more comprehensive examination is made.Additional tests which may be useful:A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,and exfoliative abnormal cells.B. Pulmonary system: Forced vital capacity, Forced expiratory volume at 1second, and chest roentgenogram (posterior-anterior, 14 X 17 inches (35.56 X43.18 cm)).C. Additional serum tests: Lactic acid dehydrogenase, lactic aciddehydrogenase isoenzyme, protein determination, and protein electrophoresis.D. For a more comprehensive examination on repeated abnormal serum tests:Hepatitis B antigen, and liver scanning.1926.1118 Inorganic arsenic.(a) "Scope and application." This section applies to all occupationalexposures to inorganic arsenic except that this section does not apply toemployee exposures in agriculture or resulting from pesticide application,the treatment of wood with preservatives or the utilization of arsenicallypreserved wood.(b) "Definitions." "Action level" means a concentration of inorganic arsenicof 5 micrograms per cubic meter of air (5 um/m(3)) averaged over any eight(8) hour period."Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary of Labor forOccupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Labor, or designee."Authorized person" means any person specifically authorized by the employerwhose duties require the person to enter a regulated area, or any personentering such an area as a designated representative of employees for thepurpose of exercising the right to observe monitoring and measuringprocedures under paragraph (e) of this section."Director" means the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safetyand Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or designee."Inorganic arsenic" means copper aceto- arsenite and all inorganic compoundscontaining arsenic except arsine, measured as arsenic (As).(c) "Permissible exposure limit." The employer shall assure that no employeeis exposed to inorganic arsenic at concentrations greater than 10 microgramsper cubic meter of air (10 ug/m(3)), averaged over any 8-hour period.(d) "Notification of use." (1) By October 1, 1978 or within 60 days afterthe introduction of inorganic arsenic into the workplace, every employer whois required to establish a regulated area in his workplaces shall report inwriting to the OSHA area office for each such workplace:(i) The address of each such workplace;(ii) The approximate number of employees who will be working in regulatedareas; and(iii) A brief summary of the operations creating the exposure and theactions which the employer intends to take to reduce exposures.(2) Whenever there has been a significant change in the information requiredby paragraph (d)(1) of this section the employer shall report the changes inwriting within 60 days to the OSHA area office.(e) "Exposure monitoring" - (1) "General." (i) Determinations of airborneexposure levels shall be made from air samples that are representative ofeach employee's exposure to inorganic arsenic over an eight (8) hour period.(ii) For the purposes of this section, employee exposure is that exposurewhich would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.(iii) The employer shall collect full shift (for at least 7 continuoushours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for eachjob classification in each work area.(2) "Initial monitoring." Each employer who has a workplace or workoperation covered by this standard shall monitor each such workplace and workoperation to accurately determine the airborne concentration of inorganicarsenic to which employees may be exposed.(3) "Frequency." (i) If the initial monitoring reveals employee exposure tobe below the action level the measurements need not be repeated except asotherwise provided in paragraph (e)(4) of this section.(ii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequentmonitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the permissible exposurelimit, the employer shall repeat monitoring at least quarterly.(iii) If the initial monitoring, required by this section, or subsequentmonitoring reveals employee exposure to be above the action level and belowthe permissible exposure limit the employer shall repeat monitoring at leastevery six months.(iv) The employer shall continue monitoring at the required frequency untilat least two consecutive measurements, taken at least seven (7) days apart,are below the action level at which time the employer may discontinuemonitoring for that employee until such time as any of the events inparagraph (e)(4) of this section occur.(4) "Additional monitoring." Whenever there has been a production, process,control or personal change which may result in new or additional exposure toinorganic arsenic, or whenever the employer has any other reason to suspect achange which may result in new or additional exposures to inorganic arsenic,additional monitoring which complies with paragraph (e) of this section shallbe conducted.(5) "Employee notification." (i) Within five (5) working days after thereceipt of monitoring results, the employer shall notify each employee inwriting of the results which represent that employee's exposures.(ii) Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposureexceeds the permissible exposure limit, the employer shall include in thewritten notice a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceededand a description of the corrective action taken to reduce exposure to orbelow the permissible exposure limit.(6) "Accuracy of measurement." (i) The employer shall use a method ofmonitoring and measurement which has an accuracy (with a confidence level of95 percent) of not less than plus or minus 25 percent for concentrations ofinorganic arsenic greater than or equal to 10 ug/m(3).(ii) The employer shall use a method of monitoring and measurement which hasan accuracy (with confidence level of 95 percent) of not less than plus orminus 35 percent for concentrations of inorganic arsenic greater than 5ug/m(3) but less than 10 ug/m(3).(f) "Regulated area" - (1) "Establishment." The employer shall establishregulated areas where worker exposures to inorganic arsenic, without regardto the use of respirators, are in excess of the permissible limit.(2) "Demarcation." Regulated areas shall be demarcated and segregated fromthe rest of the workplace in any manner that minimizes the number of personswho will be exposed to inorganic arsenic.(3) "Access." Access to regulated areas shall be limited to authorizedpersons or to persons otherwise authorized by the Act or regulations issuedpursuant there to enter such areas.(4) "Provision of respirators." All persons entering a regulated area shallbe supplied with a respirator, selected in accordance with paragraph (h)(2)of this section.(5) "Prohibited activities." The employer shall assure that in regulatedareas, food or beverages are not consumed, smoking products, chewing tobaccoand gum are not used and cosmetics are not applied, except that theseactivities may be conducted in the lunchrooms, change rooms and showersrequired under paragraph (m) of this section. Drinking water may be consumedin the regulated area.(g) "Methods of compliance" - (1) "Controls." (i) The employer shallinstitute at the earliest possible time but not later than December 31, 1979,engineering and work practice controls to reduce exposures to or below thepermissible exposure limit, except to the extent that the employer canestablish that such controls are not feasible.(ii) Where engineering and work practice controls are not sufficient toreduce exposures to or below the permissible exposure limit, they shallnonetheless be used to reduce exposures to the lowest levels achievable bythese controls and shall be supplemented by the use of respirators inaccordance with paragraph (h) of this section and other necessary personalprotective equipment. Employee rotation is not required as a control strategybefore respiratory protection is instituted.(2) "Compliance Program." (i) The employer shall establish and implement awritten program to reduce exposures to or below the permissible exposurelimit by means of engineering and work practice controls.(ii) Written plans for these compliance programs shall include at least thefollowing:(A) A description of each operation in which inorganic arsenic is emitted;e.g. machinery used, material processed, controls in place, crew size,operating procedures and maintenance practices;(B) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected forcontrolling exposure to inorganic arsenic;(C) A report of the technology considered in meeting the permissibleexposure limit;(D) Monitoring data;(E) A detailed schedule for implementation of the engineering controls andwork practices that cannot be implemented immediately and for the adaptionand implementation of any additional engineering and work practices necessaryto meet the permissible exposure limit;(F) Whenever the employer will not achieve the permissible exposure limitwith engineering controls and work practices by December 31, 1979, theemployer shall include in the compliance plan an analysis of theeffectiveness of the various controls, shall install engineering controls andinstitute work practices on the quickest schedule feasible, and shall includein the compliance plan and implement a program to minimize the discomfort andmaximize the effectiveness of respirator use; and(G) Other relevant information.(iii) Written plans for such aprogram shall be submitted upon request to the Assistant Secretary and theDirector, and shall be available at the worksite for examination and copyingby the Assistant Secretary, Director, any affected employee or authorizedemployee representatives.(iv) The plans required by this paragraph shall be revised and updated atleast every 6 months to reflect the current status of the program.(h) "Respiratory protection" - (1) "General." The employer shall assure thatrespirators are used where required under this section to reduce employeeexposures to below the permissible exposure limit and in emergencies.Respirators shall be used in the following circumstances:{i} During the time period necessary to install or implement feasibleengineering or work practice controls;{ii} In work operations such as maintenance and repair activities in whichthe employer establishes that engineering and work practice controls are notfeasible;{iii} In work situations in which engineering controls and supplemental workpractice controls are not yet sufficient to reduce exposures to or below thepermissible exposure limit; or {iv} In emergencies. (2) "Respiratorselection." {i} Where respirators are required under this section theemployer shall select, provide at no cost to the employee and assure the useof the appropriate respirator or combination of respirators from Table Ibelow for inorganic arsenic compounds without significant vapor pressure, orTable II below for inorganic arsenic compounds which have significant vaporpressure.{ii} Where employee exposures exceed the permissible exposure limit forinorganic arsenic and also exceed the relevant limit for particular gasessuch as sulfur dioxide, any air purifying respirator supplied to the employeeas permitted by this standard must have a combination high efficiency filterwith an appropriate gas sorbent. (See footnote in Table 1) TABLE I-RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC PARTICULATE EXCEPT FOR THOSE WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
Concentration of inorganic arsenic
(as As) or condition of use
Required respirator
(i) Unknown or greater or lesser than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) or firefighting.(A) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.
(ii) Not greater than 20,000 ug/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)).(A) Supplied air respirator with full facepiece, hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.
(iii) Not greater than 10,000 ug/m(3) (10 mg/m(3)).(A) Powered air-purifying respirators in all inlet face coverings with high efficiency filters.(1)
(B) Half-mask supplied air respirators operated in positive pressure mode.
(iv) Not greater than 500 ug/m(3).(A) Full facepiece air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.(1)
(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.
(v) Not greater than 100 ug/m(3).(A) Half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter.(1)
(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.
 Footnote(1) High-efficiency filter - 99.97 pct efficiency against0.3 micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.TABLE II-RESPIRATORY PROTECTION FOR INORGANIC ARSENICALS
(SUCH AS ARSENIC TRICHLORIDE(2) AND ARSENIC PHOSPHIDE)
WITH SIGNIFICANT VAPOR PRESSURE
Concentration of inorganic arsenic
(as As) or condition of use
Required respirator
(i) Unknown or greater or lesser than 20,000 U/m(3) (20 mg/m(3)) or firefighting.(A) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus operated in positive pressure mode.
(ii) Not greater than 20,000 ug/m(3)
(20 mg/m(3)).
(A) Supplied air respirator with full facepiece hood, or helmet or suit and operated in positive pressure mode.
(iii) Not greater than 10,000 ug/m(3)
(10 mg/m(3)).
(A) Half-mask(2) supplied air respirator operated in positive pressure mode.
(iv) Not greater than 500 ug/m(3).(A) Front or back mounted gas mask equipped with high-efficiency filter(1) and acid gas canister.
(B) Any full facepiece supplied air respirator.
(C) Any full facepiece self-contained breathing apparatus.
(v) Not greater than 100 ug/m(3).(A) Half-mask(2) air-purifying respirator equipped with high-efficiency filter(1) and acid gas cartridge.
(B) Any half-mask supplied air respirator.
Footnote(1) High efficiency filter - 99.97 pct efficiency against 0.3micrometer monodisperse diethyl-hexyl phthalate (DOP) particles.Footnote(2) Half-mask respirators shall not be used for protection againstarsenic trichloride, as it is rapidly absorbed through the skin.(iii) The employer shall select respirators from among those approved forprotection against dust, fume, and mist by the National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under the provisions of 30 CFR part11.(3) "Respirator usage." (i) The employer shall assure that the respiratorissued to the employee exhibits minimum facepiece leakage and that therespirator is fitted properly.(ii) The employer shall perform qualitative fit tests at the time of initialfitting and at least semi-annually thereafter for each employee wearingrespirators, where quantitative fit tests are not required.(iii) Employers with more than 20 employees wearing respirators shallperform a quantitative face fit test at the time of initial fitting and leastsemi-annually thereafter for each employee wearing negative pressurerespirators. The test shall be used to select facepieces that provide therequired protection as prescribed in Table I or II.(iv) If an employee has demonstrated difficulty in breathing during thefitting test or during use, he or she shall be examined by a physiciantrained in pulmonary medicine to determine whether the employee can wear arespirator while performing the required duty.(4) "Respirator program." (i) The employer shall institute a respiratoryprotection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1926.103(e), (g), (h) and (i).(ii) The employer shall permit each employee who uses a filter respirator tochange the filter elements whenever an increase in breathing resistance isdetected and shall maintain an adequate supply of filter elements for thispurpose.(iii) Employees who wear respirators shall be permitted to leave work areasto wash their face and respirator facepiece to prevent skin irritationassociated with respirator use.(5) "Commencement of respirator use." (i) The employer's obligation toprovide respirators commences on August 1, 1978 for employees exposed over500 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic, as soon as possible but not later thanOctober 1, 1978 for employees exposed to over 50 ug/m(3) of inorganicarsenic, and as soon as possible but not later than December 1, 1978 foremployees exposed between 10 and 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic.(ii) Employees with exposures below 50 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic maychoose not to wear respirators until December 31, 1979.(iii) After December 1, 1978 any employee required to wear air-purifyingrespirators may choose, and if so chosen the employer must provide, if itwill give proper protection, a powered air purifying respirator and inaddition if necessary a combination dust and acid gas respirator for timeswhere exposures to gases are over the relevant exposure limits.(i) [Reserved] (j) "Protective work clothing and equipment" - (1)"Provision and use."Where the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganic arsenicexists, and for all workers working in regulated areas, the employer shallprovide at no cost to the employee and assure that employees use appropriateand clean protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:(i) Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;(ii) Gloves, and shoes or coverlets;(iii) Face shields or vented goggles when necessary to prevent eyeirritation, which comply with the requirements of 1926.102; and(iv) Impervious clothing for employees subject to exposure to arsenictrichloride.(2) "Cleaning and replacement." (i) The employer shall provide theprotective clothing required in paragraph (j)(1) of this section in a freshlylaundered and dry condition at least weekly, and daily if the employee worksin areas where exposures are over 100 ug/m(3) of inorganic arsenic or inareas where more frequent washing is needed to prevent skin irritation.(ii) The employer shall clean, launder, or dispose of protective clothingrequired by paragraph (j)(1) of this section.(iii) The employer shall repair or replace the protective clothing andequipment as needed to maintain their effectiveness.(iv) The employer shall assure that all protective clothing is removed atthe completion of a work shift only in change rooms prescribed in paragraph(m)(1) of this section.(v) The employer shall assure that contaminated protective clothing which isto be cleaned, laundered, or disposed of, is placed in a closed container inthe change-room which prevents dispersion of inorganic arsenic outside thecontainer.(vi) The employer shall inform in writing any person who cleans or laundersclothing required by this section, of the potentially harmful effectsincluding the carcinogenic effects of exposure to inorganic arsenic.(vii) The employer shall assure that the containers of contaminatedprotective clothing and equipment in the workplace or which are to be removedfrom the workplace are labelled as follows:Caution: Clothing contaminated with inorganic arsenic; do not remove dust byblowing or shaking. Dispose of inorganic arsenic contaminated wash water inaccordance with applicable local, State or Federal regulations.(viii) The employer shall prohibit the removal of inorganic arsenic fromprotective clothing or equipment by blowing or shaking.(k) "Housekeeping" - (1) "Surfaces." All surfaces shall be maintained asfree as practicable of accumulations of inorganic arsenic.(2) "Cleaning floors." Floors and other accessible surfaces contaminatedwith inorganic arsenic may not be cleaned by the use of compressed air, andshoveling and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or other relevantmethods have been tried and found not to be effective.(3) "Vacuuming." Where vacuuming methods are selected, the vacuums shall beused and emptied in a manner to minimize the reentry of inorganic arsenicinto the workplace.(4) "Housekeeping plan." A written housekeeping and maintenance plan shallbe kept which shall list appropriate frequencies for carrying outhousekeeping operations, and for cleaning and maintaining dust collectionequipment. The plan shall be available for inspection by the AssistantSecretary.(5) "Maintenance of equipment." Periodic cleaning of dust collection andventilation equipment and checks of their effectiveness shall be carried outto maintain the effectiveness of the system and a notation kept of the lastcheck of effectiveness and cleaning or maintenance.(l) [Reserved] (m) "Hygiene facilities and practices" - (1) "Changerooms." The employer shall provide for employees working in regulated areasor subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from inorganicarsenic, clean change rooms equipped with storage facilities for streetclothes and separate storage facilities for protective clothing and equipmentin accordance with 29 CFR 1926.51(i).(2) "Showers." (i) The employer shall assure that employees working inregulated areas or subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation frominorganic arsenic shower at the end of the work shift.(ii) The employer shall provide shower facilities in accordance with1926.51(f)(4).(3) "Lunchrooms." (i) The employer shall provide for employees working inregulated areas, lunchroom facilities which have a temperature controlled,positive pressure, filtered air supply, and which are readily accessible toemployees working in regulated areas.(ii) The employer shall assure that employees working in the regulated areaor subject to the possibility of skin or eye irritation from exposure toinorganic arsenic wash their hands and face prior to eating.(4) "Lavatories." The employer shall provide lavatory facilities whichcomply with 1926.51(f)(2) and (3).(5) "Vacuuming clothes." The employer shall provide facilities for employeesworking in areas where exposure, without regard to the use of respirators,exceeds 100 ug/m(3) to vacuum their protective clothing and clean or changeshoes worn in such areas before entering change rooms, lunchrooms or showerrooms required by paragraph (j) of this section and shall assure that suchemployees use such facilities.(6) "Avoidance of skin irritation." The employer shall assure that noemployee is exposed to skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride, or toskin or eye contact with liquid or particulate inorganic arsenic which islikely to cause skin or eye irritation.(n) "Medical surveillance" - (1) "General" - (i) "Employees covered."The employer shall institute a medical surveillance program for thefollowing employees:(A) All employees who are or will be exposed above the action level, withoutregard to the use of respirators, at least 30 days per year; and(B) All employees who have been exposed above the action level, withoutregard to respirator use, for 30 days or more per year for a total of 10years or more of combined employment with the employer or predecessoremployers prior to or after the effective date of this standard. Thedetermination of exposures prior to the effective date of this standard shallbe based upon prior exposure records, comparison with the first measurementstaken after the effective date of this standard, or comparison with recordsof exposures in areas with similar processes, extent of engineering controlsutilized and materials used by that employer.(ii) "Examination by physician." The employer shall assure that all medicalexaminations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision of alicensed physician, and shall be provided without cost to the employee,without loss of pay and at a reasonable time and place.(2) "Initial examinations." By December 1, 1978, for employees initiallycovered by the medical provisions of this section, or thereafter at the timeof initial assignment to an area where the employee is likely to be exposedover the action level at least 30 days per year, the employer shall provideeach affected employee an opportunity for a medical examination, including atleast the following elements:(i) A work history and a medical history which shall include a smokinghistory and the presence and degree of respiratory symptoms such asbreathlessness, cough, sputum production and wheezing.(ii) A medical examination which shall include at least the following:(A) A 14" by 17" (35.56 X 43.18 cm) posterior-anterior chest X-ray andInternational Labor Office UICC/Cincinnati (ILO U/C) rating;(B) A nasal and skin examination;(C) A sputum cytology examination; and(D) Other examinations which the physician believes appropriate because ofthe employees exposure to inorganic arsenic or because of required respiratoruse.(3) "Periodic examinations." (i) The employer shall provide the examinationsspecified in paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii)(A), (B), and (D) at leastannually for covered employees who are under 45 years of age with fewer than10 years of exposure over the action level without regard to respirator use.(ii) The employer shall provide the examinations specified in paragraphs(n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) of this section at least semi-annually for othercovered employees.(iii) Whenever a covered employee has not taken the examinations specifiedin paragraphs (n)(2)(i) and (n)(2)(ii) of this section within six (6) monthspreceding the termination of employment, the employer shall provide suchexaminations to the employee upon termination of employment.(4) "Additional examinations." If the employee for any reason develops signsor symptoms commonly associated with exposure to inorganic arsenic theemployer shall provide an appropriate examination and emergency medicaltreatment.(5) "Information provided to the physician." The employer shall provide thefollowing information to the examining physician:(i) A copy of this standard and its appendices;(ii) A description of the affected employee's duties as they relate to theemployee's exposure;(iii) The employee's representative exposure level or anticipated exposurelevel;(iv) A description of any personal protective equipment used or to be used;and(v) Information from previous medical examinations of the affected employeewhich is not readily available to the examining physician.(6) "Physician's written opinion." (i) The employer shall obtain a writtenopinion from the examining physician which shall include:(A) The results of the medical examination and tests performed;(B) The physician's opinion as to whether the employee has any detectedmedical conditions which would place the employee at increased risk ofmaterial impairment of the employee's health from exposure to inorganicarsenic;(C) Any recommended limitations upon the employee's exposure to inorganicarsenic or upon the use of protective clothing or equipment such asrespirators; and(D) A statement that the employee has been informed by the physician of theresults of the medical examination and any medical conditions which requirefurther explanation or treatment.(ii) The employer shall instruct the physician not to reveal in the writtenopinion specific findings or diagnoses unrelated to occupational exposure.(iii) The employer shall provide a copy of the written opinion to theaffected employee.(o) "Employee information and training" - (1) "Training program." (i) Theemployer shall institute a training program for all employees who are subjectto exposure to inorganic arsenic above the action level without regard torespirator use, or for whom there is the possibility of skin or eyeirritation from inorganic arsenic. The employer shall assure that thoseemployees participate in the training program.(ii) The training program shall be provided by October 1, 1978, foremployees covered by this provision, at the time of initial assignment forthose subsequently covered by this provision, and shall be repeated at leastquarterly for employees who have optional use of respirators and at leastannually for other covered employees thereafter; and the employer shallassure that each employee is informed of the following:(A) The information contained in Appendix A;(B) The quantity, location, manner of use, storage, sources of exposure, andthe specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to inorganicarsenic as well as any necessary protective steps;(C) The purpose, proper use, and limitation of respirators;(D) The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program asrequired by paragraph (n) of this section;(E) The engineering controls and work practices associated with theemployee's job assignment; and(F) A review of this standard. (2) "Access to training materials."(i) The employer shall make readily available to all affected employees acopy of this standard and its appendices.(ii) The employer shall provide; upon request, all materials relating to theemployee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and theDirector.(p) "Signs and labels" - (1) "General." (i) The employer may use labels orsigns required by other statutes, regulations, or ordinances in addition to,or in combination with, signs and labels required by this paragraph.(ii) The employer shall assure that no statement appears on or near any signor label required by this paragraph which contradicts or detracts from themeaning of the required sign or label.(2) "Signs." (i) The employer shall post signs demarcating regulated areasbearing the legend; DANGER INORGANIC ARSENIC CANCER HAZARD AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY NO SMOKING OR EATING RESPIRATOR REQUIRED(ii) The employer shall assure that signs required by this paragraph areilluminated and cleaned as necessary so that the legend is readily visible.(3) "Labels." The employer shall apply precautionary labels to all shippingand storage containers of inorganic arsenic, and to all products containinginorganic arsenic except when the inorganic arsenic in the product is boundin such a manner so as to make unlikely the possibility of airborne exposureto inorganic arsenic. (Possible examples of products not requiring labels aresemiconductors, light emitting diodes and glass). The label shall bear thefollowing legend: DANGER CONTAINS INORGANIC ARSENIC CANCER HAZARD HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED USE ONLY WITH ADEQUATE VENTILATION OR RESPIRATORY PROTECTION(q) "Recordkeeping" - (1) "Exposure monitoring." (i) The employer shallestablish and maintain an accurate record of all monitoring required byparagraph (e) of this section.(ii) This record shall include:(A) The date(s), number, duration location, and results of each of thesamples taken, including a description of the sampling procedure used todetermine representative employee exposure where applicable;(B) A description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidenceof their accuracy;(C) The type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any;(D) Name, social security number, and job classification of the employeesmonitored and of all other employees whose exposure the measurement isintended to represent; and(E) The environmental variables that could affect the measurement of theemployee's exposure.(iii) The employer shall maintain these monitoring records for at least 40years or for the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever, is longer.(2) "Medical surveillance." (i) The employer shall establish and maintain anaccurate record for each employee subject to medical surveillance as requiredby paragraph (n) of this section.(ii) This record shall include:(A) The name, social security number, and description of duties of theemployee;(B) A copy of the physician's written opinions;(C) Results of any exposure monitoring done for that employee and therepresentative exposure levels supplied to the physician; and(D) Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to inorganic arsenic.(iii) The employer shall in addition keep, or assure that the examiningphysician keeps, the following medical records;(A) A copy of the medical examination results including medical and workhistory required under paragraph (n) of this section;(B) A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standardsor guidelines used to interpret the test results or references to thatinformation;(C) The initial X-ray;(D) The X-rays for the most recent 5 years;(E) Any X-rays with a demonstrated abnormality and all subsequent X-rays;(F) The initial cytologic examination slide and written description;(G) The cytologic examination slide and written description for the mostrecent 5 years; and(H) Any cytologic examination slides with demonstrated atypia, if suchatypia persists for 3 years, and all subsequent slides and writtendescriptions.(iv) The employer shall maintain or assure that the physician maintainsthose medical records for at least 40 years, or for the duration ofemployment plus 20 years whichever is longer.(3) "Availability." (i) The employer shall make available upon request allrecords required to be maintained by paragraph (q) of this section to theAssistant Secretary and the Director for examination and copying.(ii) Records required by this paragraph shall be provided upon request toemployees, designated representatives, and the Assistant Secretary inaccordance with 29 CFR 1926.33(a) through (e) and (g) through (i).(4) "Transfer of records." (i) Whenever the employer ceases to do business,the successor employer shall receive and retain all records required to bemaintained by this section.(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to do business and there is no successoremployer to receive and retain the records required to be maintained by thissection for the prescribed period, these records shall be transmitted to theDirector.(iii) At the expiration of the retention period for the records required tobe maintained by this section, the employer shall notify the Director atleast 3 months prior to the disposal of such records and shall transmit thoserecords to the Director if he requests them within that period.(iv) The employer shall also comply with any additional requirementsinvolving the transfer of records set in 29 CFR 1926.33(h).(r) "Observation of monitoring" - (1) "Employee observation." The employershall provide affected employees or their designated representatives anopportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to inorganicarsenic conducted pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section.(2) "Observation procedures." (i) Whenever observation of the monitoring ofemployee exposure to inorganic arsenic requires entry into an area where theuse of respirators, protective clothing, or equipment is required, theemployer shall provide the observer with and assure the use of suchrespirators, clothing, and such equipment, and shall require the observer tocomply with all other applicable safety and health procedures.(ii) Without interfering with the monitoring, observers shall be entitled to;(A) Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures;(B) Observe all steps related to the monitoring of inorganic arsenicperformed at the place of exposure; and(C) Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results whenreturned by the laboratory.(s) "Effective date." This standard shall become effective August 1, 1978.(t) "Appendices." The information contained in the appendices to thissection is not intended by itself, to create any additional obligations nototherwise imposed by this standard nor detract from any existing obligation.(u) "Startup dates" - (1) "General." The startup dates of requirements ofthis standard shall be the effective date of this standard unless anotherstartup date is provided for either in other paragraphs of this section or inthis paragraph.(2) "Monitoring." Initial monitoring shall be commenced on August 1, 1978,and shall be completed by September 15, 1978.(3) "Regulated areas." Regulated areas required to be established as aresult of initial monitoring shall be set up as soon as possible after theresults of that monitoring is known and no later than October 1, 1978.(4) "Compliance program." The written program required by paragraph (g)(2)as a result of initial monitoring shall be made available for inspection andcopying as soon as possible and no later than December 1, 1978.(5) "Hygiene and lunchroom facilities." Construction plans for change-rooms, showers, lavatories, and lunchroom facilities shall be completed nolater than December 1, 1978, and these facilities shall be constructed and inuse no later than July 1, 1979. However, if as part of the compliance plan itis predicted by an independent engineering firm that engineering controls andwork practices will reduce exposures below the permissible exposure limit byDecember 31, 1979, for affected employees, then such facilities need not becompleted until 1 year after the engineering controls are completed orDecember 31, 1980, whichever is earlier, if such controls have not in factsucceeded in reducing exposure to below the permissible exposure limit.(6) "Summary of startup dates set forth elsewhere in this standard.""Startup Dates"August 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 500 ug/m(3)."as soon as possible but no later than"September 15, 1978 - Completion of initial monitoring.October 1, 1978 - Complete establishment of regulated areas. Respiratoruse for employees exposed above 50 ug/m(3). Completion of initialtraining. Notification of use.December 1, 1978 - Respirator use over 10 ug/m(3). Completion of initialmedical. Completion of compliance plan. Optional use of poweredair-purifying respirators.July 1, 1979 - Completion of lunch rooms and hygiene facilities.December 31, 1979 - Completion of engineering controls.All other requirements of the standard have as their startup date August 1,1978.(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number1218-0104)Appendix A to 1926.1118 - Inorganic Arsenic Substance Information SheetI. "Substance Identification"A. "Substance." Inorganic Arsenic.B. "Definition." Copperacetoarsenite, arsenic and all inorganic compounds containing arsenic exceptarsine, measured as arsenic (As).C. "Permissible Exposure Limit." 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air asdetermined as an average over an 8-hour period. No employee may be exposed toany skin or eye contact with arsenic trichloride or to skin or eye contactlikely to cause skin or eye irritation.D. "Regulated Areas." Only employees authorized by your employer shouldenter a regulated area.II. "Health Hazard Data"A. "Comments." The health hazard of inorganic arsenic is high. B."Ways in which the chemical affects your body." Exposure to airborneconcentrations of inorganic arsenic may cause lung cancer, and can be a skinirritant. Inorganic arsenic may also affect your body if swallowed. Onecompound in particular, arsenic trichloride, is especially dangerous becauseit can be absorbed readily through the skin. Because inorganic arsenic is apoison, you should wash your hands thoroughly prior to eating orsmoking.III. "Protective Clothing and Equipment"A. "Respirators." Respirators will be provided by your employer at no costto you for routine use if your employer is in the process of implementingengineering and work practice controls or where engineering and work practicecontrols are not feasible or insufficient. You must wear respirators fornon-routine activities or in emergency situations where you are likely to beexposed to levels of inorganic arsenic in excess of the permissible exposurelimit. Since how well your respirator fits your face is very important, youremployer is required to conduct fit tests to make sure the respirator sealsproperly when you wear it. These tests are simple and rapid and will beexplained to you during training sessions.B. "Protective clothing." If you work in a regulated area, your employer isrequired to provide at no cost to you, and you must wear, appropriate, clean,protective clothing and equipment. The purpose of this equipment is toprevent you from bringing to your home arsenic-contaminated dust and toprotect your body from repeated skin contact with inorganic arsenic likely tocause skin irritation. This clothing should include such items as coverallsor similar full-body clothing, gloves, shoes or coverlets, and aprons.Protective equipment should include face shields or vented goggles, where eyeirritation may occur.IV. "Hygiene Facilities and Practices"You must not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or tobacco, or apply cosmetics inthe regulated area, except that drinking water is permitted. If you work in aregulated area your employer is required to provide lunchrooms and otherareas for these purposes.If you work in a regulated area, your employer is required to provideshowers, washing facilities, and change rooms. You must wash your face, andhands before eating and must shower at the end of the work shift. Do not takeused protective clothing out of change rooms without your employer'spermission. Your employer is required to provide for laundering or cleaningof your protective clothing.V. "Signs and Labels"Your employer is required to post warning signs and labels for yourprotection. Signs must be posted in regulated areas. The signs must warn thata cancer hazard is present, that only authorized employees may enter thearea, and that no smoking or eating is allowed, and that respirators must beworn.VI. "Medical Examinations"If your exposure to arsenic is over the Action Level (5 ug/m(3)) -(including all persons working in regulated areas) at least 30 days peryear, or you have been exposed to arsenic for more than 10 years over theAction Level, your employer is required to provide you with a medicalexamination. The examination shall be every 6 months for employees over 45years old or with more than 10 years exposure over the Action Level andannually for other covered employees. The medical examination must include amedical history; a chest x-ray; skin examination; nasal examination andsputum cytology exam for the early detection of lung cancer. The cytologyexams are only included in the initial exam and examinations given after youare either 45 years or older or have 10 or more years employment over theAction Level. The examining physician will provide a written opinion to youremployer containing the results of the medical exams. You should also receivea copy of this opinion. The physician must not tell your employer anyconditions he detects unrelated to occupational exposure to arsenic but musttell you those conditions.VII. "Observation of Monitoring"Your employer is required to monitor your exposure to arsenic and you oryour representatives are entitled to observe the monitoring procedure. Youare entitled to receive an explanation of the measurement procedure, and torecord the results obtained. When the monitoring procedure is taking place inan area where respirators or personal protective clothing and equipment arerequired to be worn, you must also be provided with and must wear theprotectiv